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jftittcnhmisc d)rmy 



GIFT OF 



University of Pennsylvania Library 

Circulation Department 

Please return this book as soon as you have 
fin.shed with it. In order to avoid a fine it must 
be returned by the latest date stamped below 




W 




TRA CT 




Rosh Hashana, 



(■•NE"7 YEAR") 



Of the New Edition of the 



Babylonian Talmud, 




EDITED. FORMULATED AND PUNCTUATED 
FOR THE FIRST TIME 



Michael L. Rodkinson, 



AND TRANSLATED FOR THE FIRST TIME FROM THE ABOVE TEXT 



Rabbi J. Leonard Levy, B. A. (London), 

OF THE 
REFORM CONGREGATION KENESETH ISRAEL, PHILADELPHIA, 

Honors' Graduate, University of London. Fielden Scholar, University College, London. 
Prize EssayistJn Hebrew Literature, Jews' Theological College, London, England, ate. etc. 










philadelphia: 

Charles sessler, publisher, 

1895. 



/ 



Entire 

New Edition 

of the 



8*> 



i ( 



TALMUD," 



TTA-U, 



A XT' i:-t- 







GIFT OF 



-7 

7ux /kou^lXaXctv 



English and two Hebrew 
ibers all complete in about 
ng terms : 

$2.50 

$1.25 



> rice. 

0, $10.00 in advance and 
dish with Pamphlets of the 

advance and $1.25 upon 
h-Hashana, which will be 
n. 

Ivance, for sale also at all 
each Tract. 

jenth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



sab 



it., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pa. 

umce ol tne American Israelite, (Jincinnati, Ohio. 

Rev. Dr. K. Kohler, 115 E. Seventy-first St., N. Y. City. 

Dr. Isaac L. Leucht, New Orleans, La. 

Rev. Dr. M. Heller, New Orleans, La. 

Rev. Dr. Henry Cohen, Galveston, Tex. 

Rev. Dr. Jacob Vorsanger, San Francisco, Cal. 
(The editor hopes that the above gentlemen will kindry take 
cription for the new edit'ion of the Talmud.) 
Ana to all the leading booksellers in the United Stat* 




-MICHAEL L. RODKINSON. 




RABBI J. LEONARD LEVY. 



TRACT 



Rosh Hashana, 



("NEW YEAR") 



Of the New Edition of the 



Babylonian Talmud, 



EDITED, FORMULATED AND PUNCTUATED 
FOR THE FIRST TIME 



Michael L. Rodkinson, 

AND TRANSLATED FOR THE FIRST TIME FROM THE ABOVE TEXT 



Rabbi J. Leonard Levy, B. A. (London), 

M 

OF THE 

Preform congregation keneseth israel, Philadelphia, 

Honors' Graduate, University of London. Fielden Scholar, University College, London. 
Prize Essayist in Hebrew Literature, Jews' Theological College, London, England, etc., etc. 



philadelphia: 
Charles Sessler, Publisher, 



Copyright, 1S95, by 
MiCHAEi, L. Rodkinson. 



tfJL. & 






To the 

REV. DR. ISAAC M. WISE, 

in deep appreciation of the invaluable services 

he has rendered the cause 

of Judaism, 

This Translation is dedicated by 

THE TRANSLATOR. 



173088 



OPINIONS. 



Des Kaiserlichen Rath, 
Prof. M. Lazarus, Ph. D., D. D. 



Berlin, Koenigsplatz 5. 

July 20, 1885. 
Dear Mr. Rodkinson: — 

In reply to your kind favor of 
the 14th inst, I wish to say that I 
read your editorial in No. 298 of 
^Ipn with attention and pleasure, 
but it left me with a regretful feel- 
ing. I am delighted to see an idea 
expressed which affects a great and 
highly important concern of Juda- 
ism, and am saddened by the re- 
flection that in all probability, I 
shall not live to see its realization. 

At some time or other your plan 
must and will be executed, but 
only by means of the union and 
cooperation of a number of com - 
petent scholars, who in turn must 
have the necessary financial sup - 
port of a large circle of well to do 
Jewish patrons. Unfortunately, 
Jews of both circles are possessed 
of deplorable indifference, while, 
on the other hand, those that re- 
gard the Talmud as a source of 
knowledge^ or use it as such, are 
dominated by a petty spirit — they 
lack the broad, liberal cenception 
of historical development which is 
a prime qualification for success in 
planning and executing a work of 
the kind suggested. 

However, I shall greet with de - 
light any contribution to its ulti - 
mate realization. But I am forced 
regretfully to decline to take inte- 
rest or active part in any new un - 
dertaking. As it is, I am groaning 



under a burden of public duties, 
which I can in no wise lessen. Cou- 
rage and inclination fail me for 
new projects, more particularly in 
cases when the participation of 
scholars is a highly improbable 
contingency. 

With best wishes for your re- 
covery, 

Respectfully, 

LAZARUS. 



Rev. Dr. M. Jastrow, 

Rabbi of "Rodeph Shalom" Cong, 
of Philadelphia. 

G-ermantown, October 5, 1891. 
Dear Sir! 

At your request I take pleas- 
ure in stating my opinion that 
your planned edition of an abridg- 
ed Talmud will be a great benefit 
to students who will be spared the 
wading through the intricate dis- 
cussions frequently interspersed 
without direct bearing on the sub- 
ject treated. An English translat- 
ion of the book so abridged will 
then be, though not an easy, yet a 
possible labor. 

Wishing your enterprise the full 
success it deserves, I am 

Very Respectfully Yours, 

M.' J ASTRO W. 
To Mr. Michael L. Rodkinson. 



Prof. Dr. M. Mielziner 
of Cincinnati. 



Having perused some advance 
sheets of a part of the abridged 
Talmud edition which Mr. MichaeJ 



VI 



L. Rodkinson is about to publish. 
I iind his work to be very reconi- 
mendable. Such a Talmud edition 
in which all unnecessary digress- 
ions and all disturbing interpolat- 
ions are judiciously omitted and 
in which the text is provided with 
punctuation marks, will greatly fa- 
cilitate the study of the Talmud 
especially for beginners. 

I trust that the friends of our 

ancient literature will liberally 

support this scholar, and enable 

him to complete this useful work. 

Dr. M. MIELZINER, 

Prof. H. U. College. 
Cincinnati, November, 1894. 



Rev. Dr. Isaac M. Wise, 
President of the Hebrew Union 
College of Cincinnati. Editor of 
"American Istaelite" & "Deborah". 



Cincinnati, Ohio, Jan. 14, 1895. 

Rev *) 

Dear Sir: — 

The bearer of this letter is the 
well known Mr. M. L. Rodkinson, 
whom I would recommend toy our 
special attention. 

The work which Mr. Rodkinson 
is doing, correcting the text of the 
Talmud and translating it into En- 
glish is a gigantic enterprise which 
only such a man would and could 
undertake. If he succeeds it will 
give another life to American Ju- 
daism both here and abroad. 

The question can only be, will 
he succeed? can he accomplish it? 



*J We heartily thank the venerable 
writer of this letter for his kind per- 
mission to publish same, but the name 
of the gentleman to whom it was ad- 
dressed need not be mentioned . 



As far as his learning is concerned 
I am positive he can, and as to his 
energy I dare say he will; he is an 
indefatiguable worker. We have 
the duty to afford him the oppor- 
tunity to publish one volume, as a 
sample copy, to convince the world 
whether he is or he is not the man 
to accomplish this task. 

To get him at present the finan- 
cial support to publish Vol. I. is 
what I ask of you for him. If this 
volume is what he promises, he 
will be the man to accomplish the 
task. Yours, 

ISAAC M. WISE. 



Rev. Dr. B. Szokl, 
Rabbi of the Cong."Oheb Shalom" 
of Baltimore. 



Baltimore, Jan. 16, 1895. 
To all whom it may concern. *) 

Rev. M. L. Rodkinson, a renow- 
ned Hebrew scholar of repute and 
ability happening to be in Balti- 
more called on me in connection 
with his project of editing his work 
to be known as the "Ancient short 
Talmud". He laid before me a 
number of Hebrew proof sheets of 
the Treatise "Berechoth" and the 
whole of the Treatise "Sabbath" in 
Manuscript, and asked me to read 
with an eye of a critic his work, to 
the end that if it appeai-ed to me 
valuable I should testify to the its 
merit and its purpose. 

I very carefully read 10 chapters 
of the M.S. of treatise Sabbath and 
it affords me the greatest pleasure 
that I not only conscientiously con- 
sider the work of extraordinary 



*) Extract from the Original in Hebrew. 



Vll 



merit and value at this time, but 
that I was exceedingly phased to 
find that the editor has carefully 
arranged the text of the Talmud 
most consecutively and logically. 

He facilitates the reading of the 
Talmud considerably on account 
of this excellent orderly arrange- 
ment. The commentary of Kashi 
was also arranged to meet the re- 
quirements suiting this edition and 
the editor has not added any ex- 
planations of his own, nor altered 
the wording of the text. 

Although the contents of the 
Talmud were familiar to me from 
my youth, yet this new arrange- 
ment makes delightful reading and 
brought new light. The reader can 
now read the text intelligently, for 
it seems as if the waters of the 
Talmud now directly from their 
source, and therefore it is with the 
sincerest pleasure that I hope the 
work will meet with the greatest 
success. 

Every scholar will readily un- 
derstand the necessity of such an 
admirable work at the present 
time, when the study of the Tal- 
mud in its voluminous shape will 
not without deep and difficult stu- 
dy infuse the student with a know- 
ledge of all its intricacies and fine 
points. In the Talmud as formu- 
lated and abridged by Mr. Rod- 
kinson, however, where all unne- 
cessary repetitions and dispensible 
debates are discarded, the student 
will be able to gain a fair know- 
ledge of all desirable and attract- 
ive points at the cost of very little 
time and trouble. 

These considerations have con- 
strained me to overstep my well 



defined limitations, and to beg all 
friends of our nationality and its 
estimable old literature to encou- 
rage and aid this able author to 
the end, that success may crown 
his valuable and much desirable 
efforts in this direction. 

Let this tribute of mine to truth 
and righteousness be a testimonial 
for the coming generations of the 
high esteem felt by our contempo- 
raries of the 19th century, toward 
the Talmud and our National tra- 
ditions and how ready we were to 
encourage those who made the 
Talmudical study the aim of their 
existence. 

"With the assurance of the satis- 
factory results which will obtain 
to all Talmudical students by a 
perusal of this abridged Talmud. 
I am very respectfully, 

B. SZOLD. 



Rev. Dr. K. Kohler, 
Rabbi of the Cong. "Beth-El" of 
New York. 



New York, Febr. 12th, 1895. 
Dear Sir! 

I gladly and heartily indorse the 
opinion expressed by Prof. Laza- 
rus and the Rev. Drs. Jastrow, 
Mielziner and Szold, as to the 
merits of your planned edition of 
the Talmud. I also consider an 
abridged edition of the Talmud 
while omitting the many interpo- 
lations which tend to confuse the 
reader and facilitating the study 
by the addition of modern punct- 
uation marks, would render the 
reading of the difficult passages a 
pleasure rather than a task, a be- 
nefit for the scholarly world both 



VI 11 



"ews and Gentiles, and I can only 
r ecommend the undei taking of the 
work to the support of generous- 
hearted patrons of our so little 
subsidized Jewish literature. 

Dr. K. KOHLEE. 
To Michael L. Rodkinson. 



Eev. Dr. Felsentbal, 
Rabbi of the Cong. " Zion " of 
Chicago. 

Chicago, Febr'y 14, 1895. 
Mr. Michael L. Rodkinson, 

New York City. 
Dear Sir: — 

The fact cannot be denied that 
the Talmud, as it has been handed 
down to us, is very voluminous, 
and that furthermore, by the in- 
tricacies of the dialectics prevail- 
ing therein and by the labyrinth- 
ical methods pursued in the same, 
it cannot be fully mastered except 
by scholars who devote their lives, 
their days and their nights, almost 
exclusively to the study of this 
grand branch of ancient literature. 
In our present times and in coun- 
tries where of necessity all stud- 
ents, rabbis included, have to pur- 
sue other branches of learning al- 
so, such an exclusive devotion to 
Talmudical studies is out of the 
question. For the majority of the 
students, and especially for those 
who, in colleges or in other ways, 
begin to study the Talmud, an 
abridgment of the same — such 
an abridgment by which the more 
important parts of the Talmud 
would be contracted into a nar- 
rower compass and many of its 
difficulties would be avoided — 
will be very desirable, especially if 
by the inserting of punctuation 
marks into the text and by expia- 
tory notes at the bottom of its 
pages or at the end of the various 
volumes the reading and the un- 
derstanding of the talmudical ex- 
tracts will be facilitated. 

I would recommend therefore 
your intended publication of an 
epitomized Talmud to all friends 



of Jewish literature in general and 
to students of Theological Colleges 
especially. And may the wealthier 
ones among our coreligionists, even 
if they themselves are personally 
unable to read and enjoy such li- 
terature, nevertheless patronize 
your great undertaking and follow 
the example given by the wealthy 
merchants among the Zebulunites 
who supported the less wealthy 
students of our sacred literature 
belonging to the tribe of Issachar. 
May you then succeed in fur- 
nishing us with an abridged Tal- 
mud in which especially the peda- 
gogical requirements of a work of 
this kind will have been satisfied! 
Respectfully, 

B. FELSENTHAL. 



Rev. M. Friedman, 
Lector of the "Beth Hamedrash*' 
of Vienna. 
The Rev. M. L. Rodkinson,*) 

Yours to hand, and I take this 
opportunity to inform you that I 
have read your article and heartily 
agree with you in most of your 
conclusions, although I beg to 
differ in regard to some omissions 
you made from my text, which I 
consider valuable and should have 
been left intact. However, the sub- 
ject is of no importance and more 
of an academical than practical 
merit. As a rule, those who are 
rich in material wealth are poor in 
educational resources, and the rich 
in knowledge are poor in wordly 
possessions in verification of the 
Prophecy: for the wisdom of their 
wise men shall perish, and the un- 
derstanding of their men shall be 
hid. (Isaiah, XXIX, 11.) and al- 
though you are not well versed in 
sacred mysteries (your own confes- 
sion) yet you will I surmise readi- 
ly understand the secret of "hid" 
Yours very trulv, 

MEYER FRIEDMAN. 



*) Translated from Hebrew which 
was published in the "Call" july 16, '85 



As I am a stranger in America, I deem it advisable to give the 
opinion on my work expressed by European scholars ten years ago. 

M. L. RODKINSON. 



Letters from the celebrated physi- 
cist, Dr. A. Bernstein, founder 
of the Reform Congregation, and 
of " Das Volksblatt." 
Dear Mr. Rodkinson : — 

Accept my cordial thanks for 
your valuable work " Tefilla Le- 
moshe," which in many respects 
has given me valuable explanations 
of the development of the laws on 
■" The wearing of the Tefillin." 

I was exceedingly interested in 
your view on the influence of the 
Jewish Christian sect on the form 
of the " Tefillin," and the presenta- 
tion of the laws relating to them. 
You would be doing signal service 
to science, if you were to continue 
your research on the Ebionites inci- 
dentally mentioned. The treatment 
of this theme would earn for you 
the gratitude of all men of science, 
and every layman should consider 
it a privilege to contribute to an 
undertaking of the kind. 
Sincerely yours, 

DR. A. BERNSTEIN. 



Gr. Lichtenfeld, near Berlin, 

23, 10, 1883. 
Have you finished my "Abraham, 
Isaac and Jacob ? " I should like 
to hear your opinion of it. 



To Dr. Ritter, preacher of the Re- 
form 'Congregation in Berlin. 
Esteemed Sir : — 

Many thanks for your New 
"Year's sermon, the receipt of which 
pleased me the more, as I am un- 
fortunately prevented by illness 
from leaving the house, and cannot 
hope to enjoy your addresses at first 
hand at the proper time and place. 
Permit me to address a question to 
you. 

I have read " Tefilla Lemoshe," 
by Mr. Rodkinson, which you sent 



me, and find that since our Hold- 
heim's most productive time no 
polemic work of such learning and 
judgment has appeared against 
orthodoxy. The author has planned 
other works of similar character, 
and I beg leave to ask you whether 
you do not consider it the duty of 
our congregation to support him in 
their execution. 

It is a fact, of which I have been 
painfully aware since the last twenty 
years, that our congregation subsists 
on the " works of our fathers," 
without bearing in mind that our 
reason for existence is the promo- 
tion of the reform of Judaism. If 
we have come to a standstill in this 
endeavor, it continues to be our 
duty to support men who, like Mr. 
Rodkinson, fulfill their original mis- 
sion by the aid of varied attain- 
ments and talents. 

Were I not hindered by illness, I 
would plead his cause personally. 
At the end of my life I feel it more 
keenly than ever that I who was 
active in the matter from the first, 
must remember the saying, " To 
him who begins a work, we say, 
finish it." 

I cherish the hope that you will 
succeed in obtaining at the proper 
place a realization of my wish. 

With kindest regards, 
Sincerely yours, 
DR. A. BERNSTEIN. 



Letter from the Rev. Dr. N. Briill, 

Rabbi at Frankfort-on-the-Main. 

Frankfort-on-the-Main, 

August 4, 1883. 

To Mr. M. L. Rodkinson, at Ems. 

Esteemed Sir : — 

I am in receipt of your valued 
letter addressed to me and my 
brothers, and take pleasure in say- 
ing the following in reply : 



I have finished reading your 
"valuable works on "Tefillin" from 
cover to cover with great attention. 
The novel and surprising views it 
contains will not fail to meet with 
careful consideration from the 
learned. It is a subject which lat- 
terly has been extensively treated 
by archaeologists and historians, but 
by none so comprehensively and 
exhaustively as by yourself. Your 
plan and its mode of execution, 
your cautious use of the critical 
method, your precise analysis and 
profound understanding of the Tal- 
mudic passages and Mediaeval litera- 
ture applicable to the subject, the 
convenient arrangement of the 
material and the clear, excellent 
maimer, might serve as models, for 
similar works. At present I must 
deny myself the pleasure of a de- 
tailed review, as I am very busy 
With literary work of different 
kinds. You may expect to see an 
exhaustive criticism of your book 
in the seventh volume of my " Jahr- 
buch " to appear early in 1884. In 
my brother's journal there will be a 
long notice in September or October, 
as all his space until then is occu- 
pied. 

We have received Mr. L. Bing's 
work ; it will receive a deserve by 
favorable notice. 

I am with high regard, 

DR. N. BRULL. 



Letter of the Rev. Mr. Isidore, 

Chief Rabbi of France. 
My dear Co-religionists : — 

Mr. Rodkinson is a man of real 
merit, worthy of interest. His past 
and his present alike speak in his 
favor. He has written two works 
of permanent value, which throw 
light on two questions of prime im- 
portance to Judaism. 

I should be glad to have him 
meet with a favorable reception at 
Paris. ISIDORE, 

Chief Rabbi of France. 



P. S. — I have read with deep 
pleasure your work " Tefilla Lem- 
oshe," and have taken three copies. 



Letter of the learned philosopher 
and scholar, Dr. Steinthal, pro- 
fessor at the University of Berlin. 
Berlin, W. Blumeshof 8, 
21, 10, 1888. 
Dear Sir : — 

You wish to have my opinion on 
your work " Tefilla Lemoshe." 
I herewith give it to you gladly, 
and in so doing I do not believe my- 
self guilty of judging matters with 
which I am not familiar. 

I am particularly fond of works 
like yours, works, I mean, in which 
the meaning and history of religious 
thoughts and ceremonies are pre- 
sented in a strictly scientific way. 
Such investigations are not only 
attracted from a psychologic, but also 
of the highest importance from a re- 
ligious, point of view ; they protest, 
or liberate us from superstition, and 
strengthen true religiousness. 

Your work appears to me to be 
thorough ; it shows how the Tefillin 
arose in the course of centuries, 
develops their history, and their 
changes in form. Whether you have 
quoted all the passages in our liter- 
ature relating to Tefillin, I cannot 
say. But, in my opinion there are 
passages of such indisputable im- 
portance, that the meaning of all 
others depends upon theirs. A pas- 
sage of that kind is the one you 
quote from the " Semag." 

I wish to make one remark. Ac- 
cording to my view, also, the 
" Tefillin " can be derived from no 
Biblical passage. The well-known 
verses supposed to refer to the 
Tefillin have only a symbolic mean- 
ing. The argument that Uqshartem 
is followed by Ukhthabhtem is not 
valid, for the latter is also to be 
taken symbolically. Or, has the 
law ever been written on doorposts 
in its entirety, or even Deuteronomy ? 



On doorposts as little as on hearts, 
but in hearts ! 

I wish your work this success : 
that henceforth a Jew who uses the 
phylacteries will not call one who 



voluntary clinging to a ceremony, by 
which he wishes to remind himself 
most impressively of the religious 
and moral principles that are to 
2,'uide him. 



does not use them an atheist ; that May this, as well as all hopes 

he who obeys this custom hallowed . cherished by you and me and all 
by tradition does it, not as the ful- good Jews, be realized. Yours, 

Ailment of a command, but as a I PROF. STEINTHAL. 



NAMES OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



We feel, at this issue, that we should publish a list of names 
of all who have thus far given us their aid, in the form of subscrip- 
tions to our undertakings. We cannot but feel that this edition of 
the Talmud is destined to become historic, and we are proud to per- 
petuate the names of those who extended us their warm support at 
the beginning of our vast enterprise. We regret that time has not 
permitted us to visit even our friends in New York, much less seek 
subscriptions there. The subscribers to date follow here, but sub- 
sequently we shall publish the names of all who contribute to this 
work. 

Paid in Full for the Hebrew and English Copies. 

Hon. Judge Sulzberger, (3 copies) $70.00 

Rev. Dr. M. Jastrow, the late Simon Muhr, Philip 
Lewin, Charles J. Cohen, Morris Newberger, Simon 
B. Fleisher, Marks Bros., all of Philadelphia . . . 25.00 each 

Rev. Dr. Isaac M. Wise (Cincinnati), Hon. Oscar Straus, 

Hon. Nathan Straus, Edward Eewison (New York), 25.00 each 

Paid rsr Advance for One Copy of Hebrew and English: 

Rev. Dr. Jacob Vorsauger of San Francisco, William 
Rayner and Alfred Ullman (Baltimore), Moses 
Klein, S. E. Block, E. M. Eeberman, A. Kaufman 
(Philadelphia), Rev. Henry Cohen (Galveston), I. 
B. Kleinert ( New York) $10.00 each 

Subscription Paid for the English Translation. 

Rev. Dr. Krauskopf, Rev. Dr. Berkowitz, Rev. W. Loe- 
wenburg, Wm, B. Hackenburg, J. Kriger, Simon 
Miller, Morris Stern, H. B. Blumenthal, Henry Jonas, 
D. Teller, M. Mayer, J. Gerstley, Edwin Wolf, M. 



B. Loeb, R. Blum, Herman Jonas, M. Pfaelzer, A. 
B. Loeb, D. W. Amram, J. Morwitz, W. Ljehten, 
A. Hess, J. K. Arnold, M. H. Pulaski, J. Baeher, 
Dr. M. Franklin, Dr. L. W. Steinbach, Dr. J. L. 
Salinger, B. Kirsehbaum, Dr. C. J. Spivak, M. 
Behal, E. Lederer, B. F. Greenewald, M. H. Stern, 
S. Klopfer, Morris Rosenberg (all of Philadelphia), $5.00 each 
Rev. Dr. Szold, Rabbi T. Shanfarber, Rabbi Rosenau, 
Rev. A. Kaiser, Dr. A. B. Arnold, Isaac Strauss, 
Henry Sonnenberg, W. L. Wolf, A. Hantz Bros., 
Wm. Fisher, Mrs. G. Blum, J. Mann, G. Erlanger, 
Ph. Hamburger, Mrs. Joel Gutman, E. Greenbaum, 
D. Greenbaum, S. Frank, B. Cohen (all of Balti- 
more) 5.00 each 

Rev. Dr. D. Philipson, Dr. M. Mielziner, Dr. G. Deutsch, 

M. Bettmann, Julius Freiberg (all of Cincinnati, O.) 5.00 each 
Rev. Dr. K. Kohler, Dr. H. Baar, A. Solomon, Hon. M. 
Ellinger, Rev. Dr. M. H. Harris, Rev. Dr. S. H. 
Sonneschein, Rev. Dr. R. Grossman, C. Weingart, 
D. P. Ha}\s, C. Sulzberger, Isaac Muslimer (all of 

New York) 5.00 each 

We are also glad to be afforded a long awaited opportunity to 
express our heartfelt gratitude to the reverend gentlemen of the 
several cities visited by us during the } r ear 1893, for their generous 
efforts in our behalf, both for their own subscriptions and also for 
soliciting the aid and support of their friends for our forthcoming 
works. In this connection we wish to inform our subscribers to the 
second revised edition of our History of Amulets that, owing to cir- 
cumstances beyond our control, we are compelled to delay its publi- 
cation for the present, although it is already in the hands of the 
printer, and shall, in its stead, forward to our subscribers this edition 
of the Talmud, subject, however, to their approval. 

We take the pleasure to record the names of the following 
Rabbis and gentlemen with accounts received from them, with 
the assurance that we shall ever remember them with gratitude 
and thanks. 

Rev. Dr. J. L. Deucht (New Orleans) and ten subscribers . $110.00 
Rev. Dr. M. Heller (New Orleans) and nine subscribers 
Rev. H. Cohen (Galveston) and seventeen subscribers 
Rev. Dr. Chapman (Dallas) and two subscribers . . 
Rev. H. Bien (Vicksburg) and four subscribers . . 
Rev. Saenger (Shreveport) and four subscribers . . 
Rev. Dr. Samfield (Memphis) and four subscribers . 
Rev. C. Rubenstein (Little Rock) and ten subscribers 
Rev. Dr. Schulmanu (Kansas City) and eight subscribers 
Per J. Half (Houston) 



90.00 
101.00 
40. co 
25.00 
20.00 
25.00 
52.00 
38.00 
30.00 



The address of the Editor is: 

399 W. Sixth Street, CINCINNATI, O. 



h FEW WORDS TO TflE ENGLISH READER. 



Michael L,. Rodkinsox. 



The Hebrew edition of this work contains an elaborate intro- 
duction in three chapters, the translation of which does not appear 
here. Its contents include many important rules which we have 
followed in this work, but we do not feel called upon at this time to 
engross the time of the English reader by reciting them. We, how- 
ever, deem it a duty to say a few words so that the reader may under- 
stand our position, and the reason that we have undertaken a work 
that cannot prove financially profitable, and that will probably be 
productive of much adverse criticism in certain quarters. 

The fate of the Talmud has been the fate of the Jews. As soon 
as the Hebrew was born,* he was surrounded by enemies. His 
whole history has been one of struggle against persecution and 
attack. Defamation and deformation have been his lot. So, too, 
has it been with the Talmud. At the beginning of its formative 
period it was surrounded by such enemies as the Sadducees, the 
Boethusians, and other sects. When its canon was fixed the Kar- 
aites tried to destroy or belittle its influence, and since that time it 
has been subjected to an experience of unvarying difficulty. Yet, 
with remarkable truth the words of Isaiah [xliii. 2] may be applied 
to both, v' When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee; 
and through the rivers, the)- shall not overflow thee; when thou 
walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned; neither shall the 
flame kindle upon thee." There is, however, one point concerning 
which this simile is not true. The Jew has advanced; the Talmud 
has remained stationary. 

Since the time of Moses Mendelssohn the Jew has made vast 
strides forward. There is to-day no branch of human activity in 
which his influence is not, felt. Interesting himself in the affairs of 
the world, he has been enabled to bring a degree of intelligence and 



Vide Genesis xliii. 32. 

(xiii) 



industry to bear upon modern life, that has challenged the admira- 
tion of the world. But with the Talmud, it is not so. That vast 
encyclopedia of Jewish lore remains as it was. No improvement has 
been possible; no progress has been made with it. Reprint after 
reprint has appeared, but it has always been called the Talmud 
Babli, as chaotic as it was when its canon was originally appointed.* 
Commentary upon commentary has appeared, yet the text of the 
Talmud has not received that heroic treatment that will alone enable 
us to say that the Talmud has been improved. Few books have ever 
received more attention than this vast storehouse of Jewish know- 
ledge. Friends and enemies it has had. Attack after attack has 
been made upon it, and defence after defence made for it; yet whether 
its enemies or its defenders have done it more harm, it would be hard 
to tell. Not, forsooth, that we do not willingly recognize that 
there have been many learned and earnest spirits who have labored 
faithfully in its behalf, but for the most part, if the Talmud could 
speak it would say, "God save me from my friends!" For the 
friends have, generally, defended without due knowledge of the stu- 
pendous monument of Rabbinical lore; and the enemies have usually 
attacked it by using single phrases or epigrams disconnected from 
their context, and which could be used to prove anything. In both 
cases, ignorance has been fatal. For how many have read all the 
Talmud through and are, thus, competent to judge of its merits ! Is 
it right to attack or defend without sufficient information ? Is it not 
a proof of ignorance and unfairness to find fault, with that of which 
we are not able to give proper testimony ? 

If those, especially, who attacked the Talmud and hurled 
against it venomous vituperation, would have had an intimate 
knowledge of it, would they, for example, believe that a work that 
in one part said, "When one asks for food, no questions may be 
asked as to who he is, but he must immediately be given either food 
or money," could be guilty of teaching the monstrous doctrines it is 
so frequently charged with ? Could a work be accused of frivolity 
and pettiness that defines wickedness to be " the action of a rich 
man who hears that a poor man is about to buy a piece of property, 
secretly overbids him (Qiddushin 59a)? Could there be a higher 
sense of true charity than that conveyed by the following incident ? 
Mar Uqba used to support a poor man by sending him on the eve of 
each Day of Atonement four hundred zuz. When the Rabbi's son 
took the money on one occasion, he heard the poor man's wife say, 
"Which wine shall I put on the table? Which perfum e shall I 

* Vide Introduction. 



XV 

sprinkle around the room?" The son, on hearing these remarks, 
returned with the money to his father and told him of what he had 
heard. Said Mar Uqba, ; ' Was that poor man raised so daintily that 
he requires such luxuries ? Go back to him and give him double the 
sum ! " ( Ketuboth 7a ) . This is not recorded by the Talmud as an 
exception ; but it is the Talmudical estimate of charity. The Talmud 
is free from the narrowness and bigotry with which it is usually 
charged, and if phrases used out of their context, and in a sense the 
very reverse from that which their author intended, are quoted 
against it, we may be sure that those phrases never existed in the 
original Talmud, but are the later additions of its enemies and ignor- 
amuses. When it is remembered that until it was first printed, that 
before the canon of the Talmud was fixed in the sixth century, it 
had been growing for more than six hundred years (the Talmud 
was in manuscript for eight centuries ) , that during the whole of that 
time it was beset by ignorant, unrelenting and bitter foes, that mar- 
ginal notes were easily added and in after years easily embodied in 
the text by unintelligent printers, such a theory as here advanced 
seems not at all improbable. In fact in this very volume we have 
an instance which has been retained only because of its usefulness, 
as an example. In Chapter III, the question is asked, " What is the 
measure of the cornet sound ? " In characteristic phrasing the 
answer is given that R. Simon b. Gamliel* explained (Piresh) that, 
etc., etc. The term here used is altogether uu-Talmudical, and this 
is an illustration of a marginal note, later incorporated in the text. 

The attacks on the Talmud have not been made by the enemies 
of the Jews alone. Large numbers of Jews themselves repudiate it, 
denying that they are Talmud Jews, or that they have any sympathy 
with it. Yet there are only the few Karaites in Russia and Austria, 
and the still fewer Samaritans in Asia Minor, who are really no^ 
Talmud Jews. Radical and Reform, Conservative and Orthodox not 
only find their exact counterparts in the Talmud, but also follow in 
many important particulars the practices instituted through the 
Talmud, e. g., New Year's Day, Pentecost (as far as its date and sig- 
nificance are concerned), the Qaddish, etc. , etc. The modern Jew 
is the product of the Talmud, which we shall find is a work of the 
greatest sympathies, the most liberal impulses, and the widest 
humanitarianism. Even the Jewish defenders have played into the 
enemy's hands by their weak defences, of which such expressions as 



* In the Talmud only the initials of the name, R. S. b. G., are given, and these could stand 
for a number of names. It is usual to interpret these letters, as is done in this accompanying 
translation, but we are sure that R. Simeon b. Gamliel is not the commentator referred to. 



XVI 

" Remember the age in which it was written " or " Christians are 
not meant by ' gentiles,' but only the Romans, or the people of Asia 
Minor, etc.," may be taken as a type. 

Amid its bitter enemies, and weak friends the Talmud has 
suffered a martyrdom. Its eventful history is too well-known to 
require detailing here. We feel that every attack on it, is an 
attack upon the Jew. We feel that defence b3^ the mere citation by 
phrases is useless, and at the best weak. To answer the attacks 
made upon it through ludicrous and garbled quotations were use- 
less. There is only one defence that can be made in behalf of the 
Talmud. I^et it plead its own cause in a modern language ! 

What is this Talmud of which we have said so much ? What is 
that work on which so many essays and sketches, articles and books 
have been written ? The best reply will be an answer in negative form. 
The Talmud is not a commentary on the Bible; nor should the vein 
of satire or humor that runs through it be taken for sober earnest- 
ness. Nor is the Talmud a legal code, for it clearly states that one 
must not derive a law for practical application from any halakhic 
statement, nor even from a precedent, unless in either case it be 
expressly said that the law or statement is intended as a practical 
rule [Baba Bathra 130 b] . Further: R. Issi asked of R. To'hanan: 
' ' What shall we do if you pronounce a law to be a Halakha ? " to 
which R. Jo'hanan replied: " Do not act in accordance with it until 
you have heard from me, ' Go and practice.' " Neither is the Tal- 
mud a compilation of fixed regulations, although the Shurhan 
Arukh would make it appear so. Yet, even when the Shulkhan 
Arukh will be forgotten, the Talmud will receive the respect and 
honor of all who love liberty, both mental and religious. It lives 
and will live because of its adaptability to the necessities of every 
age, and if any proof were needed to show that it is not dead, the 
attacks that are with remarkable frequency made on it in Germany 
might be given as the strongest evidence. In its day the Talmud 
received, not the decisions, but the debates of the leaders of the 
people. It was an independent critic, as it were, adapting itself to 
the spirit of the times; adding, where necessary to the teachings 
of former days, and abrogating also what had become valueless in 
its day. In other words the Talmud was the embodiment of the 
spirit of the people, recording its words and thoughts, its hopes and 
aims, and its opinions on every branch of thought and action. 
Religion and Ethics, Education, Law, History, Geography, Medi- 
cine, Mathematics, etc., were all discussed. It dealt with living issues 



in the liveliest manner and, therefore, it is living, and in reading it 
we live over again the lives of its characters. 

Nothing could be more unfair, nothing more unfortunate than 
to adopt the prevailing false notions about this ancient encyclopedia. 
Do not imagine it is the bigoted, immoral narrow work that its 
enemies have portrayed it to be. On the very contrary; it is. as 
free as the bird in its statements. It permits no shackles, no fetters 
to be placed upon it. It knows no authority, but conscience and 
reason. It is the bitterest enemy of all superstition and all fanat- 
icism. 

But why speak for it ? Let it open its mouth and speak in its 
own defence ! How can it be done ? The Talmud must be trans- 
lated into the modern tongues, and urge its own plea. All that we 
have said for it would become apparent, if it were only read. Trans- 
lation ! that is the sole secret of defence ! In translating it, however, 
we find our path bristling with difficulties. To reproduce it as it is in 
the original is in our judgment an impossible task. Men like Pinner 
and Rawicz have tried to do so with individual tracts and have only 
succeeded in, at the best giving translations to the world, which are 
not only not correct, but also not readable. If it were translated 
from the original text one would not see the forest through the trees. 
For, as we said above, throughout the ages there have been added to 
the text marginal notes, explanatory words, whole phrases and sen- 
tences inserted in malice or ignorance by its enemies and its friends.* 
As it stands in the original it is, therefore, a tangled mass defying 
reproduction in a modern tongue. It has consequently occurred to 
us that in order to enable the Talmud to open its mouth, the text 
must be carefully edited. A modern book, constructed on a sup- 
posed scientific plan, we cannot make of it, for that would not be the 
Talmud; but a readable, intelligible work it can be made. We have, 
therefore., carefully punctuated the Hebrew text with modern punctu- 
ation marks, and have re-edited it by omitting all such irrelevant 
matter as interrupted the clear and orderly arrangement of the various 
arguments. In this way, there disappears those unnecessary debates 
within debates, which only serve to confuse and never to enlighten 
on the question debated. Thus consecutiveness has been gained, 
but never at the expense of the Talmud, for in no case have we 
omitted one single statement that was necessary, or of any impor- 
tance. In other words we have merely removed from the text those 
accretions that were added from outside sources, which have proven 
so fruitful a source of misunderstanding and misrepresentation. 

* In other of our works we have named these interpolators. 
2 



XV111 

It may be asked who and what are we that we undertake so colos- 
sal a task ? We are simply a lover of the Talmud, who believe that we 
have discovered its spirit. The liberal, free, tolerant, broad human- 
itarian spirit that pervades that spiritual encyclopedia has been 
shamefully misrepresented and it cries out for rectification. Scholar 
after scholar has tried to improve matters by weighty commentaries 
that have only made the already intricate more difficult of compre- 
hension. For ten years we have asked through letters, periodicals 
and books for a synod of scholars to judge of our work, and deter- 
mine how to deal with this case. We have not had our request 
granted until now and so we have decided to proceed with our work 
alone. We realize that it is by no means perfect, nor beyond criti- 
cism. The enterprise is vast; and he who undertakes it is single- 
handed. The difficulties to be overcome are incalculable, one of the 
greatest being that the work is absolutely unendowed, and we must, 
in addition to the important work of editing, travel hither and thither 
to collect funds with which to continue publication. 

We continue our labors in the full and certain hope that, "he 
who comes to purify, receives Divine help " and that in our task of 
removing the additions made by the enemies of the Talmud, we shall 
be purifying it from the most fruitful source of the attacks made on 
it and thereunto we hope for the help of Heaven. As we have 
already said we feel that this work will not be received everywhere 
with equal favor. We could not expect that it would. Jewish 
works of importance have most usually been given amid ' ' lightning 
and thunder, ' ' and this is not likely to prove an exception. Yet this 
we ask, that the reader believe that we have been actuated onl) r by 
the love of the Talmud, to save it from its cruel enemies and weak 
friends, and to put it in such a position that it can plead its own cause 
in its own defence. 



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. 



There has never been, in all probability, any work, that has 
received more attention than the Talmud, with the exception, per- 
haps, of the Bible. Both of these productions pf Jewish genius have 
been the subject of the world's discussion for man)- a century. Nor 
is it likely that debate will cease now. Both of these works are too 
valuable to lie hid and blush unseen. They were never intended to 
waste their perfume upon the desert air. They have had so strong 
an influence upon humanity, that the world must think, speak and 
write about them. Quot homines, tot sentential. You cannot expect 
the world to be unanimous in its judgment. 

For the most part the opinions concerning the Talmud have 
been made second-hand, as are the quotations that are so frequently 
made from it. Few, very few, have gone to the fountain-head. A 
mature, impartial judgment, therefore, were an impossibility. 
Friends have been able to prove by it, whatever they desired; so too 
have enemies. Friends have quoted from it page after page, of ethi- 
cal precepts, so noble, so lofty, that we think we are reading of a 
Socrates or an Aurelius. Enemies have published citations that 
have shocked us. Partisanship will not enable us to give a calm 
judgment. Heated controversy concerning the unknown and unread 
will not hasten a correct estimate of this Eneyelopcedia Judaica. The 
indulgence of friends is as fatal to justice as the severity of enemies. 
The apologies of the one are as futile as attacks of the other. We 
want deliberation, not heated one-sided argument. Hence it is 
that the thousand and one articles, pamphlets, monographs, lectures 
are almost useless, because for the most part, they are partisan. 

The'Talmud deserves consideration at the hands of both Jew and 
Gentile. The Jew owes to it, in a largedegree, his preservation. For a 
thousand years it formed the subject of his mental disquisitions, and for 
another thousand years it was his library. When the Jew was ' ' hunted 
as a partridge on the mountains; ' ' when to be a Jew meant to be plun- 
dered and persecuted; when to be of the ancient faith meant to be 
in daily fear of stake, rack or thumbscrew; when to be of the people 
of Israel meant to have public schools and universities closed against 
one, then it was that a complete vade-mecum, an ' ' Enquire within 
for everything," a miniature library was provided by the twelve 
folio volumes of the Talmud. When in the bitterness of his soul the 
2 (xix) 



Jew might say, "Without are dogs," snarling and barking and 
waiting to jump at his throat, he might stay within and find solace 
in his Talmud. An old tradition says that when the Jews went into 
exile to Babylon, they carried with them some of the stones of the 
Temple. They, indeed, found sermons in these stones, and in later 
generations they served to console them in times of distress, to 
strengthen their saddened hearts, to quicken their intelligence, to 
inspire them with hopes for the future. The aim of the contributors 
to the Talmud was to keep pure the God- Idea of the Bible, and in 
doing this they tried to keep the Jew pure too. 

The Christian owes much to the Talmud, too. The best and 
most complete treatise on Jews and Judaism in the times of the 
founder of Christianity is the Talmud. Christianity is indebted to 
it, for much of its terminology. That many of its ethical precepts 
are found in the Talmud is a matter of common knowledge.* It is 
needless for us to expatiate on that which is accepted as a truism. 

There is but one means by which a fair and unbiased estimate 
of the Talmud can be formed. Neither abuse nor defence will pro- 
vide it; neither attack nor apology will furnish it. The evidence of 
its lovers will be rejected as must be the testimony of those who hate 
it. We cannot destroy it. During the famous Reuchlin and Pfef- 
ferkorn controversy, the former said, when he heard that the Emperor 
Maximilian had decreed that it should be burnt, " Burning is but a 
brutal argument. " So we say to-day. Attack is but a weak argu- 
ment. Defence is weaker. Make the sphinx talk ! Its own words 
will be its vindication or condemnation. This our editor has under- 
taken by means of his " New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud," 
of which in course of time a translation will appear, and towards 
which the present volume is the first contribution. 

I have been moved to present my translation to the editor free of 
all charge, because, with him I feel, that the best that can be heard in 
behalf of the Talmud will be its own words. From my boyhood, 
when I sat at the feet of some of the most learned Talmudists in 
Europe, I learned to love this wonderful work, this testimony to 
the mental and spiritual activity of my ancestors. And I feel that I 
am but doing a disciple's duty in reproducing their words, modestly 
yet lovingly, in a modern language. Of this particular Hebrew 
edition it is not for me to speak. Some of the most eminent scholars 
of America and Europe have approved of the manner in which the 



* The best monographs in English on this subject, known to us, are those essays on " The 
Talmud," "Notes of a Lecture on the Talmud," and "A Lecture delivered at the Midland 
Institute, Birmingham," by Emanuel Deutsch. Vide, " Literary Remains of the Late Eman- 
uel Deutsch." London, 1874 ; John Murray. 



XXI 

editor has dealt with the text, and this was a sufficient guarantee to 
me that if I could successfully translate their words, I should be doing 
some service in behalf of Hebrew literature and its proudest monu- 
ment, the Talmud. In addition to this present volume, I shall present, 
at the end of this year, the translation of Berakhoth (Benedictions). 

The task of translation is not easy. The few score pages that 
represent this first volume is the result of many weeks' work. The 
genius of the Hebrew is synthetic, a few words expressing much. 
The genius of English is analytic. Those familiar with the Talmud 
know how, when it is read in Jewish schools and colleges, a tone of 
the voice, a single gesticulation, a single word, or an untranslated 
phrase will convey more than line upon line of cold type. There are 
other difficulties, in reproducing a dead language into a living one, 
so well known to the public that they need not be detailed here. I 
have had no model to follow. There is, to my knowledge, no English 
translation of any volume of the Talmud, faking us through the mass 
of Ha la k ha and Haggada as they exist in the original. I have en- 
deavored to give a literal translation, and have sometimes sacrificed 
grace of diction for literalness. The editor desired a translation, not 
a paraphrase, and perhaps, not in one single instance, have I resorted 
to circumlocution. There will be found, however, a mass of paren- 
theses. A translation without these would have been positively 
unreadable. The parentheses, for the most part, represent the com- 
mentary of Rashi. The few notes scattered throughout the volume 
are placed only where they have been found absolutely necessary. I 
could have desired that these foot-notes were more abundant, but until 
the financial support needed by the editor in his undertaking, is 
forthcoming, such additions will be impossible. There is no doubt 
but that if the proper support is given to this enterprise, subsequent 
volumes will contain elaborate foot-notes, and a later volume will 
also contain notes to accompany this present one. 

In' the English translation I have, at the special request of the 
editor, made a few corrections to the Hebrew text. I have added a 
few words omitted by the printer on page 19, line 23, the translation 
of which is, ' ' of two who fall sick with the same sickness ' ' (vide 
page 27). And at his request I have omitted the following passages 
inadvertently admitted by the printer and which will not appear in a 
second edition: page 7, lines 10-12; page 8, lines 8-1 1; page 11, 
line 4; page 13, lines 20-22; page 14, lines 1-4, 6 and 7; page 15, lines 
14-16; page 34, lines 14-16; page 35, line 3; page 37, line 6. 

As to the peculiar phraseology of the translation I feel that I 
should explain one or two matters. The letter " R. " has been used 



for the titles, Rabban, Rabbi and Rabii, and the letter " b." for the 
word Ben or Bar, thus R. Jo'hanan b. Zakkai should read Rabbi 
Jo'hanan the son of Zakkai. The quotations from the Scriptures 
will be found to differ frequently from the Authorized Version. There 
are two causes for this; first, the English translation of the Old 
Testament is very faulty, and secondly, I have endeavored to tran- 
slate the original as the Rabbis of the Talmud understood it. The 
word " Torah " has been used because I feel that " Law " is a poor 
translation for it, and "Pentateuch" would have been unwieldy; 
and the words Malkhioth, Zikhronoth and Shophroth have been 
retained because no English word could adequately express them and 
because the dictionaries consulted also transliterate but do not tran- 
slate them. The same is also true of the names of the sounds pro- 
duced on the cornet (Shophar). The words in capital letters at the 
beginning of the paragraphs are the citations from the Mishna. 

To avoid the too frequent use of quotation marks where speeches, 
addresses or remarks are reproduced, the Biblical expedient has been 
resorted to. A colon (:) is used and the word after it, the initial 
word of the oratio recta, begins with a capital letter, thus, The 
Rabbis taught: A king who ascends the throne, etc.; modernized 
this would read, The "Rabbis taught, "A king who ascends the 
throne, etc." Another typical case will be found on page 14, where 
the colon (:) is followed by a comma (,) under similar circumstances: 
We have learnt in a Boraitha: R. Eliezer says, Whence do we know, 
etc.; modernized, this would read, We have learned in a Boraitha: 
" R. Eliezer says, 'Whence do we know, etc' ' On only two or 
three occasions has this rule been departed from, and then for reasons 
that will appear clear to the reader. 

With these few words by the way of introduction I present this 
first fruit of my Talmudical labors to the public. I, however, 
desire to express my appreciation of two works that have proven inval- 
uable in my task. The one is the Rev. Dr. M. Jastrow's " Diction- 
ary of the Targumin, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi and the 
Midrashic Literature," and the other is Dr. M. Mielziener's " In- 
troduction to the Talmud." The editor joins me in expressing the 
highest sense of appreciation to Mr. Charles Sessler who so 
kindly superintended the publication of this translation. It is not 
of little significance that this volume appears during the Passover. 
That festival represents not only liberty, but also the removal of the 
leaven. May the Talmud, now awakened, be given the freedom it 
deserves. May the leaven of ignorance and unfairness that has sur- 
rounded it be forever removed. 
Philadelphia, April, /Sg>j. J. LEONARD LEW. 



BRIEF GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



TO THE 



Babylonian Talmud. 



BY THE EDITOR. 



On this the appearance of onr latest literary under- 
taking we deem a few explanatory remarks necessary. 
The brief outline of the origin of the Talmud that follows 
may suggest the thought that we have departed from the 
usual manner of dealing with the questions here discussed, 
the more so since we have, for the sake of brevity, refrained 
from citing the authorities on which our statements are 
based. We wish therefore to declare here that we did not 
venture to make a single statement without the support of 
authorities well known in Hebrew literature. Our method 
was to select such views as seemed to us the best authen- 
ticated in the historical progress of Judaism. As we have 
taken v our choice from the numerous works on our subject, 
the student is entitled to adopt or to reject the views that 
we represent. 

Most of the Mishnayoth date from a very early period, 
and originated with the students of the Jewish academies, 
which existed since the days of Jehoshaphat, King of 
Judah [2. Chron. xvii. 9]. 

The rabbinical students of ancient times noted the 
essence of the academical teachings in brief form, and as 
a rule in the idiom in which it was spoken to them so 



that they could afterward easily commit it to memory. 
They have, sometimes however, added comments and ex- 
tensive explanations in the form of notes so that the mass 
of their learning embraced in course of time, according to 
some authorities, as many as six hundred divisions. 

The source of the Mishnayoth was the customs and 
regulations, practiced by the authorities in their adminis- 
tration of religious and civil affairs: such as the Sabbath, 
Prayers, Cleanliness (considered actually Godliness) Per- 
mitted and Forbidden Foods, and controversies arising con- 
cerning Slavery. Indebtedness and corporal punishment 
are subjects of academical discussions, conducted with the 
aim of perfecting them into national statutes, enforcible in 
all Jewish communities alike. 

In course of time, however, when those Mishnayoth 
were noted down from earlier existing copies, many addi- 
tions were made. Finally Rabbi Judah the Prince, 
generally called " Rabbi," concluded to collect all the 
Mishnayoth in his college for proper arrangement. From 
these he selected six divisions called according to the sub- 
ject they deal with, viz., Plants, Feasts, Women, Damages, 
Sacrifices and Purifications, and he proclaimed them holy 
for all Israel. Of the Mishnayoth so treated by Rabbi, 
some were left entirely intact, and were reproduced in their 
original form. To others he parenthetically added brief 
comments of his own, and there are still others that he 
changed in form completely because already in his day old 
customs had changed and taken new forms. 

Such of them as he desired to make final and indis- 
putable national laws, he incorporated into the Mishna 
without mentioning the names of their authors. Where, 
however, he could formulate no definite decision himself, 
or where they were well known to the public, he gave full 
information of their authors as well as the names of those 
opposed to their conclusions, without any decision on his 
part. In still others he mentioned no names but contented 



himself with saying, " A'herim," i. e., " Some say," not 
wishing to specify their authority for certain reasons. 

Rabbi did not seek the compliance and agreement 
of all his contemporaries in his arrangement of the 
Mishna, and many differed from his conclusions, and even 
arranged Mishnaj'oth in accordance with their own views. 
Being, however, a man of great prominence, influence and 
wealth, Rabbi succeeded in quelling opposition and in 
making his conclusions, as acceptable as the Mosaic law 
itself, and his great pupils, seeing that his intentions were 
only to prevent dissensions, and their only aim the public 
weal, supported him nobly until his teachings were ac- 
cepted as the law of the nation. 

Many Mishnayoth were rejected and destroyed by 
Rabbi, but not being in possession of all those he wished 
to destroy, he went in search of them to Yeshibhoth out- 
side of his jurisdiction. There, however, he met with 
great opposition. Some of the Mishnayoth were hidden 
beyond his reach, others were secretly preserved and 
arranged within the very limits of his domain and 
promptly brought to light after his death. But, Rabbi's 
pupils did not dignify them with the name Mishna, 
implying: "Next to Mosaic law" but called them 
Tosephtoth, meaning "additions of a later period" or 
merely additional, not principal matter. They were also 
named Boraithoth (outsiders) i. c, secondary, not aca- 
demical matter. They spread, however, very rapidly, after 
Rami's death and to such an extent as to threaten the 
Mishnayoth of Rabbi with entire extinction. Such would 
actually have been the result, had not the pupils of Rabbi 
organized again Yeshibhoth whose aim was to perpetuate 
the Mishnayoth of Rabbi which they also accomplished. 
Yeshibhoth of that character were those of Rabh and 
Samuel in Babylon and Rabbi Janai and Rabbi Jo'hanan 
in Palestine. These Yeshibhoth made strenuous efforts 
to explain and harmonize the Mishnayoth of Rabbi with 



the teachings of the Boraithoth, generally regarded as 
those of Rabbi 'Hija and Rabbi Oshaia ,vho were greatly 
admired by the public. At times the Mishna of Rabbi 
was abbreviated and replenished with the text of the 
Boraitha. or explained with an opposing opinion so as to 
harmonize it with the latter, or suit the new conditions and 
consequent changes of the custom that originall}- caused 
the conclusion of the Mishna. Where, however, they 
found no other way to suit their purpose they inserted a 
new Mishna of their own composition into the text of 
Rabbis. 

The teachers mentioned in the Mishna of Rabbi or in 
the Boraithoth and Tosephta were called Tanaim {singular 
Tana) signifying Professor. The teachings of the Yeshib- 
hoth covering a period of some centuries, which also found 
adherents and became the traditional law were called 
Gamara signifying " conclusion. " The intention was to 
harmonize the Mishna and Boraitha, and, in most cases, to 
arrive at a final decision as to the proper interpretation of 
the theory of the law (as Rabbi Jo'hanan prohibited com- 
pliance with the Halakha unless it is mandatory). These 
Gemara teachers were called Amoraim (interpreters) 
/. r. y the}' interpreted to the public the difficult passages 
in the Mishna. Being classified as interpreters only, 
they had no authority to deviate from the spirit of the 
Mishna unless supported by another Tana opposing the 
Mishna, in which case they could follow the opinion of 
the Tana with whom they agreed. Rabhina and R. 
Ashi who lived in the fifth century (third century of 
Amoraim) began to arrange the Gemara but without 
success, and commenced a second time to arrange it. 
Unfortunately the}- died before accomplishing their task 
and the Gemara underwent troublous delivery from hand 
to hand until the appearance upon the scene of Rabono 
Jose, president of the last Amoraic Yeshibha in Pom- 
beditha who foresaw that his Yeshibha was destined to 



xxvn 



be the last owing to the growing persecution of the 
Jews from the days of " Px-ruz. 1 ' He also feared that 
the Amoraic manuscripts would be lost in the coming 
dark days or materially altered, so he summoned all 
his contemporary associates and hastily closed up the 
Talmud prohibiting an}- further additions. This enforced 
haste caused not only an improper arrangement, and 
many unnecessary repetitions and additions but also led 
to the " Talmudizing " of articles directly traceable to 
bitter and relentless opponents of the Talmud. The 
time (Rabono Jose conducted his Yeshibha only seven- 
teen years) being too short for a proper and critical 
review of each and every subject, many theories were 
surreptitiously added by its enemies with the purpose of 
making it detestable to its adherents. Of such charac- 
ter is the expression " That of R. Ashi is a fabrication " 
which is repeated numerous times throughout the Tal- 
mud and which could by no means have originated with 
the Amoraim, who as a rule were very guarded in their 
expressions and would never have dreamed of applying 
it to such Talmudical authorities as R. Ashi and Mar, 
his son, or such like expressions with reference to even 
the Patriarchs or the Prophets. This closing up of the 
Talmud did not, however, prevent the importation of 
foreign matter into it, and many such have crept in 
through the agency of the " Rabono Saburai " and the 
Geonim of even- later generation. 

The chief aim of the authors of the Gemara being to 
perpetuate the Mishna as the sole source of the Jewish 
religious and civil code after the Mosaic laws themselves, 
the\- not only directed all their energy to the discussion 
and perfecting of its deductions, but treated its very words 
and letters as inspired and as holy as the Bible itself, form- 
ing at times conclusions from a superfluous word or letter. 
Oftentimes when they found the Mishna differing with an 
established custom in their days, they resorted to subtle 



inquiry and minute discussion until they succeeded in 
establishing harmony between the differing points. All 
these efforts were directed to refute and disprove the asser- 
tions of the different sects, who opposed the oral law and 
who were inclined to adhere to the written law solely : 
Therefore, the Rabbis of the Gemara asked " Minalan " 
(wherefrom its source?) in the treatment of a subject not 
plainly specified in the Bible ; and also, the interrogatory 
remark " Peshita " (Of course!) as regards subjects 
plainly enumerated in the Scriptures which do not admit 
of any other interpretation. Of the same origin is the 
question " Lemai Hilkhetha " ? (wherefore this discus- 
sion ?) with reference to an obsolete custom. So much for 
its general history. We will now turn to the purpose of 
this tract in particular. 

INTRODUCTION TO ROSH HASHANA. 

The Scriptures do not in any way treat of the subject 
of the calendar, a matter of the greatest importance from 
an historical standpoint nor do they state from what period 
the year was begun to be reckoned, although there is a 
passage [Ex. xii. 2], "This month shall be unto you, the 
beginning of months ; it shall be to you, the first month 
of the year " which obviously points to Nisan (about April), 
as not only the most important month, but also as the 
beginning of the year. 

In another passage, however [Ex. xxiii. 16], we read 
"The feast of ingathering (Tabernacles) which is at the 
end of the year." The words " BESETH hashana" in this 
passage can be, with perfect accuracy, translated "during 
the year." This rendering would clear away all difficulty 
with regard to Nisan as the beginning of the year, but 
since Tishri is the New Year, this translation, under no 
circumstances could apply to Tabernacles, which is neither 
"at the end," nor "during the year" (/. c, when the 
year has advanced). The passage should, therefore, be 



translated " and the festival for what is gathered about 
the end of the year," i. <?., in the months before Tishri. 

In the face of these contradictory terms, we must re- 
vert to historical occurrences in support of one or the other 
of the above claims, and we find that not only the Egyp- 
tian rulers, but also the Jewish kings from Solomon, 
counted the beginning of their reigns from Nisan (April) 
while other Eastern monarchs, such as the Armenians 
and Chaldeans commenced theirs from Tishri (Septem- 
ber). 

We are not certain however whether the Jews upon 
their conquest of Canaan, reckoned their calendar like 
that of the country from which they came or of the 
country which they conquered, yet it is plain that in the 
Mishnaic period, or after the second restoration, they 
counted the beginning of the year from Tishri. It may, 
however, be that their kings still held Nisan as the begin- 
ning of the year following the example of their predeces- 
sors, and in all civil contracts and documents according to 
the then existing custom, used dates to agree with Nisan 
(April) as the first month of the year. The priestly tithes, 
however, during the days of the second restoration, were 
payable in Elul (August) which was considered the 
expiring season of the year, to prevent the disorder which 
might arise from mixing up one year's taxation with that 
of the other; only, the priestly taxation of fruits was 
delayed till Shebhat (February) (after the season wheu 
the fruits formed on the trees), so that the various tithes 
should not be mixed and to prevent the priests and 
levites from unduly interfering with the affairs of the 
people. 

The prehistoric Mishna which always formed the law 
to suit the custom, found four different New Year days in 
four different months, and, desiriug to make a uniform 
custom in all Jewish communities, taught its adherents to 
observe four days as New Year's to begin the first day of 



the four different months that they happened to be 
practiced in, and the text of the opening Mishna before it 
underwent Rabbi's scrutiny was as follows: There are 
•four different New Year's days, First of Nisan, First of 
Blul, First of Tishri, and First of Shebhat. The dif- 
ferent purposes for which they were appointed were well 
known at that time. Because at the time that the second 
commonwealth had ended, and the authority of the priest- 
hood was abrogated and reverted to the House of David 
(in the person of Hillel the grandfather of R. Judah the 
Prince), he adds to the text of Mishna, by way of com- 
mentary " for kings, and for the cattle-tithe," and there- 
fore he cites the opinion of R. Eliezer and R. Simon, in 
support of his own, because he felt no apprehension that 
the tithes due on one year's products would any longer be 
mixed with those of another, and that therefore a special 
New Year's day should be appointed for them. For the 
same reason he adds too, " the opinion of the school of 
Shamai and the school of Hillel." 

From the Mishna "There are four days of judgment 
for the world every year " it appears that in the Talmudical 
period New Year's was considered a day of repentance; 
and since the principal feature of repentance is devotion 
to God, therefore says Rabbi in the Mishna that devotion 
is the only requirement in the penitential days (between 
New Years and the Day of Atonement). But in his days 
the legend of " the opening of the Books on New Year's " 
was yet unknown. Furthermore the word " Nidon " 
in the Mishna Chapter I, 2, should be understood as " dis- 
cussion " as we find that the Benai Bethaira say to R. 
Jo'hanan Ben Zakkai " Let us discuss (Nidon) and after- 
wards we will blow the cornet." Thus the passage cited 
by the Mishna "He who hath fashioned all their hearts 
understandeth all their works" can be made to harmonize 
with this interpretation, for meditation on spiritual matters 
will lead to investigation of one's own conduct. 



The story that R. Kruspedai tells in the name of R. 
Jo'hanan that " on New Year's books are opened," etc., he 
quotes from the Boraitha : " Three books are opened on 
the day of Judgment." But in the Boraitha the meaning 
is not Rosh Hashana but the day of the Resurrection. 
That he cites it in the name of R. Jo'hanan proves noth- 
ing, for very often when teachers wanted to add weight 
to their opinions the}' would quote great Rabbis as their 
authorities ; and R. Jo'hanan himself permitted this. 

After the proper Mishnaic arrangement was com- 
pleted by Rabbi regarding the number of New Year's 
days, making the principal one " the Day of Memorial," 
after treating upon the laws governing the blowing of 
the cornet, in an exceedingly brief manner, the custom 
in vogue in the Temple of covering the mouth of the 
horn with gold is dwelt upon and the requirements of 
the law of the sounding of the cornet is declared suffi- 
ciently fulfilled when a person only hears it in passing 
a synagogue. After arranging the prayers accompanying 
this ceremony in a few words he dilates, at great length, 
on the Mishnayoth governing the lunar movements by 
which alone the Jews were guided in the arrangement 
of their calendar ; on the mode of accepting witnesses 
concerning the same, on the pictures of the moon used 
by Rabbi Gamliel ; on the tradition handed down to him 
from his ancestors (meaning the undisputed correct regu- 
lation^) and also. the statutes ordained by Rabbi Jo'ha- 
nan Ben Zakkai, claiming that the wise of each genera- 
tion are the sole arbiters about decreeing regulations 
although they may be of such a character as is not to 
be found in the Mosaic code ; on the right of the chief 
of the Beth Din (court of chief judges) alone of that 
period to arrange the order of the holidays, on account of 
the then visible discontent springing up among the masses 
who wanted to take the management of these subjects in 
their own hands. He, therefore, dilated upon this with 



minute exactness and supported his assertions with the 
decision of his grandfather Rabban Gamliel also Rabbi 
Doso ben Harkhinas and Joshua that the existing gener- 
ation has only to look for guidance to the existing Beth 
Din, whose opinion is as binding and decisive as that of 
Moses, even though the decision may appear erroneous. 
Sucli are the contents of this tract, certainly most impor- 
tant from an historical standpoint. Go now and study ! 



"NEW YEAR." 



CHAPTER I. 

MISHNA. There are four New Year days, viz : The first of 
Nisan is New Year for (the ascension of ) Kings * and for (the reg- 
ular rotation of) festivals; f the first of Elul is New Year for the 
eattle-tithe, J but according to R. Eliezer and R. Simon, it is on the 
first of Tishri. The first of Tishri is New Year's day, for ordinary 
years, and for the reckoning of the sabbatic years, § and jubilees; 
and also for the planting of trees, || and for herbs. % On the first 
day of Shebhat is the New Year for trees,** according to the school 
of Shammai; but the school of Hillel says it is on the fifteenth of 
the same month f f 

GEMARA. "For Kings." Why is it necessary to appoint 
such a day? R. 'Hisda answered, On account of documents. XX 
The Rabbis taught : A king who ascends the throne on the 29th of 
Adar must be considered to have reigned one year as soon as the 
first of Nisan comes, but if he ascends the throne on the first of 
Nisan, he is not considered to have reigned one year until the first 
of Nisan of the following year. From this we infer that only Nisan 
is the commencement of years for kings (or the civil New Year's); 

* It mattered not according to the sages at what period of the year a Jewish king 
ascended the throne, his reign was always reckoned from the preceding first of Nisan. 
If, for instance, a Jewish king began to reign in Adar, the eleven months before would 
be considered one year of the reign of the king just deceased, and the month of Adar 
would be considered one year of the new king's reign. The next first of Nisan would be 
the beginning of the second year of the king' s reign. This rule had to be observed in 
all documents in which the year of the king's reign was mentioned. 

t This refers to the law concerning vows. If one made a vow it had to be fulfilled 
before the three festivals elapsed in the order of Passover, Pentecost and Tabernacles. 

t A date had to be appointed in order to keep the tithes of animals born and products 
of the earth, distinct from year to year. 

§ Vide Lev. xxv. and Deut. xv. 

|| With regard to the prohibition of eating fruit of newly planted trees [Lev. xix. 23-25]. 

U So as not to mix the tithe on herbs from year to year. 

** With regard to the tithe due on fruit trees. 

tf The Gemara fully discusses the reasons fcr these institutions, but we deem it wise 
to anticipate, for the sake of clearness. 

IX So that in the case of mortgages, one may know which is the first and which is the 
second by means of the year of the king's reign mentioned in the documents. 

(I) 



that even a fraction of a year is considered a year; and that if a king 
ascends the throne on the first of Nisan, he is not considered to have 
reigned one year until the next first of Nisan, although he may have 
been elected in Adar. The Boraitha * teaches this, lest one might 
suppose that the year should be reckoned from the clay of election 
and therefore the king would begin his second year (on the first of 
Nisan following). 

The Rabbis taught: If a king die in Adar and his successor 
ascends the throne in Adar (documents may be dated either) the 
(last) year of the (dead) king, or the (first) year of the new king. 
If a king die in Nisan, and his successor ascends the throne in 
Nisan, the .same is the case. But if a king die in Adar, and his suc- 
cessor does not ascend the throne until Nisan, then the year ending 
with Adar should be referred to as the year of the dead king, and 
from Nisan it should be referred to as that of his successor, j 

R. Jo'hanan says: Whence do we deduce that we reckon the 
commencement of years (for the reign) of kings, only from Nisan? 
It is said [i Kings vi. i] " And it came to pass in the four hundred 
and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the 
land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in 
the month Ziv, which is the second month, etc." He institutes the 
following analogy between " the reign of Solomon " and " the Exo- 
dus from Egypt " mentioned in this passage: As the Exodus from 
Egypt is reckoned from Nisan, so also is the reign of Solomon 
reckoned from Nisan. But how do we know that the Exodus cvoi 
should be reckoned from Nisan ? Perhaps we should reckon it from 
Tishri! The facts of the case do not support such a presumption, 
for it is written [Numbers xxxiii. 38] "And Aaron, the Priest, went 
up into Mount Hor at the commandment of the Lord, and died 
there, in the fortieth year after the children of Israel were come out 
of the land of Egypt on the first day of the fifth month ; ' ' and it is writ- 
ten [Deut. i. 3] "Audit came to pass in the fortieth year, in the 
eleventh month, on the first day of the month, Moses spake, etc." 
Since he mentions the fifth month, which is certainly Abh, and he 
speaks of (Aaron's death as happening in) the fortieth year (and not 
the forty-first year) , it is clear that Tishri is not the beginning of years 
(for kings) . This argument is acceptable as far as the former (Aaron's) 



* The word Boraitha is derived from a root meaning " external, foreign" etc. It means 
the traditions and opinions of Tanai'm not embodied in the Mishna as compiled by R. 
Judah Hannasi. 

t No reference should be made after the first of Nisan to the reign of the king just 
deceased. For instance : it was not permitted to speak of the year beginning with Nisan, 
as the second year after the death of the king. 



case is concerned, for the text specifically mentions (fort)- years after) 
the Exodus; but in the latter (Moses') case, how can we tell that (the 
fortieth year) means from the Exodus? Perhaps it means (the for- 
tieth year) from the raising of the Tabernacle in the wilderness! 
The terms "fortieth year" (mentioned in connection with both 
Aaron and Moses) are compared by analogy; as in the former case 
it means forty years from the time of the Exodus, so also in the latter 
case. But whence do we know that the incident that took place in 
Abh (the death of Aaron) happened before that which is related 
(the speech of Moses) as happening in Shebhat ? Perhaps the Sheb- 
hat incident happened first! It is not reasonable to suppose this; 
for it is written [Deut. i. 4] "After he had slain Sihou the king of 
the Amorites," and when Aaron died Sihon was still living. Thus 
it is written [Numbers xxi. 1] "And the Canaanite, the King of 
Arad heard." What did he hear ? He heard that Aaron was dead 
and that the clouds of glory had departed (and he thought that any- 
one might go up and fight against Israel). How can we make any 
such comparison ? In the one place it speaks of the Canaanite, and 
in the other, of Sihon! Yes, we can, for a Boraitha says that Sihon, 
Arad and the Canaanite are identical. This opinion of R. Jo'hanan is 
quite correct, for we find that a Boraitha quotes all the verses that he 
quotes here, and arrives at the same conclusion. 

R. 'Hisda says: They taught this rule about Nisau only con- 
cerning the kings of Israel, but for the kings of other nations, they 
reckon from Tishri. As it is said: [Nehem. i. 1] " The words of 
Nehemiah, the son of Hakhaliah. And it came to pass in the month 
of Kislev, in the twentieth year, Hanani, one of my brethren, came, 
he and certain men of Judah," and it is written: [ibid. ii. 1] " And 
it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artax- 
erxes the king, etc." Since Hanani stood before Nehemiah in 
Kislev, and the Bible speaks of it as the twentieth year, and since 
Nehemiali stood before the king in Nisan, and the Text calls it also 
the twentieth year, it is clear that the New Year (for the non-Jewish 
king, Artaxerxes) is not Nisan (or in the latter case he would have 
spoken of the twenty-first year). This argument is acceptable as 
far as the latter quotation is concerned, for it specifically mentions 
Artaxerxes, but in the former verse how do we know that he refers 
to Artaxerxes ? Perhaps he refers to another event altogether ! Says 
R. Papa: Since in the first passage we read "the twentieth year" 
and in the second we read ' ' the twentieth year, ' ' we ma}' deduce by 
analogy that as in the one case Artaxerxes is meant, so is he meant 
also in the other. But how do we know that the event, recorded as 



occurring in Kislev, and not the Nisan incident, happened first? 
Any other deduction would not accord with the facts of the case. 
For we have learnt in a Boraitha: The same words which Hanani 
said to Nehemiah in Kislev, the latter repeated to the king in Nisan, 
as it is said: [Nehem. i. 1-2] "The words of Nehemiah, son of 
Hakhaliah. And it came to pass in the month of Kislev, in the 
twentieth year, as I was in Shushan the palace, that Hanani, one of 
my brethren came, and certain men of Judah .... and the 
gates thereof are burned with fire. ' ' And it also said: [Nehem. ii. 1-6] 
"And it came to pass in the month of Nisan, in the twentieth year 
of Artaxerxes the king, that wine was before him .... so 
it pleased the king to send me; and I .set him a time." 

R. Joseph offered an objection: It is written [Haggai ii. 10] 
" In the twenty-fourth day of the sixth month, in the second year 
of Darius," and it is also written [ibid. 1] " In the second year, in 
the seventh month, in the one and twentieth day of the month." 
If the rule is that Tishri (the seventh month) is the beginning of 
years for non -Jewish kings, should not the Text read " in the third 
year of Darius" instead of the second year? R. Abahu answered: 
Cyrus* was a most upright king and the Hebrews reckoned his 
years as they did those of the kings of Israel (beginning with Nisan). 
R. Joseph again objected: If that were so there are texts that would 
contradict each other. First: it is written [Ezra vi. 15] " And this 
house was finished on the third day of the month Adar, which was 
in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the King. ' ' A Boraitha 
explains this to mean: At that same time in the following year Ezra 
and the children of the captivity went up from Babylon, and the 
Bible says about this [Ezra vii. S] "And he came to Jerusalem in 
the fifth month in the seventh year of the king. ' ' But if the rule is 
(that for Cyrus the year began with Nisan and not Tishri) should 
not the Text say " the eighth year " (since the first day of Nisan, 
the beginning of another year, intervenes between the third of Adar, 
and the month of Abh)? And secondly: How can you compare 
these texts ! In the one place it speaks of Cyrus, and in the other, 
of Darius! This remains unanswered. 

"And for Festivals." Do then the festivals commence on 
the first of Nisan ? Do they not begin on the fifteenth of that 



* The Rabbis of the Talmud must have had a different reading in the book of Haggai 
from that which now exists. There is no verse in Haggai that reads, as the one quoted here. 
There is therefore a great difficulty in understanding the discussion. Rashi even, is unable 
to enlighten us on this point. It is possible, however, that some of the Rabbis knew that 
"Darius" mentioned in Haggai referred to Cyrus, for all the Persian kings of the Achse- 
menidan dynasty were called Darius. 



month? R. 'Hisda answered: (The Mishna means that Nisan is) 
the month that contains that festival which is called the New Year 
for festivals (viz., Passover). 

What difference does it make (in practice) ? It makes a differ- 
ence to one who has made a vow, because through this festival he 
becomes culpable of breaking the law, ' ' Thou shalt not slack to 
pay."* And this is according to the opinion of R. Simon, who sa}-s: 
That (before one is guilty of delay) the three festivals must have 
passed by in their regular order, with Passover as the first (of the 
three). 

The Rabbis taught: As soon as three festivals have passed by 
and the following duties (or vows) have not been fulfilled one is 
guilty of procrastination; and these are they, The vow of one who says 
" I will give the worth of myself (to the sanctuary)" or " I will give 
what I am estimated to be worth (in accordance with L,ev. xxvii) ;" or 
objects, the use of which one has foresworn, or which one has conse- 
crated (to the sanctuary) or sin-offerings, guilt-offerings, burnt-offer- 
ings, peace-offerings, charity, tithes, the firstlings, the paschal 
offerings, the gleanings of the field, that which is forgotten to be 
gathered i.i the field, the produce of corner of the field. y R. Simon 
says: The festivals must pass by in their regular order, with Pass- 
over as the first, and R. Meir says: As soon as even one festival has 
elapsed, and the vow has not been kept the law is infringed. R. 
Eliezer, b. Jacob, says: As soon as two festivals have elapsed, the law 
is infringed, but R. Elazar, b. Simon, says: Only the passing of the 
feast of Tabernacles causes the infringement of the law (whether or 
not any other festivals have passed by between the making and the 
fulfilling of the vow) . What is the reason of the first Tana ? Since 
in [Deut. xvi.] the Text has been speaking of the three festivals, 
why does it repeat "On the feast of Unleavened Bread, on the 
feast of Weeks and on the feast of Tabernacles ? " It repeats these 
words to teach us (that the festivals must pass in the order just 
mentioned, before one is) guilty of procrastination. R. Simon says: 
It was not necessary to repeat ' ' on the feast of Tabernacles, ' ' because 
the Text was speaking of that festival (when it mentioned the names 
of the three festivals). Why, then, does it repeat it ? To teach us 
that Tabernacles shall be the last of the three festivals. R. Meir 
arrives at his opinion because it is mentioned of each festival ' ' Thou 
shall come there (to Jerusalem) and ye shall bring there" (your 

♦This law of " Thou shalt not slack to pay," is known as " Bal Te'aher ;" i.e., the law 
against procrastination or delay, 
t I,ev. xxiii, 22. 



vows; and this being said of each festival, if one elapses and the vow 
is not brought, then the law against delay is infringed). The reason 
of R. Eliezer, b. Jacob is that the passage [Numb. xxix. 39] runs: 
" These shall ye offer to the Lord on your appointed feasts," and the 
minimum of the plural word "feasts" is hvo. On what does R. 
Elazar b. Simon, base his opinion ? We have learnt in a Boraitha: 
' ' The feast of Tabernacles ' ' should not have been mentioned in 
[Deut. xvi. 16], since the preceding passages (of that chapter) were 
treating of that feast. Why, then, was it mentioned? To indicate 
that that particular feast (Tabernacles) is the one that causes the 
infringement of the law. 

What do R. Meir and R. Elazar deduce from the superfluous 
passage " on the feast of Unleavened Bread, on the feast of Weeks, 
and on the feast of Tabernacles ? ' ' The} r use this verse, according to 
R. Elazar, who says in the name of R. Oshaya: Whence do we know 
that the law of compensation * applies to the feast of Weeks (although 
the feast is only one day)? For this very reason the Bible repeats 
the three festivals; and he institutes a comparison between the feast 
of weeks and the feast of unleavened bread; as the law of compensa- 
tion applies to feast of unleavened bread for seven days, so also does 
it apply to the feast of Weeks for seven days. Why, then, does the 
Torah find it necessary to repeat the words, " In the feast of Taber- 
nacles?" To compare it with the feast of Unleavened Bread; as, 
during the feast of Unleavened Bread it was obligatory to stay over 
night (in Jerusalem), so was it also necessary during the feast of 
Tabernacles. But how do we know that it was obligatory during 
the feast of Unleavened Bread ? It is written [Deut. xvi. 7] , " Thou 
shalt turn in the morning (after staying over night), and go unto 
thy tents." What are the sources of the above arguments? The 
Rabbis taught the following interpretation of Deut. xxiii. 21: 
" When thou shalt vow a vow unto the Lord thy God, thou shalt not 
slack to pay it." Perhaps these words only apply to a vow! How 
do we know that they may also be applied to a voluntary offering ? 
In the passage just quoted we read "vow," and in another place 
[Lev. vii. 16], we find " but if the sacrifice of his offering be a vow 
or a voluntary offering;" as in the latter instance the Torah includes 
the "voluntary offering," so does it also in the former; "unto the 
Lord thy God, ' ' i. e. , offerings expressed by " I will give the value of 
myself" etc., and other objects mentioned above; "thou shalt not 
slack to pay it;" i. c, the object promised must be given and not 

*The privilege of bringing on one of the later days of a festival a sacrifice that 
should have been offered on the first day. 



anything in exchange of it;* " for he will surely require it," i. e., the 
sin- guilt- burnt- and peace-offerings; "the Lord thy God;" these 
words refer to offerings of charity, tithes, and firstlings; " of thee;" 
this refers to the gleanings, that which is forgotten in the field and 
the produce of the corner of the field; " and it would be sin in thee," 
i. c, and not in thy sacrifice (which is not thereby invalidated). 

The Rabbis taught: Deut. xxiii. 23; may be explained thus: 
" That which is gone out of thy lips " refers to the mandatory laws 
(of the Torah); " thou shalt keep " refers to the prohibitory laws; 
" and perform " is a warning to the Beth Dint (that they should 
enforce the laws) ; " according as thou hast vowed " refers to vows; 
" to the L,ord thy God " refers to sin- guilt- burnt- and peace-offer- 
ing; " a free-will offering " means just what it is; " which thou hast 
spoken," refers to the sanctified objects devoted to the Temple for 
repairs, etc.; "with thy mouth" refers to charity. Says Rabha: 
One is culpable if he does not give forthwith that which he has vowed 
for charity. Why so ? Because there are always poor people (need- 
ing immediate help) . Is not this self-evident ? Aye, but one might 
suppose that, since the law prohibiting delay is found in connection 
with the duty of giving charity and also of bringing the various vol- 
untary offerings, it would apply to both, and it would not be infringed 
until the three festivals had elapsed, therefore he teaches us (that 
charity and sacrifices are different); in the latter case, the infringe- 
ment of the law depends on the festivals, but in the case of charity it 
must be given immediately, for the poor are always to be found. 
And Rabha further said: As soon as three festivals have passed (and 
one has not brought his offering), he daily transgresses the law 
against delay. Against this opinion the following objection was 
raised: As soon as a year, containing three festivals or not, has 
passed (he that does not bring his offering) be it a firstling or 
any of £he holy offerings, transgresses daily the law against delay. 
It is quite possible that the three festivals may elapse and yet 
a year may not go by (e. g., from Passover till Tabernacles is only 
seven months), but how can it happen that a year may pass and 
the three festivals should not occur (in that time) ? It may happen 
according to those who say (that the three festivals must elapse) in 
their regular order, but according to those who do not say (that the 
three festivals must go by) in their regular order how can such a case 

* Lev. xxvii. 32. 

t The ecclesiastical and civil courts were called Beth Din, and consisted of an odd num- 
ber of judges, so that in case of a division of opinion, a majority was always assured. The 
minimum number of judges required to form a court was three. In our translation we shall 
always use " Beth Din " instead of " court ; " using it as an English term, as Sanhedrim. 



8 

happen ? It is possible according to Rabbi (who holds that the in- 
tercalary month* is not a part of the. year), and it occurs in a leap- 
year, when one consecrates anything (to the Temple) after the feast 
of Passover; for when the end of the second Adar has arrived, a 
year (of twelve months) has elapsed, yet the three festivals have not 
passed by in their regular order. But how can such a case occur 
according to the Rabbis? It can happen; as a Boraitha teaches: R. 
Shemaiah says, The feast of Weeks falls on the fifth, sixth, or seventh 
ofSivan. How is this possible? In a year when the months of 
Nisan and Iyar have thirty days each, Pentecost falls on the fifth of 
Si van; when they each have twenty-nine days, Pentecost falls on the 
seventh of Sivan ; but when the one has twenty-nine days and the 
other has thirty days, Pentecost falls on the sixth of Sivan. 

R. Zera asked: How does the law against delay affect an heir? 
Shall we argue that the Torah says [Deut. xxiii. 21] " When thou 
shalt vow a vow ' ' (z. c. , the testator has vowed) , but the heir has 
not vowed (consequently, the law does not apply to him), or shall 
we argue from the passage [Deut. xii. 5, 6] "When ye be come 
then ye shall bring ' ' and the heir (who is obliged to 
come) is also in duty bound to bring with him (the objects vowed 
by the testator) ? Come and hear! R. 'Hiyya teaches: It is writ- 
ten in this connection " from thee " (/. e. , from the one who vowed) 
and this excludes the heir. But did we not say abqve that these 
words refer to the gleanings, etc. ? The Torah uses the word 
me'immokh ( ' ' from thee " ) , which we can explain to mean both the 
successor and the gleanings, etc. (/. c, all that comes " from thee "). 

R. Zera also asked: How does the law against delay affect a 
woman ? Shall I say that since she is not obligated to appear (in 
Jerusalem) the law does not apply to her ? or perhaps it is her duty 
to go there because she is included in the law " to rejoice." " Cer- 
tainly," answered Abayi, "she is bound by this law because it is 
her duty to rejoice." 

The schoolmen asked: From when do we count the beginning 
of the year for a firstling? Answered Abayi: From the moment it 
is born; but R. A'ha b. Jacob said: From the moment it is accept- 
able as an offering (/. e. , when it is eight days old, L,ev. xxii. 27). 
These opinions are not contradictory, for the former Rabbi refers to 
an unblemished animal and the latter to one with a blemish. May, 
then, a blemished animal be eaten (on the day of its birth) ? Yes, 
if we are sure it was born after the full period of gestation. 

* Leap year occurs seven times in a cycle of nineteen years. On such occasions one 
month, the second Adar, is added to the twelve lunar months. 



The Rabbis taught: The first of Nisan is the new year for 
(arranging the) months, for (appointing; leap-years, for giving the 
half-shekels, and, some say, also for the rental of houses. Whence 
do we know (that it is new year) for months ? From Ex. xii. 2 
where it is written, "This month shall be unto you the beginning 
of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you." It is 
also written [Deut. xvii. 1] " Observe the month of Abhibh " (early 
'stage of ripening). In which month is grain in the early stage of 
ripening? I can say, only Nisan, and the Torah calls it the first. 
Could I not say Adar (when the grain begins to shoot up) ? Nay, 
for the grain must be ripening during the major portion of the month 
(and in Adar it is not). Is it then written that the grain must be 
ripening the major portion of the month? Therefore, says Rabhina, 
the sages do not find (the rule of calling Nisan the first month) in 
the Torah, but in the Book of Esther, where it is clearly stated 
[Esth. iii. 7] " In the first month, that is, the month Nisan." 

"For Deap- Years. " Do we, then, count leap-years from 
Nisan ? Does not a Boraitha teach us that Adar only is the inter- 
calary month? Answered R. Na'hman b. Isaac: The words "for 
leap-years ' ' mean here the termination of leap-years * and our 
Tana f speaks of the beginning of the leap-year, and not the end. 

" For Giving the Haef-Shekees." And where is the 
scriptural text for this? R. Yashi answered: In Numb, xxviii. 14, 
" This is the burnt offering of the new moon each time it is renewed 
during the year." The Torah says proclaim it a new month and 
also bring a sacrifice from the new products; at the same time he 
makes a comparison between the words " year " used in this passage 
and in Ex. xii. 2, " it shall be the first month of the year to you," 
and he deduces that they both refer to Nisan. 

R. Judah says in the name of Samuel: It is proper that the 
congregational sacrifices % brought on the first of Nisan should be 
purchased with the shekels raised for the new year; but if one buys a 
sacrifice with the funds obtained from the former year's stock, it is 
acceptable, yet the law was but imperfectly complied with; also, if 
g,n, individual offers from his own property (proper objects, for the 
congregational sacrifices) , they are acceptable, but he must first pre- 
sent them to the congregation. Is this not self-evident? Nay, it 
may be feared that one will not give them to the congregation in the 



* As soon as Nisan had been consecrated, there could be no further debate about making 
the past year intercalary, for once the new month had been called Nisan, it was forbidden 
to call it by any other name. 

t The author of a Mishna. The plural of the word is Tanai'm. 

J The Tamiti or daily offering could not be presented to the Temple by an individual. 



IO 

prescribed manner, and this, he teaches us, is not worth}- of consid- 
eration. And the reason that our Tana does not mention that Nisan 
is a new year for the giving of shekels also, is because it is said above 
that if one has brought an offering (from the old stock) he has done 
his duty, therefore he could not make Nisan absolutely binding. 

"And Some Sav Also for the Rental of Houses." The 
Rabbis taught: He who lets a house to another for a year, must 
count (the year) as twelve months from day to day; but if the lessee 
says (I rent this house) " for this year," even if the transaction takes 
place on the first of Adar, as soon as the first of Nisan arrives, the 
year (of rental) has expired. Can you not say Tishri (is the begin- 
ning of the year for such transactions) ? Nay, it is generally under- 
stood that if a man rents a house in the autumn he rents it for the 
whole of the rainy season (winter). And the Tana of the first part 
of the above Boraitha (who does not fix Nisan as the month for 
rentals) and also our Tana both are of the opinion that in Nisan 
too, bad weather sometimes prevails (and therefore Nisan and Tishri 
are alike in this respect). 

"On the First of Elul is the New Year for the 
Cattle-Tithes." According to whose opinion is this ? Says R. 
Joseph: It is according to Rabbi's own opinion which he formed 
according to the opinions of different Tanaim. With regard to the 
festivals he holds the opinion of R. Simon and with regard to the 
cattle-tithe he holds the opinion of R. Meir. If that is so, are there 
not five beginnings of years, instead of four ? Rabha answered that 
the Mishna mentioned only the four, which are not disputed by any- 
one; according to R. Meir there are four, if that " for the festivals " 
be excluded, and according to R. Simon there are four, if that " for 
the cattle-tithes" be excluded. R. Na'hman says: (No such expla- 
nation is needed); the Mishna means there are four (months) in 
which there are (or may be) many beginnings of years. 

"According to R. Eliezer and R. Simon it is on the 
First of Tishri." R. Jo'hanan says: Both of them deduce their 
opinion by (various interpretations of) the same Scriptural passage. 
It is written [Ps. lxv. 13] "The pastures are clothed with flocks; 
the valleys also are covered with corn; they shout for joy, they also 
sing." R. Meir thinks (this is the interpretation) of these words: 
When are the pastures clothed with flocks ? At the season when the 
valleys are covered with corn. And when are the valleys covered 
with corn? About (the time of) Adar. The flocks conceive in 
Adar and produce their young in Abh; consequently the beginning 
of the year (for the cattle-tithe) is Elul. R. Eliezer and R. Simon, 



however, say : When are the pastures clothed with flocks ? At the 
season when they shout and sing. When do the ears of corn (seem 
to) send up a hymn of praise ? In Nisan. Now, the sheep conceive 
in Nisan, and produce in Elul, consequently the beginning of the 
year (for their tithe) is Tishri. But Rabha says: All agree that only 
Adar is the time when the pastures are clothed with flocks, and the 
valleys are covered with corn. But the}' differ about this passage: 
[Deut. xiv. 22] "Thou shalt truly tithe" {literally, "Thou shalt 
tithe in tithing " ) , and we see that the Torah here speaks of two 
tithes, viz., of cattle and of grain. R. Meir thinks that this com- 
parison may be instituted between the two; just as the tithe of grain 
must be given in the month nearest to the time it is reaped, so that 
of cattle must be given in the month nearest to the one in which they 
are born (Elul). R. Eliezer and R. Simon, however, are of the 
opinion that another comparison may be instituted between these 
tithes; just as the beginning of the year for giving the tithe of grain 
is Tishri, so also, is Tishri for that of cattle. 

" The First of Tishri is the New Year's Day for Ordi- 
nary Years." For what purpose is this rule? Answers R. Zera, 
to determine the equinoxes (and solstices) ; and this agrees with the 
opinion of R. Eliezer, who says that the world was created in Tishri; 
but R. Na'hman says (it is the new year) for divine judgment, as it 
is written [Deut. xi. 12] " From the beginning of the year till the 
end of the year," /. e. t at the beginning of the year it is determined 
what shall be at the end of the year. But whence do we know that 
this means Tishri ? It is written [Ps. lxxxi. 3] ' ' Blow up the cornet* 
in the new moon, in the time, it is hidden on our solemn feast day." 
What feast is it in which the moon is hidden? I c; :: only say Rosh 
Hashana (New Year's Day > ) , and of this day it is written [ibid. 
v. 4] " For it is a statute unto Israel, a judgment (day) for the God 
of Jacolp." The Rabbis taught: " It is a statute unto Israel," i. c, 
the Supreme Court in Heaven does not enter into judgment until the 
Beth Din on earth proclaims the new moon. Another Boraitha 
teaches: It is written: " It is a statute unto Israel;" one might sup- 
pose that (New Year's Day is a day of judgment) only for Israel; 
whence do we know it is so also for other nations ? Because it is 
written "it is the day of judgment of the God of Jacob " (the Uni- 
versal God ). Why, then, is " Israel" mentioned ? To inform us that 
Israel enters for judgment first. This is the opinion of R. 'Hisda, 
who holds that if a king and a congregation have a law suit, the 

*The word "cornet" will be used throughout this translation lor the Hebrew word 
Shophar. 



king enters first, as it is said [i Kings viii. 59] "The cause of his 
servant (King Solomon) and the cause of his people." Why so? 
Because it is not customary to let a king wait outside. 

"For the Computation of Sabbatic Years." On what 
Scriptural passage is this based ? On Lev. xxv. 4, which runs: 
" But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of rest unto the land," 
and he deduces ( that it means Tishri ) by analogy from the word 
" year " in this passage and in the following: " From the beginning 
of the year " [Deut. xi. 12], which surely refers to Tishri. 

"And Jubilees." Do, then, jubilees begin on the first of 
Tishri ? Do they not begin on the tenth of Tishri, as it is written 
[Lev. xxv. 9], " In the Day of Atonement shall ye make the cornet 
sound throughout all your land?" Yea, but our Mishna agrees 
with the opinion of R. Ishmael b. Jo'hanau b. Beroqa; for a 
Boraitha teaches: It is written [Lev. xxv. 10], "Ye shall sanctify 
the year, the fiftieth year." Why was it necessary to repeat the 
word ' ' year ' ' ? Because in the same connection it is said [ibid. 9] , 
"On the day of atonement shall ye make the cornet sound," and 
one might suppose that the Jubilee is sanctified only from the Day 
of Atonement (and not before). Therefore the word "year" is 
repeated to teach us that by the words " ye shall sanctify the fiftieth 
year " is meant, that from the very beginning of the year the Jubilee 
commences to be consecrated. From this teaching R. Ishmael b. 
Jo'hauan b. Beroqa says : From New Year's Day until the Day of 
Atonement, slaves used not to return to their (own) homes; neither 
did they serve their masters, but they ate and drank and rejoiced 
with the crown of freedom on their heads. As soon as the Day of 
Atonement arrived the Beth Din ordered the cornet to be blown and 
the slaves returned to their own homes and fields reverted to their 
(original) owners. 

We have learnt in another Boraitha: "It is a jubilee" 
(JOBHEL hi). What is meant by (these superfluous words) ? Since 
it is said [Lev. xxv. 10], "And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year," 
one might think that, as at the beginning of the year the Jubilee 
commences to be sanctified so also it should continue to be conse- 
crated after the end of the year; and be not surprised at such a 
teaching, since it is usual to add from the non-sanctified to the 
sanctified. Hence the necessity of the words, in the passage (next 
to that quoted above), [Lev. xxv. 11] "A jubilee shall that fiftieth 
year be unto you; " /'. <?., the fiftieth year shall be hallowed, and not 
the fifty-first. But the Rabbis (who do not explain this passage 
according to the above Boraitha whence do they derive the regulation 



13 

that the fifty-first year is not sanctified) ? They say: One counts the 
fiftieth year and not the fifty-first; this excludes the opinion of R. Judah 
who holds that the jubilee } T ear is added at the beginning and end.* 
The Rabbis taught " Jobhel hi (it is a jubilee) ," even if the people 
have not relinquished ( their debts) , even if the cornet is not sounded; 
shall we also say even if slaves are not released ? Hence the word 
" hi " is used (to indicate that only when the slaves are released it 
is a jubilee), so says R. Judah. R. Jose says: "It is a jubilee," 
even if debts are not relinquished, and slaves are not released; shall 
we also say , even if the cornet is not sounded ? Hence the word 
"hi" is used (and means the sounding of the cornet). Since one 
passage includes (all that is prescribed) and the other passage 
exempts (certain regulations), why should we say it is a jubilee even 
if they have not released slaves, but that it is not a jubilee if they 
failed to sound the cornet ? Because it is possible, that sometimes (a 
jubilee may occur) and yet there are no ( Hebrew) slaves to release, 
but a jubilee can never occur without the sounding of the cornet 
(for a cornet can always be found). Another explanation is that 
(the sounding of the cornet) is the duty of the Beth Din (and it will 
never fail to perform it ), while (the releasing of slaves) is the duty of 
the individual, and w T e cannot be sure that he will perform it. ( Is 
not the first explanation satisfactory ) that he gives this additional 
explanation? (It may not be satisfactory to some who might say) 
that is impossible that not one (Hebrew) slave should be found 
somewhere, to be released. Therefore (the Boraitha adds ) that the 
blowing of the cornet is the duty of the Beth Din (and they will not 
fail to attend to it) while the release of slaves is the duty of an 
individual (and we cannot) be sure that he will perform it. 

R. 'Hiyyab. Abba, however, says in the name of R. Jo'hanan: 
The foregoing are the words of R. Judah andR. Jose; but the masters 
hold that all three conditions may prevent the fulfillment (of the 
law), because they hold that the word " hi " [Lev. xxv. 10] should 
be explained of the subjects mentioned in the passage in which it 
occurs, and in the preceding and the following passages also. What 
is the force of the words " throughout the land ?" (They lead us to 
infer) that at the time when (under a Jewish government) liberty is 
proclaimed throughout the land (Palestine) it should be proclaimed 
outside the land; but if it is not proclaimed in the land, it need not 
be proclaimed outside the land. 

"And also for the Planting of Trees." Whence do we 

* t. e., The Jubilee year is, at the same time, the fiftieth year of the last and the first of the 
coming series. 



H 

know this? From Lev. xix. 23 where it is written, "Three years 
shall it be as uneircivmcised," and also, [ibid. 24] " But in the fourth 
year. ' ' We compare the term ' ' year ' ' used here with that of Deut. 
xi. 12, " from the beginning of the ' year,' " and deduce by analogy 
that they both mean Tishri. The Rabbis taught: For one who 
plants, slips or grafts (trees) in the sixth year (the year before the 
sabbatic year) thirty days before the New Year's day (as soon as the 
first of Tishri arrives) a year is considered to have passed, and he is 
permitted to use, during the sabbatic year (the fruits they may pro- 
duce) , but less than thirty days are not to be considered a year, and 
the fruits may not be used, but are prohibited until the fifteenth 
of Shebhat, whether it be because they come under the category of 
" uncircumcised " or under the category of " fourth year planting " 
[Lev. xix. 23, 24]. Whence do we deduce this ? It is said in the 
name of R. Jo'hanan or R. Janai: The Torah says [Lev. xix. 24, 25], 
"And in the fourth year. . . . And in the fifth year," i. e., it may 
happen that in the fourth year (from the planting, the fruit) is pro- 
hibited because it is still " uncircumcised," and in the fifth year 
(from the planting) because it is still the product of the fourth year. 

We have learned: R. Eliezer says, In Tishri the world was 
created, the patriarchs (Abraham and Jacob) were born, and the 
three patriarchs died; Isaac was born on the Passover; on New Year's 
Day Sarah, Rachel and Hannah were visited with the blessing of 
children, Joseph was released from prison, and the bondage of our 
fathers in Egypt ceased; in Nisan our ancestors were redeemed from 
Egypt, and in Tishri we shall again be redeemed. R. Joshua says: 
In Nisan the world was created, and in the same month the patri- 
archs were born, and they also died; Isaac was born on the Passover; 
on New Year's day, Sarah, Rachel and Hannah were visited, Joseph 
was released from prison, and the bondage of our fathers in Egypt 
ceased. In Nisan our ancestors were redeemed from Egypt, and in 
the same month we shall again be redeemed. 

We have learnt in a Boraitha: R. Eliezer says, Whence do we 
know that the world was created in Tishri f From the Scriptural 
verse in which it is written [Gen. i. 1 1] "And God said, let the earth 
bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree, etc." 
In what month does the earth bring forth grass, and at the same 
time the trees are full of fruit? Let us say, Tishri; and that time 
of the year (mentioned in Genesis), was the autumn; the rain 
descended and the fruits flourished, as it is written [Gen. ii. 6] 
" But there went up a mist from the earth, etc." R. Joshua says: 
Whence do we know that the world was created in Nisan ? From 



15 

the Scriptural verse in which it is written [Gen. i. 12] "And the 
earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed, and the tree 
yielding fruit, etc." In which month is the earth covered with 
grass (and at the same time) the trees bring -forth fruit ? L,et us 
say, Nisan; and at that time animals, domestic and wild, and birds 
mate, as it is said [Psalm lxv. 14] "The pastures are clothed with 
flocks, etc." Further says R. Eliezer: Whence do we know that 
the patriarchs were born in Tishri ? From the passage [1 Kings 
viii. 2] "And all the men of Israel assembled themselves unto King 
Solomon at the feast, in the month ethanim (strong), which is the 
seventh month ; i. c, the month in which ethanim, the strong ones 
of the earth (the patriarchs) were born. How do we know that the 
expression ETHAN means strength? It is written, [Numb. xxiv. 
21] ETHAN moshabhekha " strong in thy dwelling place," and it 
is also written [Micah vi. 2] " Hear ye, O mountains, the Lord's 
controversy, and (ve-haEthanim) ye strong ones the foundation, 
etc." 

Further says R. Joshua: Whence do we know that the patri- 
archs were born in Nisan? From 1 Kings vi. 1, where it says "in 
the fourth year, in the month ziv (glory ) , which is the second 
month, etc.," which means in that month in which the "glorious 
ones" of the earth (the patriarchs), were already born. Whether 
the patriarchs were born in Nisan or Tishri. they died (in later 
years), in the same mouth as that in which they were born; as it 
is written [Deut. xxxi. 2] "Moses said I am one hundred and 
twenty years old to-day." The word "to-day " implies "just this 
daj' " my days and years are complete," for God grants the righteous 
the fulfillment of the years of their life to the very month and day, 
as it is said: "The number of thy days, I will fulfill," [Ex. xxiii. 
26]. 

Isaac was born in Nisan. Whence do we know this? It is 
written [Gen. xviii. 14] " At the next festival I will return to thee, 
and Sarah will have a son." What festival was it when he said 
this ? Shall I say it was Passover, and he referred to Pentecost ? 
That cannot be for what woman bears children after fifty da3's gesta- 
tion ? If I say it was Pentecost, and he referred to Tishri, a similar 
objection might be raised, for who bears children after five months 
gestation ? If I say it was Tabernacles, and he referred to Passover, 
a similar objection may be made, for who bears children in the sixth 
month of gestation ? But we have learnt that that year was a leap- 
year, and Mar Zutra says that although a child born after nine 
months' gestation is never born during the month (but only at the 



i6 

end of the required time) still a seven months' child can be born 
before the seventh month is complete, as it is said [i Samuel i. 20] 
' ' and it came to pass, u-tequphath ha-yamim (when the time was 
come about) ;" the minimum of tequphoth * is two and of yamim 
is also two (z. c, after six months and two days gestation, childbirth 
is possible). Whence do we know that Sarah, Rachel and Hannah 
were visited on New Year's Da}- ? Says R. Elazar: By comparing the 
expression "visit," that occurs in one passage, with the word 
' ' visit ' ' that occurs in another passage-; and also by treating the 
expression "remember" in the same way. It is written concern- 
ing Rachel [Gen. xxx. 32] "And God remembered Rachel," and 
of Hannah it is written [1 Samuel i. 19] "And God remembered 
her." He institutes an analogy between the word "remember" 
used in these passages and in connection with New Year's Day 
which is called [Lev. xxiii. 24.] "a Sabbath, a memorial {liter- 
ally, a remembrance) of blowing of cornets." It is also written 
concerning Hannah [1 Sam. ii. 21] "And the Lord visited Han- 
nah;" and of Sarah it is written [Gen. xxi. 1] "And the Lord 
visited Sarah," and by analogy all these events took place on the 
same day, New Year's Day. Whence do we know that Joseph was 
released from prison on New Year's Day ? From Ps. lxxxi; in verses 
3, 4, it is written, " Blow the trumpet, when the moon is hidden 
in the appointed time on our solemn feast day. For it is a statute 
for Israel." In verse 5 of the same Psalm it is written, " This he 
ordained (for the day) when Joseph went out, etc." On New 
Year's Day the bondage of our fathers in Egypt ceased. Whence 
do we know this? It is written [Ex. vi. 6] "I will bring you out 
from under the burdens of the Egyptians," and it is written in Ps. 
lxxxi. 6, " I removed his shoulder from the burden, " (i. e. , I relieved 
Israel from the burden of Egypt on the day spoken of in the Psalm, 
viz. , New Year' s Day ) . In Nisan they were redeemed, as it is recorded 
in the Bible. In Tishri we shall again be redeemed. This he 
deduces by analogy from the word ' ' cornet ' ' found in the follow- 
ing passages. In Ps. lxxxi. 3, it is stated, " Blow the cornet on the 
new moon" (/. e. , on New Year's Day) and in Isaiah xxviii, 13. it 
is written, "And in that day the great cornet shall be blown " (and 
as it means New Year's Day in the one place, so does it also in the 
other). R. Joshua says: "In Nisan they were redeemed and in 
that month we shall be redeemed again." Whence do we know 



* Tequpha— Solstice or equinox ; hence, the period of three months, which elapses 
between a solstice and the next equinox, is also called tequpha. The Talmud reads the 
Biblical term as if it was plural. 



i7 

this? From Ex. xii. 42, which says, "It is a night of special 
observance," /. e., a night specially appointed, since the earliest 
times, for the final redemption of Israel. The Rabbis taught: The 
Jewish sages fix the time of the flood according to R. Eliezer, and 
the solstices according to R. Joshua, but the sages of other nations 
fix the time of the flood also as R. Joshua does. 

"And for Herbs." To this a Boraitha adds "tithes and 
vows. ' ' (Let us see. ) ! What does he mean by ' ' herbs ' ' ? The tithe 
on herbs ; but are not these included with other ' ' tithes ' ' ? (Nay ! 
for the tithe on herbs) is a Rabbinical institution, while the others 
are Biblical. If so, should he not teach the Biblical command first ? 
(This is no question); because it was pleasing to him (to have dis- 
covered, that although the tithe of herbs is only a Rabbinical institu- 
tion, yet it should have a special Xew Year, to prevent the mixing of 
tithes from year to year) he, therefore, gives it precedence. And the 
Tana of our Mishna teaches us the Rabbinical institution (viz., the 
New Year for herbs), leaving us to infer that if that must be ob- 
served so much the more must the Biblical law be followed. 

The Rabbis taught: If one gathers herbs on the eve of New 
Year's Day before sunset, and gathers others after sunset, he must not 
give the heave-offering or the tithe from the one for the other, for it 
is prohibited to give the heave-offering or tithe from the product of 
the past year for that of the present, or vice-versa. If the second 
year from the last sabbatic year was just ending and the third year 
was just beginning, then, for the second year he must give the first 
and second tithes,* and for the third year he must give the first and 
the poor tithes. Whence do we deduce that (in the third year no 
second tithe was to be given)? R. Joshua b. Levi says: In Deut. 
xxvi. 12, it is written, "When thou hast made an end of tithing all 
the tithes of thine increase the third year, which is the year of the 
tithe ," /. e., the year in which onlv one tithe is to be given. What is 
to be, understood (by one tithe)? The first and poor tithes, and the 
second tithe shall be abrogated. But perhaps it is not so (that the 
first and poor tithe are one tithe), but that the first tithe shall be also 
abrogated? This can not be so, for we read [Numb, xviii. 26] 
" The tithe which I have given you from them, for your inheritance, 

♦Tithes must be given even to-day, according to the Rabbinical law, throughout Palestine 
and Syria. 

It was the duty of the Israelite to give of his produce the following offerings and tithes : 
(1) Teruma a heave-offering to be given to the priest every year ; the measure was not fixed 
by the Bible; (2) Maaser Rishon, or first tithe, to be given every year to the Levite; (3) 
Maaser Sheni, or second tithe, was to be taken in the second year to Jerusalem and eaten 
there, or to be converted into money, which was to be spent there : (4) Maaser Ami, or the 
poor tithe, to be given in the third year. 



etc." (From this we see that) the Scripture compares this tithe to 
an inheritance; and as an inheritance is the perpetual property of 
the heir, so also is the first tithe an uninterrupted gift for the L,evite. 

"And for Vows." The Rabbis taught: whoso vows to 
derive no benefit from his neighbor for a year, must reckon (for the 
year) twelve months, from day to day; but if he said ' ' for this year, " 
if he made the vow even on the twenty-ninth of Elul, as soon as the 
first of Tishri comes, that year is complete, for he vowed to deny 
himself some pleasure and that purpose (even in so brief a period) 
has been fulfilled. But perhaps we should say Nisan (should be 
regarded as the new year in such a case) ? Nay, in the matter of 
vows we follow the common practice among men (who generally 
regard Tishri as the New Year). We have learnt elsewhere: (We 
reckon the year for giving the tithe), for fenugreek as soon as it begins 
to grow; for grain and olives as soon as they are one-third ripe. 
What do you mean by ' ' as soon as it begins to grow ? ' ' When it 
has put forth its blossoms. Whence do we know that we reckon the 
tithe on grain and olives when they are one-third ripe ? R. Asi says 
in the name of R. Jo'hanan, and some think in the name of R. Jose 
of Galilee: The Bible says [Deut. xxxi. 10] " At the end of every 
seven years, in the solemnity of the year of release, in the feast of 
tabernacles." What has the year of release to do with Taberna- 
cles; it is already the eighth year (because the Bible says " at the 
end of even- seven years " ) ? It is only to tell you that all grain which 
was one-third ripe before New Year's Day must be regarded even in 
the eighth year as the product of the sabbatic year. And for this 
we find support in a Boraitha: R. Jonathan b. Joseph says, It is 
written [Lev. xxv. 21] "And it shall bring forth fruit for three 
(lishlosh) years. Do not read lishlosh "for three," but in this 
case read lishlish "for a third" (/. c, it is considered produce 
when it is a third ripe). We have learnt elsewhere: Rice, millet, 
poppies and lentils which have taken root before New Year's Day 
come under the category of tithes for the past year, and therefore one 
is permitted to use them during the sabbatic year; but if they have 
not (taken root), one is forbidden to use them during the sabbatic 
year, and they come under the category of tithes, of the following 
year. 

Says Rabha: (Let us see)! The Rabbis say that the year (for 
giving tithes) begins as follows: " for a tree from the time the fruits 
form; for grain and olives when they are one-third ripe; and for herbs 
when they are gathered. Now under which head are the above (rice, 
etc.) classed? After consideration Rabha remarked: Since these do 



19 

not all ripen simultaneously but are gathered little by little, the 
Rabbis are right when they say they are tithable from the time they 
take root. A Boraitha teaches: R. Jose of Galilee says that from 
the words [Deut. xvi. 13] "When thou hast gathered in thy corn 
and thy wine " we infer that as corn and wine, now being gathered, 
grow by means of the past year's rains, and are tithed as last year's 
(before New Year's Day) products; so every fruit that grows by the 
rain of last year is tithable as the last year's produce; but herbs do 
not come in this category, for they grow by means of the rains of 
the new year, and they are tithable in the coming year. R. Aqiba 
says that the words ' ' when thou hast gathered in thy corn and thy 
wine " lead us to infer that as corn and grapes grow chiefly by means 
of rain and are tithed as last year's products, so all things that grow 
chiefly by rain, are tithed as belonging to the past year; but as 
herbs grow even by watering, they are tithed as the next year's pro- 
ducts. In what case is this difference of opinion applicable ? An- 
swered Abbahu: In the cases of onions and Egyptian beans; for a 
Mishna says onions and Egyptian beans which have not been watered 
for thirty days before New Year's Day are tithed as last year's pro- 
ducts, and are allowed to be used during the sabbatic year, but if 
they have been watered, then they are prohibited during the sabbatic 
year and are tithed as next year's products. 

' ' On the First of Shebhat is the New Year for Trees. ' ' 
Why so? Said R. Elazar, in the name of R. Oshaia, because at 
that date, the greater part of the early rains have fallen, although the 
greater part of the Tequpha is yet to come. The Rabbis taught: 
It once happened that R. Aqiba picked the fruit of a citron tree, on 
the first of Shebhat and gave two tithes of them, one in accordance 
with the custom of the school of Shammai and one in accordance 
with the school of Hillel's custom. Says R. Jose b. Judah: Nay ! 
Aqiba did not do this because of the custom of the school of Shammai 
or the .school of Hillel, but because R. Gamliel* and R. Eliezer 
were accustomed to do so. Did he not follow the practice of Beth 
Shammai because it was the first of Shebhat ? Answered R. 'Hanina 
and some say R. 'Hananya: The case here cited was one of a citron 
tree whose fruit was formed before the fifteenth of last Shebhat and 
he should have given the tithe of it even before the present first of 
Shebhat, but the case happened to be as cited. But Rabhina says: Put 
the foregoing together and read the (words of R. Jose) as follows: 
It did not happen on the first of Shebhat but on the fifteenth; and 
he did not follow the regulations of the school of Hillel or the school 

* The opinion of R. Gamliel is stated a little further on. 
4 



of Shammai, but the custom of R. Gamliel and R. Eliezer. Rabbah 
b. Huna says : Although R. Gamliel holds that a citron tree is 
tithable from the time it is picked, as is the case with " herbs," 
nevertheless the new year for tithing it, is in Shebhat. R. Jo'hanan 
asked R. Janai: " When is the beginning of a year for (the tithe 
on) citrons ? " " Shebhat, ' ' he answered. ' ' Do you mean ' ' said he, 
" the month Shebhat as fixed by the lunar year or by the solar year 
(from the winter solstice)?" " By the lunar year," he replied. 
Rabha asked R. Na'hman, " How is it in leap-years (when there are 
thirteen lunar months) ?" " Shebhat, as in the majority of years, " 
answered he. We have learnt : R. Jo'hanan and Resh L,aqish both 
say that a citron that has grown in the sixth year and is unpicked at 
the entrance of the sabbatic year is always considered the product of 
the sixth year. When Rabhin came (from Palestine) he said, in the 
name of R. Jo'hanan; A citron that was as small as an olive in the 
sixth year but grew to the size of a (small) loaf of bread during the 
sabbatic year, if one used it without separating the tithe he is culpable 
because of Tebhel.* 

The Rabbis taught: A tree whose fruits formed before the fif- 
teenth of Shebhat, must be tithed as the product of the past year, 
but if they formed after that, they are tithed during the coining year. 
R. Ne'hemiah says: This applies to a tree that bears two crops a 
year. How can there be two crops ? It looks like two crops (as is 
the case with grapes) ; but in the case of a tree that produces but 
one crop, as for example, the palm, olive or carob, although their 
fruits may have formed before the fifteenth of Shebhat, they are 
tithed as the products of the coming year. R. Jo'hanan remarked 
that in the case of the carob, people follow the opinion of R. 
Ne'hemiah. Resh Laqish asked R. Jo'hanan: Since white figs take 
three years to grow fully ripe, must not the second year after the sab- 
batic year be regarded as the sabbatic year for them ? R. Jo'hanan 
was silent. 

MISHNA. At four periods in each year the world is judged; on 
Passover in respect to the growth of grain ; on Pentecost in respect 
to the fruit of trees; on New Year's Day all human beings pass before 
God, as sheep before a shepherd; as it is said [Ps. xxx. 9] " He 
who hath fashioned all their hearts, understandeth all their w T orks;"f 
and on Tabernacles judgment is given in regard to water (rain). 

GEMARA. What grain (does the Divine judgment, affect on 

* Produces, in that stage in which the separation of levitical and priestly shares is required 
before one can partake of them, 
f Vide introduction. 



21 

the Passover) ? Does it mean the grain now standing in the field 
(about to be reaped ) ? When then were all the accidents that have 
happened to it until that time appointed (by Divine will) ? It does 
not mean standing grain but that just sown. Shall we say that only 
one judgment is passed upon it? Does not a Boraitha teach: If an 
accident or injury befall grain before Passover it was decreed on the 
last Passover, but if it happen (to the same grain) after Passover it 
was decreed on the most recent Passover; if an accident or misfortune 
befall a man before the Day of Atonement, it was decreed on the pre- 
vious Day of Atonement, but if it happened after the Day of Atone- 
ment it was decreed on the most recent Day of Atonement ? Answers 
Rabha: L,earn from this that it is judged twice (in one year). There- 
fore says Abayi : When a man sees that the grain, which ripens slowly 
is thriving, he should as soon as possible sow such grain as ripens 
quickly, in order that before the time of the next judgment, it may 
already have begun to grow.* 

With whose opinion does our Mishna agree ? Certainly not 
with that of R. Meir, nor with that of R. Judah, nor with that of R. 
Jose, nor with that of R. Nathan, for the} 7 say as follows in a Borai- 
tha: All are judged on New Year's Day and the sentence is fixed on 
the Daj' of Atonement; so says R. Meir. R. Judah says all are 
judged on New Year's Day but the sentence of each is sealed each at 
its special times, at Passover for grain, at Pentecost for the fruit of 
trees, at Tabernacles for rain, and man is judged on New Year's Day 
and his sentence is sealed on the Day of Atonement. R. Jose says 
man is judged every day as we read [Job vii. iS] " Thou remem- 
berest him every morning; " and R. Nathan holds, man is judged at 
all times, for we read [ibid] " Thou triest him every moment." And 
if you should say that the Mishna agrees with the opinion of R. Judah 
and that by the expression "judgment" it means the "sealing of 
the decree," then there would be a difficulty about (the fate of) 
man. t Says Rabha: The Tana of our Mishna is in harmony with the 
school of R. Ishmael, which says: At four periods is the world judged; 
at Passover in respect to grain; on Pentecost in regard to the fruit of 
trees; on Tabernacles in respect to rain, and on New Year's Day man 
is judged, but his decree is sealed on the Day of Atonement, and 
the Mishna speaks of the opening of judgment only (and not the 
final verdict ). R. 'Hisda asked: Why does not R. Jose quote the 
same passage in support of his opinion as R. Nathan ? You may 
say that ' ! trying ' ' means simply ' ' probing. ' ' But does not ' ' re- 
membering ' ' also convey the same idea ? Therefore says R. ' Hisda „ 

* An example of Talmudical humor. 



22 

R. Jose bases his opinion on another passage, viz., [i Kings viii. 59] 
" that God may pass judgment on his servant and on his people 
Israel every day." Says R. Joseph: According to whom do we pray 
nowadays for the sick, and for faint (scholars) ? According to 
R. Jose. 

A Boraitha says: R. Judah taught in the name of R. Aqiba: 
Why does the Torah command [Lev. xxiii. 10] a sheaf of the first 
fruits to be brought on the Passover ? Because Passover is the per- 
iod of judgment in respect to grain, and God said: Offer before Me 
the first sheaf of produce on Passover so that the standing grain 
may be blessed unto j t ou; and why the two loaves [Lev. xxiii. 17] 
on the Pentecost? Because that is the time when judgment is 
passed on the fruit of trees, and because of the offering, blessings 
should ensue. Why was the ceremony of "the outpouring of 
water " (on the altar) performed on the feast of Tabernacles? God 
said: Perform the rite of "the outpouring of waters," that the rains 
may fall in due season; and He also said recite before Me on New 
Year's Day, the Malkhioth, Zikhronoth and Shophroth*; the 
Malkhioth, that you proclaim Me King; the Zikhronoth that your 
remembrance may come before Me, for good; and how (shall this 
be done)? By the sounding of the cornet. R. Abbahu asked why 
is the cornet made of a ram's horn? God said: Sound before me on 
a cornet made of a ram's horn, that I may remember, for your 
sake, the offering of Isaac, the son of Abraham [vide Gen. xxii. 
13], and I shall consider you as worth}-, as if you had shown an 
equal readiness to sacrifice yourselves to Me. R. Isaac says: A 
man is judged only according to his deeds at the time of sentence, 
as it is said [Gen. xxi. 17] " God heard the voice of the lad, as he 
then was," and the same Rabbi also remarked: Three circumstances 
cause a man to remember his sins, viz : when he passes by an 
insecure wall, when he thinks deeply of the significance of his 
prayer, and when he invokes Divine judgment on his neighbor; for 
R. Abhin says: Whoso calls down Divine judgment on his neighbor 
is punished first, as we find in the case of Sarah, who said [Gen. 
xvi. 5] to Abraham, " My wrong be upon thee," and shortly after 
we read (that she died) "And Abraham came to mourn for Sarah 



* These are the divisions of the Additional Service for the New Year's Day. The Malk- 
hioth consist of ten scriptural passages in which God is proclaimed King. The Zikhronoth 
consist of an equal number of scriptural passages in which Divine remembrance is alluded 
to The Shophroth are a similar series of selections in which the Shophar (cornet) is referred 
to. In chapter IV of this tract there is a discussion as to the composition of these selections 
We retain the Hebrew names, because we feel that no translation or pharaphrase will ade- 
quately express what they mean. 



2 3 

and to weep for her" [Gen. xxiii. 2] (And all this only applies to 
eases where appeal could have been made to a civil court). R. 
Isaac also said: Four things avert the evil decree passed (by God) 
on man, viz : Charity, Prayer, Change of Name, and Improvement. 
Charity as it is written [Prov. x. 2] "Charity delivereth from 
death;" Prayer, in accordance with [Ps. cvii. 19] "They prayed 
unto the Lord in their trouble, and he saveth them out of their 
distresses;" Change of name, as it is written [Gen. xvii. 15] "As 
for Sarai, thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah 
shall her name be," and the Text continues by sajaug [ibid. 16] 
" Then will I bless her and give thee a son also of her; " Improve- 
ment, we deduce from Jonah iii. 10, "And God saw their works 
that they turned from their evil ways, ' ' and the chapter continues 
and immediately adds "And God repented of the evil, he had said 
he would do unto them and he did it not;" Some add to these 
four, a fifth, Change of location, as we read [Gen. xii. 1 and 2] 
"And God said to Abraham, get thee out from thy land " (and 
afterwards) " I will make of thee a great nation." 

R. Kruspedai * says in the name of R. Jo'hanan: Three books 
are opened on New Year's Day; one for the entirely wicked; one for 
the wholly good; and one for the average class of people. The wholly 
righteous are at once inscribed and sealed for life; the entirely wicked 
are at once inscribed and sealed for destruction; the average class 
are held in the balance from New Year's Day till the Day of Atone- 
ment; if they prove themselves worthy they are inscribed for life; if 
not they are inscribed for destruction. "Whence this teaching," 
asked R. Abhin ? From Ps. lxix. 28 which reads " they shall be 
blotted out. of the book of life and they shall not be inscribed with 
the righteous. ' ' 

We have learned in a Boraitha: The school of Shammai says: 
There are three divisions of mankind at the Resurrection ; the wholly 
righteous, the completely wicked, and the average class; the wholly 
righteous are at once inscribed and sealed for life; the entirely wicked 
are at once inscribed and sealed for Gehinnom; as we read [Dan. 
xii. 2] "And many of them that sleep in the dust shall awake, some 
to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt." 
The third class, the mean between the former two, descend to Gehin- 
nom, but they weep and come up again, in accordance with the pass- 
age [Zech. xiii. 9] "And I will bring the third part through the 
fire, and I will refine them as silver is refined, and will try them as 
gold is tried; and he shall call on My Name, and I will answer him." 

* Vide Introduction. 



24 

Concerning this last class of men Hannah says: [i Sam. ii. 6] "The 
Lord causeth to die and maketh alive, he bringeth down to the grave 
and bringeth up again." The school of Hillel says: The Most Com- 
passionate inclines (the scale of justice) to the side of mercy, and of 
this third class of men David says [Ps. cxvi. i] "I would that God 
should hear my voice; " in fact David applies to them all that Psalm 
down to the words " I was brought low and he helped me." 

Transgressors of Jewish birth and also of non-Jewish, who sin 
with their bod}' descend to Gehinnom, and are judged there for 
twelve months; after that time, their bodies are destroyed and burnt 
and the winds scatter their ashes under the soles of the feet of the 
righteous, as we read, [Mai. iv. 3] " And ye shall tread down the 
wicked, for the}' shall be as ashes under the soles of your feet; " butasfor 
Minim, informers, and skeptics who deny the existence of theTorah, 
or the Immortality of the soul or separate themselves from the con- 
gregation (of Israel), or who inspire their fellowmen with dread of 
them, or who sin and cause others to sin, as did Jeroboam the son of 
Nebat and his followers, they all descend to Gehinnom and are 
judged there from generation unto generation, as it is said [Isaiah 
lxvi. 24] " And they shall go forth and look upon the carcases of 
the men who have transgressed against me; for their worm shall not 
die, neither shall their fire be quenched; " " even when Gehinnom 
will be destroyed, they will not be consumed, as we read [Ps. xlix. 
14] "And their forms shall endure even when the grave is no 
more." Why does so terrible a fate await the above ? Because just 
such people stretched out their hands against the dwelling (of God, 
i. e. the temple at Jerusalem); as we read [ibid.] " because of what 
they did against His dwelling," and concerning them Hannah says, 
[1 Sam. ii. 10] "The adversaries of the Lord shall be broken to 
pieces." R. Isaac b. Abhin says: Their faces are black like the 
sides of a caldron ; whilst Rabha remarked: Those who are now 
the handsomest of the people of Me'huza will yet be called the 
children of the nether-world. 

What do you mean by Jews who transgress with their body f 
Says Rabh: The Qarpaphta (frontal bone) on which are not placed 
the phylacteries.* And who are meant by non-Jews who transgress 
with the body? Those guilty of the sin (of adultery). Who are 
those who inspire their fellowmen with dread of them ? A leader 

* There were sects at that time who did not wear the phylacteries on the frontal bone, but 
on other places. The people here referred to are those mentioned in Mishna Megillah III. 5. 
Those who do not wear phylacteries at all are, under no circumstances, included under the 
head of these transgressors. (Vide Tosaphoth, ad.loc. ) For fuller information the reader is 
referred to " The History of Amulets," by the editor. 



25 

of a community who causes the people to fear him over-much, with- 
out furthering thereby a high purpose. R. Judah says in the name 
of Rabh: No such leader will ever have a learned sou, as it is said 
[Job xxxvii. 24] " Men do therefore fear him: he will never see (in 
his family) any wise of heart." 

The school of Hillel said above: He who is full of compassion 
will incline the scale of justice to the side of mercy. How does He 
do it ? Says R. Eliezer: He presses on (the side containing our vir- 
tues) as it is said [Micah vii. 19] "He will turn again, he will 
have compassion upon us; he will suppress our iniquities." R. Jose 
says: He lifts off (the sins), as it is said [ibid. iS] " He removes 
iniquity and passeth by transgression," and it was taught in the 
school of R. Ishmael that this means that He removes each first sin 
(so that there is no second), and this is the correct interpretation. 
But, remarked Rabha, the sin itself is not blotted out, so that if one 
be found in later times with more sins (than virtues), the sin not 
blotted out will be added to the later ones; but, says Rabha, Whoso 
treats with indulgence one who has wronged him (forms an excep- 
tion to this rule) for he will have all his sins forgiven, as it is said 
[Micah vii. 19] " He removes iniquity and passes by transgression;" 
from whom does He remove iniquity ? From him who passes by 
transgression (committed against him by his neighbor). R. Huna 
b. R. Joshua fell sick and R. Papa went to visit him. The latter 
saw that the end was near, and said, to those present, " Make ready 
his provisions (shrouds)." Finally, he recovered, and R. Papa was 
ashamed to see him. " Why did you think him so sick," said they? 
"He was so, indeed," he replied, "but said God, since he was 
always indulgent (with every one), he shall be forgiven," as it is 
said, " He removes iniquity and passes by transgression." From 
whom does He remove iniquity ? From him who passes by trans- 
gression. 

R^ A'hasays: The phrase "of the remnant of his inheritance " 
[Micah vii. 18] is like unto a fat tail (of an Arabian sheep) with a 
thorn through it (that will stick some that lay hold of it) ; (for He 
forgives) the remnant of His inheritance, and not all His inheri- 
tance. (What is meant by remnant) ? Only those who deport 
themselves like a remnant (/. e., modestly). R. Huna points out a 
contradiction in these passages: It is written [Ps. cxlv. 17] "The 
L,ord is just in all his ways " and in the same passage, " and pious 
in all his works." It means, in the beginning He is onh* just, but in 
the end He is pious; (when He finds that strict justice is too severe 
on mankind He tempers justice with piety or mercy.) R. Elazar 



26 

asked about the contradictory phrase in Ps. lxii. 12. " Unto thee, O 
Lord, belongeth mercy; for thou renderest to every man according to 
his work ." This is explained as the above; in the beginning He 
rewards every man according to his works, but in the end He is 
merciful. Uphi, or Ilpha asks a similar question about Ex. xxxiv. 
6, where it is written, " abundant in goodness and truth," and gives 
a similar explanation. 

"And the Lord passed by before him and proclaimed. ' ' R. Jo'ha- 
nan said: Had this passage not been written, it would have been im- 
possible to have said it; for it teaches us that the Holy One, blessed 
be He, wrapped Himself, as does one who recites the prayers for a 
congregation, and pointing out to Moses the regular order of prayer, 
said to him: Whenever Israel sins, let him pray to me, after this 
order, and I shall pardon him. 

" The Lord, the Lord" (these words mean), I am the same 
God before a man sins as I am after he sins and does repentance. 
" God, merciful and gracious;" R. Judah said (concerning these 
words): The covenant made through the thirteen attributes [Ex. 
xxxiv.] will never be made void, as it is said [ibid. 10] " Behold / 
make a covenant." 

R. Jo'hanan says: Great is repentance ! for it averts the (evil) 
decreed against a man, as it is said [Is. vi. 10] " Make the heart of 
this people fat. . . .and hear with their ears, and understand with 
their hearts, and repent, and be healed." R. Papa asked Abayi: 
Do not these last words, perhaps, mean before the (evil) decree has 
been pronounced ? It is written, he replied, "be healed." What 
is that which requires healing ? I can only say that, against 
which, judgment has been pronounced. Is this not contradictory to 
the rule: He who repents between (New Year's Day and the Da}' of 
Atonement) is forgiven, but if he does not repent, even though he 
offered the choicest sacrifices, he is not pardoned ? There is no diffi- 
culty here; in the one case it refers to (the sins of) an individual, 
and in the other, to (those of ) a community. Come and hear ! It 
is written [Ps. cvii. 23-28] ' ' They that go down to the sea in ships, 
that do business in great waters; these see the works of the Lord. . . . 
for he commandeth , and raise th the stormy wind, which lifteth up 
the waves thereof, they reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken 
man. . . . then they cry unto the Lord in their trouble, and he 
bringeth them out of their distresses; O, that men would praise the 
Lord for his goodness, etc." Signs are given, such as the words 
' ' but ' ' and ' ' only ' ' in the Torah (which intimate limiting qualifica- 
tions) to indicate that if they cried before the decree was pronounced,. 



^7 

only then would they be answered; but if after, are they not an- 
swered? (Would not this be a contradiction to the words "to those 
of a community) ? Nay, for those on a ship are not a community 
(but are considered as a unit). 

Come and hear ! The proselyte Beluria asked R. Gamliel (con- 
cerning the following apparent contradiction): It is written in your 
Torah [Deut. x. 17] "The L,ord which regardeth not persons" {lit- 
erally \ who lifteth not up countenances) ; and it is also written [Numb, 
vi. 26] " May the L,ord lift up his countenance." R. Jose, the 
priest, joined her, and said to her, " I will tell thee a parable. To 
what may this be compared? To one who lent money to his neigh- 
bor, and set a time for its repayment before the king; and (the bor- 
rower) swore by the king's life (to repay it on time). The time 
arrived and he did not pay and he came to appease the king. Said 
the king to him, ' I can forgive you only your offence against me, 
but I cannot forgive you your offence against your neighbor; go and 
ask him to forgive you.' " So also here; in the one place it means 
sins committed by a man against Himself; but in the other, it 
means sins committed by one man against another. Nevertheless, 
the Tanaim differ as to the decree pronounced against an individual, 
as we may see from the following Boraitha: R. Meir used to say, of 
two who fall sick with the same sickness, and of two who enter a 
tribunal (for judgment), on similar charges, one may recover, and 
one not, one may be acquitted, and one condemned. Why should 
one recover and one not, and one be acquitted and one condemned ? 
Because the one prayed and was answered, and one prayed, and was 
not answered. Why should one be answered and the other not ? The 
one prayed devoutly and was answered; the other did not pray 
devoutly and therefore was not answered; but R. Elazar says it was 
not because of prayer, but because the one prayed before, and the 
other after the decree was pronounced. R. Isaac says: Prayer is 
helpfbl for man before or after the decree has been pronounced. Is 
it then so, that the (evil) decree, pronounced against a congregation 
is averted (through the influence of prayer)? Does not one Scrip- 
tural verse [Jer. iv. 14] say, "Wash thine heart from wickedness, 
and another runs [ibid. ii. 22] " For though thou wash thee with nitre, 
and take thee much soap, yet thine iniquity is marked before me." 
Shall we not say in the one case it means before, and in the other after 
the sentence has been pronounced ? Nay; both refer (to a time) after 
the decree has been pronounced and there is no contradiction, for in 
one case it refers to a decree issued with an oath, and in the other, to a 
decree pronounced without an oath, as R. Samuel b. Ammi points out; 



28 

for lie says in the name of R. Jonathan: Whence do we know that a 
decree, pronounced with an oath, cannot be averted? From [Sam. 
iii. 14] which says: "Therefore I have sworn unto the house of 
Eli, that the iniquity of Eli's house shall not be purged with sacri- 
fice nor offering forever. " Says Rabha: Even in such a case, it is 
only through sacrifices that sin cannot be purged, but by (the study 
of) the Torah it may be; and Abayi says: With sacrifice and offer- 
ing it cannot be purged, but by (the study of) the Torah, and by 
active benevolence, it can. (Abayi based this opinion on his own 
experience for) he and (his master) Rabba were both descendants 
of the house of Eli; Rabba, who only studied the Torah, lived forty 
3 r ears, but Abayi, who both studied the Torah and performed acts of 
benevolence, lived sixty years. The Rabbis tell us also: There was 
a certain family in Jerusalem whose members died at eighteen ) T ears 
of age. They came and informed R. Jo'hanan b. Zakkai. Said he: 
" Perhaps you are descendants of EH, of whom it is said ' all the 
increase of thy house shall die in the flower of their age ' ' [1 Sam. 
ii. 33]; " Go, then, study the Torah, and live ! " They went and 
studied, and they lived, and the} 7 called that family R. Jo'hanan's. 
R. Samuel b. Inai says in the name of Rabh: Whence do we know, 
that if the decree against a community is even sealed, it may never- 
theless be averted? From Deut. iv. 7 where it is written "as the 
Lord, our God, in all things that we call upon him for ; " (but how 
can you harmonize that with the passage) [Is. Iv. 6] " Seek ye the 
Lord while he may be found ? ' ' The latter passage refers to an 
individual, the former, to a community. When is that time that 
he will be found even by an individual ? Answered Rabba b. 
Abhuha: During the ten days, from New Year's Da)- till the Day of 
Atonement. 

" On New Year's Day aee the Inhabitants of the World 
Pass Before Him Kibhne Maron (Like Sheep)." What does 
the Mishna mean by these last two words ? " Like Sheep," as they 
are translated in Aramaic; but Resh Laqish saj-s they mean "as 
the steps of the Temple" (/. c. , narrow, so that people ascended 
them one by one); R. Judah, however, saj-s in the name of Samuel: 
(They mean) " like the armies of the house of David" (which were 
numbered one by one). Says Rabba b. Bar 'Hana in the name of 
R. Jo'hanan; Under any circumstances they are mustered at a glance. 
Said R. Na'hman b. Isaac: Thus also we understand the words of 
our Mishna: "He that fashioned all their hearts alike" [Ps. 
xxxiii. 15] i. c, the Creator sees all their hearts (at a glance) 
and (at once) understands all their works. 



2 9 

MISHNA: Messengers were sent out* in the following six 
months; in Nisan, on account of the Passover; in Abh, on account 
of the fast; in Elul, on account of the New Year; in Tishri, on ac- 
count of appointing the order the (remaining) festivals; f in Kislev, 
on account of the Feast of Dedication ; in Adar, on account of the 
Feast of Esther; also in Iyar, when the Temple was in existence, on 
account of the minor (or second) Passover. X 

GEMARA: Why were they not also sent out in Tamuz and 
Tebheth (in which months there are also fasts) ? Does not R. 'Hana 
b. Bizna, say in the name of R. Simon the pious: What is the 
meaning of the passage [Zech. viii. 19], "Thus saith the L,ord of 
hosts; the fast of the fourth, and the fast of the fifth, and the fast of 
the seventh and the fast of the tenth, shall be to the house of Judah, 
joy and gladness" etc., that they are called fasts, and also days of 
joy and gladness ? Are we not to understand that only in the time 
of peace (cessation of persecution) they shall be for joy and gladness, 
but in the time when there was not peace, they shall be fasts ? Answered 
R. Papa it means this: When there was peace, these clays should be 
for joy and gladness; in the time of persecution they shall be fasts; 
in times when there are neither persecution, nor peace, people may 
fast, or not, as they see fit. If that is so, surely then (messengers 
should not have been sent out) on account of the fast of Abh ? An- 
swered R. Papa: The fast (ninth day) of Abh is different, since 
many misfortunes occurred on that day, as the teacher says: On the 
ninth of Abh, the first and second Temples were destroyed, Bether 
was captured, and the city was razed to the ground. 

A Boraitha teaches: R. Simon says, there are four matters that 
R. Aqiba expounded, but which I interpret differently; " the fast of 
the fourth ' ' means the ninth of Tamuz on which the city was broken 
up, as it is said [Jer.lii. 6, 7] "in the fourth, in the ninth day of 
the month. . . .the city was broken up." What does he mean by 
fourth?" The fourth of the months. " The fast of the fifth," means 
the ninth of Abh, on which the Temple of our God was burnt; and 
what does he mean by calling it, fifth ? The fifth of the months. 
' ' The fast of the seventh ' ' means the third of Tishri the day on 
which Gedaliah the son of Ahikam was slain (and we fast) because 
the death of the righteous is equal to the loss of the house of our 

* The Beth Din sent them from Jerusalem to announce to other places the day which had 
been appointed New Moon, and thus to inform them whether it was the thirtieth or thirty- 
first day from the preceding New Moon. 

f e. g. Tabernacles. This was necessary since the Beth Din might have made the month 
intercalary. 

I Vide, Numb. ix. 10, II. 



God; and what does he mean by calling it the seventh ? The sev- 
enth of the months. " The fast of the tenth," means the tenth of 
Tebheth, the day on which the king of Babylon set himself against 
Jerusalem, as it is said, [Ezek. xxiv. i, 2] "Again in the ninth 
year, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, the word 
of the L,ord came unto me saying, Son of man write thee the name 
of the day, even of this same day; the king of Babylon set himself 
against Jerusalem: " and what does he mean by calling it the tenth ? 
The tenth of the months; and actually this last event should have been 
placed first, (since it occurred first) and why is it placed here last in 
order? To mention the months in their regular order. However, 
(says R. Simon): I do not explain (the passage quoted above) in 
this manner, but as follows: " The fast of the tenth " means the fifth 
of Tebheth, on which day the news came to the exiles that the city 
was smitten, as it is said [Ezek. xxxiii. 21] " And it came to pass 
in the twelfth year of our captivity, in the tenth (month) in the' fifth 
day of the mouth that one that had escaped out of Jerusalem came 
to me, saying, The city is smitten," and they held the day on which 
they received the news as the day (on which the Temple) was burnt. 
Moreover (says R. Simon ) my opinion appears more satisfactory 
to me than R. Aqiba's, for I speak of the first, first, and of the last, 
last; while he speaks of the last, first, and of the first, last; he men- 
tions them in the order of the months, whilst I mention them in the 
order in which the misfortunes occurred. 

We have learnt: Rabh and R. 'Hauina say, The Book of Fasts 
(which contained the names of minor holidays on which it was pro- 
hibited to fast) is abrogated, but R. Jo'hanan and R. Joshua b. Levi 
say: It is not. When Rabh and R. 'Hanina say that it is abrogated 
they mean: In the time of peace, the (fast) days are days of joy and 
gladness; but, in the time of persecution they are fast days, and so 
also with other (days mentioned in the Book of Fasts); and when R. 
Jo'hanan and R. Joshua b. Levi say it is not abrogated (they mean) 
that those (four fasts mentioned in Zechariah) the Bible makes de- 
pendent on the rebuilding of the Temple; but those (mentioned in the 
Book of Fasts) remain as they are appointed. R. Tobi b. Matana 
asked a question: On the twenty-eighth of (Adar), the good news 
came to the Jews that they need no longer abstain from studying the 
Torah; for the king (of Syria had earlier) issued a decree, forbidding 
them to study the Torah, or to circumcise their sons, and compelling 
them to desecrate their Sabbath. What did Judah b. Shamua and 
his friends do? They went and took counsel of a certain matron, 
whose house the celebrated people of the city frequented. Said she 



3.i 

to them, "Go and cry aloud at night." They did as she advised 
and cried aloud, ' ' O heavens ! Are we not all brethren ? Are we 
not all the children of one Father ? Are we not all the children of 
one mother ? Why should we be treated differently from other 
nations, and from all people who speak other languages inasmuch as 
ye issue such cruel edicts against us?" The decrees were annulled, 
and the da}- (on which this happened) they appointed a holiday. 
But if it is true that the Book of Fasts has been abrogated, (/. <?., the 
former (feasts) have been all abrogated), may, then, new ones be 
added? The Tauaim differ (on this question); for a Boraitha 
teaches: The days recorded in the Book of Fasts, whether during 
or after the existence of the Temple, are not permitted (to be kept as 
fasts), so says R. Meir; but R. Jose is of the opinion, so long as the 
Temple stood it was not permissible (to fast on them) because they 
were days of joy, but since the Temple fell it is allowed, because 
the}- are days of mourning. One rule says that they are abrogated; 
but another rule says they are not abrogated. There is a question 
here caused by one rule contradicting the other ? There is no ques- 
tion; in the latter case it refers to the Feasts of Dedication and 
Esther (which are never to be abrogated); and in the former case, 
to all other (minor feast) days. 

" In Elue on Account of New Year's Day and in Tishri 
on Account of Appointing the Order of the (Remaining) 
Festivals." Since (the messengers) were sent out on account of 
Elul, why need they go again on account of Tishri ? Shall I say 
because (the Beth Din) desired to proclaim Elul an intercalary 
month ? (That cannot be) for have we not learned that R. 'Hanina 
b. Kahana says in the name of Rabh: Since the time of Ezra we 
have not discovered that Elul was an intercalary mouth ? We have 
not discovered it, because it was not necessary (to make it so). But 
if it will be necessary, shall we make it an intercalary month ? This 
would disturb the position of New Year's Day ! It is better that the 
position of New Year's Day alone should be disturbed, than that all 
the holidays should be disarranged. And the best evidence for this 
is that the Mishna says that the messengers were sent in Tishri on 
account of appointing the order of the festivals. 

"And in Kislev on Account of the Feast of Dedication 
and in Adar on Account of the Feast of Esther." But the 
Mishna does not say if it be a leap-year, that the messengers were 
sent out in the second Adar on account of the Feast of Esther ? 
From this we learn that the Mishna is not, according to Rabbi; for a 



Boraitha teaches: Rabbi says: in a leap-year, messengers are sent 
out also in the second Adar on account of the Feast of Esther. 

When Ulla came (from Palestine) he said: They have made 
Elul an intercalary month, and he also said: "Do my Babylonian 
comrades know the benefit we have gained through it?" Because 
of what is this a benefit ? ' ' Because of herbs, ' ' * said Ulla. R. 
A' ha b. 'Hanina, however, said: " Because of dead bodies. " f What 
difference is there between them ? They differ concerning a holiday 
that falls immediately before or after the Sabbath (on the sixth or 
first day of the week). According to the one who says ' ' because of 
herbs " we ought to add an intercalary day; but (it is not necessary) 
according to him who says " because of dead bodies," for we can em- 
ploy non-Jews (to bury the dead for us on the holidays) . If this is 
the explanation, why is this a benefit only for us (in Babylon); is it 
not also to the advantage of them (in Jerusalem)? Our climate is 
very hot, but theirs is not. 

Is that so? Did not Rabba b. Samuel teach: One might sup- 
pose that as we intercalate the year when necessary, so we intercalate 
the month when necessary? Says the Torah [Ex. xii. 2], "This 
month shall be unto you the first of the months, ' ' which means as soon 
as you see (the new moon) as on this occasion, you must consecrate 
the month (whether or not it is necessary to intercalate it).' (How 
then could they intercalate Elul, which had always only twenty-nine 
days) ? To intercalate it (when necessary) was permitted; but to 
consecrate it, was not permitted; and Rabba' s words .should read: 
One might suppose that as it is permitted to intercalate the year and 
the month when necessary, so we ma}- consecrate the month when 
necessary ? Says the Torah [Ex. xii. 2] , " This month shall be unto 
you, etc.," which means, only when the moon is seen as on this occa- 
sion, ma}- you consecrate it. 

Samuel said: "I can arrange the calendar for the whole cap- 
tivity." Abba, the father of R. Simlai, said to him, " Do you know, 
sir, that which a certain Boraitha teaches, concerning the secret of 
the intercalary day, viz.: Whether the new moon appears before or 
after midday ? " Answered he, "No." " Then, sir," said he, " if 
you do not know this, there may be other things which you do not 



* By adding an intercalary day to Elul, the holiday (New Year or Atonement Day) was pre- 
vented from falling on Friday or Sunday, the intention being to separate the holiday by an 
intervening day from the Sabbath. Thus, herbs that were to be eaten fresh, and other foods, 
would not spoil, as they might, if kept from Thursday till after the Sabbath. 

f A similar practice was followed with regard to the keeping of a dead body over the Day 
of Atonement and a Sabbath. Since it was impossible to keep the dead body two days, the 
Sabbath and the Atonement Day were separated by the means of the intercalated day. 



know." When R. Zera went (to Palestine) he sent back word to 
his comrade (saying): The evening and the morning( following i 
must both belong to the month (/. e., when the old moon has still 
been seen after dark on the twenty-ninth day of the month, the 
thirtieth evening and following day belong to the closing month ) . And 
this is what Abba, the father of R. Simlai, meant: We calculate only 
the beginning of the new moon; if it began before midday, it is certain 
that it was seen close upon the setting of the sun, but if it did not 
begin before midday, it is certain that it did not appear close upon the 
setting of the sun. What difference does it make (in practice)? 
Answered R. Ashi, to refute witnesses. R. Zera says in the name 
of R. Na'hman, in every case of doubt (about the holidays), we post- 
date but never antedate.* Does this mean to say that (in a case of 
doubt concerning the exact day on which Tabernacles begins ) we 
observe the fifteenth and sixteenth but not the fourteenth; let us 
keep the fourteenth also; perhaps Abh and Elul have each only 
twenty-nine days ? That two consecutive months should each have 
twenty-nine daj-s is a matter that every one would know. Levi went 
to Babylon on the eleventh of Tishri. Said he, " Sweet is the food 
of Babylon, on the great Day (of Atonement now being held) in Pal- 
estine." They said to him, " Go and testify." Answered he, "I 
have not heard from the Beth Din the words, "It is consecrated," 
(and therefore I cannot testify). For R. Jo'hanan announced: In 
every place that the messengers sent in Nisan reached, but that the 
messengers sent in Tishri cannot reach, they must observe two days 
for the holidays; and they make this restriction for Nisan lest people 
would do in Tishri as in Nisan. f Rabha used to fast two days for 
the Day of Atonement. X Once it happened that he was right (because 
the Day of Atonement fell one day later in Palestine than in Baby- 
lon). R. Na'hman was once fasting on the Day of Atonement, and 
in the evening a certain man came and said to him, "To-morrow 



* i. e. if there be a doubt about which day is the Passover or the feast of Tabernacles, the 
festival should be kept for two days ; not, however, by ante-dating and keeping the fourteenth 
and fifteenth (of Nisan or Tishri) but by post-dating and keeping the fifteenth and sixteenth 
of either month. 

tin Tishri, messengers might be delayed reaching distant places, to which they were 
sent to announce the date of the festival (Tabernacles) , on account of New Year's Day and the 
Day of Atonement, on which they could not travel more than a short distance. In Nisan, 
however, they could, without delay, reach those places, and having announced the date of 
the festival, only one day was hallowed. Fearing that people might do, in regard to the Feast 
of Tabernacles what they did with regard to Passover, (i. e., keep one day, even when in 
doubt about the date), the Rabbis instituted that both Tabernacles and Passover should have 
two days hallowed instead of one. 

% He was in doubt whether the Beth Din at Jerusalem had made Elul intercalary or not,, 
and as the messengers did not arrive until after the Day of Atonement, he fasted two days. 



34 

will be the Day of Atonement in Palestine." He angrily quoted, 
" Swift were our persecutors" [Lamen. iv. 19]. R. Na'hman said 
to certain sailors, "Ye who do not know the calendar take notice 
that when the moon still shines at dawn (it is full moon, and if it 
happens to be Nisan) destroy your leaven bread, (for it is then the 
fourteenth day). 

MISHNA: For the sake of (the new moon) of the two 
months, Nisan and Tishri, witnesses maj^ profane * the Sabbath, 
because in these months the messengers went to Syria, and the order 
of the festivals was arranged; when, however, the Temple f was in 
existence, they might profane the Sabbath in any month, in order to 
offer the (new moon) sacrifice in its proper time. 

GEMARA: For the sake of these two months and not more? 
Against this I raise a question of contradiction: (Is it not said), For 
the sake of six months messengers were sent out ? Answered Abayi: 
Thus he means: For all new moons, the messengers were sent out 
while it was still evening, but for Nisan and Tishri, they were not 
sent out until they heard from the lips of the Beth Din, the words 
' ' It (the new moon or month) is consecrated." The Rabbis taught: 
Whence do we know that for them we may profane the Sabbath ? 
From [L,ev. xxiii. 4] which runs "These are the feasts of the Lord, 
which ye shall proclaim in their seasons;" might not one suppose 
that as (witnesses) were permitted to profane the Sabbath until the 
new moons had been consecrated, so were messengers permitted to 
profane the Sabbath, until (the festivals) were introduced? Saj r s the 
Torah: " which ye shall proclaim," i. c, you may profane the Sab- 
bath in order to proclaim them, but not to introduce them. 

"Whex, However, the Temple Was in Existence, 
They Might Profane the Sabbath, in Any Month, in Order 
to Offer the (New Moon) Sacrifice, in Its Proper Time." 
The Rabbis taught: Formerl)- they profaned the Sabbath for all 
(new moons) ; but since the destruction of the Temple, said R. 
Jo'hanan b. Zakkai, have we any (new moon) sacrifice to offer? 
They then instituted that (witnesses) might profane the Sabbath 
only on account of Nisan and Tishri. 

MISHNA: Whether the new moon had appeared clear to all 
or not, (the witnesses) were permitted to profane the Sabbath 
on its account. R. Jose says: If it appeared clear to everyone,;!; the 



* To travel to Jerusalem in order to inform the Beth Din might have necessitated walk- 
ing more than the distance permitted on the Sabbath. 

tThe Temple in Jerusalem. 

t It might then be presumed that everyone had seen it, and it was therefore unneces- 
sary for anyone to go to Jerusalem to announce it to the Beth Din. 



35 

Sabbath should not be profaned (by witnesses). It once happened 
that more than forty pair (of witnesses) were on the highway ( to 
Jerusalem) on the Sabbath, when R. Aqiba detained them at Dydda. 
R. Gamliel then sent word saying, " If thou thus detainest the peo- 
ple, thou wilt be the cause of their erring in the future (/. c, they 
may refuse to come and testify). 

GEMARA: The Rabbis taught: The words [Kccles. xii. 10] 
' ' Qoheleth sought to find out acceptable words, ' ' mean, that Qoheleth 
sought to invent laws, without the aid of witnesses or warning. An 
echo was heard saying, [Eccles xii. 10] , " L,et that which is written 
be upright, even words of truth " (which meant that) by means of 
two witnesses (should the words of truth be established). 

" It Once Happened That More Than Forty Pair (of 
Witnesses) Were on the Highway (to Jerusalem) and R. 
AqibaDetained Them, etc." A Boraitha teaches: R. Judah says, 
God forbid that R. Aqiba should have detained them; it was Shazpar, 
the superintendent of Gader who detained them, and (and when) R. 
Gamliel (heard of it, he) sent and dismissed him. 

MISHNA: When a father and son have seen the new moon, 
they must both go to the Beth Din, not that they may act together 
as witnesses, but in order that, should the evidence of either of them 
be invalidated, the other may join to give evidence with another wit- 
ness. R. Simon says: Father and son, and relatives in any degree 
may be accepted as competent witnesses to give evidence as to the 
appearance of the new moon. R.Jose says: It once happened that 
Tobias the physician, his son, and his freed slave, saw the new 
moon in Jerusalem (and when they tendered their evidence), the 
priests accepted his evidence and that of his son, but invalidated that 
of his freed slave; but w T hen they appeared before the (Beth Din) 
they received his evidence, and that of his freed slave, but invali- 
dated that of his son. 

GEMARA: Asks R. Devi: What is the reason for R. Simon's 
opinion? It is written [Ex. xii. i] "And the Dord spake unto 
Moses and Aaron saying: This month shall be unto you, "which 
means, this evidence shall be acceptable from you ( although you 
are brothers). And how do the Rabbis explain it? They say it 
means: This testimony shall be given into your hands ( / . c, the 
Beth Din's). Says Mar Uqba in the name of Samuel the rule is 
according to R. Simon. 

MISHNA: The following are considered incompetent to be 
witnesses: gamblers with dice, usurers, pigeon-breeders,* those who 

* Those who breed and train pigeons for racing. 
5 



36 

deal with the produce of the sabbatic year, and slaves. This is 
the rule: All evidence that cannot be received from a woman cannot 
be received from any of the above. One who has seen the new 
moon, but is unable to go (to give evidence), must be brought (if 
unable to walk) mounted on an ass, or even in a bed.* Persons 
afraid of an attack by robbers may take sticks with them;* and if 
they have a long way to go, it will be lawful for them to provide 
themselves with, and carry their food.* Whenever (witnesses) 
must be on the road a day and a night, it will be lawful to profane 
the Sabbath to travel thereon, to give their evidence as to the ap- 
pearance of the moon. For thus it is written [L,ev. xxiii. 4] ' ' These 
are the feasts of the Lord, the holy convocations, which ye shall 
proclaim in their appointed seasons." 

* Even on the Sabbath, when under ordinary circumstances this might not be done. 



CHAPTER II. 

MISHNA: If the Beth Din did not know him (the witness) 
another was sent with him to testify in his behalf. In former times 
the)- would receive evidence (about the appearance of the moon) 
from any one; but when the Boethusians used their corrupt practices 
the rule was made, that evidence would only be received from those 
who were known (to be reputable). 

GEMARA: What is meant by "another" (in the above 
Mishna) ? Another pair (of witnesses). This is proved by the fol- 
lowing reasoning: If you do not say so, then what is the meaning of 
" him," in the words of the Mishna " If the Beth Din did not know 
him f" Shall I say it means one (witness)! Surely the evidence 
of one was not received, for this transaction was called " judgment " 
[Ps. lxxxi] (and two witnesses are necessary) ? What then does 
"him " mean? That pair; so also here, " another " means another 
pair. Is then the evidence of one not accepted ? Does not a Boraitha 
state: It once happened that R. Nehorai went to Usha on the 
Sabbath to testify (to the character) of one witness? He knew, that 
there was one witness in Usha and he went to add his evidence (and 
thus make two witnesses). If that is so, why need it tell us (that R. 
Nehorai went on the Sabbath) ? One might suppose that, as there 
was a doubt (that he might not meet the other witness), he ought 
not to have profaned the Sabbath (by traveling to Usha as a single 
witness) ; therefore he teaches us (that even in such a case of doubt 
the Sabbath might be profaned) . 

When Ulla came (to Babylon, from Palestine), he said: They 
have already consecrated the New Moon in Palestine. Said R. 
Kahana:, (In such a case) not only Ulla, who is a renowned man, 
is to be believed, but even an ordinary man. Why so ? Because 
men will not lie about a matter, that will become known to every 
one. 

" In Former Times They Would Receive Evidence From 
Any One, etc." The Rabbis taught: What corruption did the 
Boethusians practice ? They once sought to deceive the sages, and 
they bribed, with four hundred zuz (silver coins), two men, one 
belonging to their party and one to ours. The former gave his evi- 
dence and went out; to the latter, they (the Beth Din) said, "Tell 
us what was the appearance of the moon ? " "I went up, replied 

(37) 



38 

he," to Maale Adumim,* and I saw it crouching between two rocks. 
Its head was like a calf, its ears like a goat, its horns like a stag, and 
its tail was lying across its thigh. I gazed upon it and shuddered, 
and fell backwards; and if you do not believe me, behold, here I 
have two hundred zuz bound up in my cloth. " Who induced you 
to do this " they asked ? "I heard," he replied, "that the Boethu- 
sians wished to deceive the sages; so, I said to "myself, I will go and 
inform them, lest some unworthy person may (accept their bribe) 
and come and deceive the sages." Then, said the sages, " The two 
hundred zuz may be retained by you as a reward, and he who bribed 
you, shall be taken to the whipping-post (and be punished)." Then 
and there the}' ordained that testimon5>- should be received only from 
those who were known (to be of good character). 

MISHNA: Formerly bon-fires were lighted (to announce the 
appearance of the new moon); but when the Cutheansf practiced 
their deceit it was ordained that messengers should be sent out. How 
were these bon-fires lighted ? They brought long staves of cedar 
wood, canes, and branches of the olive tree, and bundles of tow 
which were tied on with twine; with these they went to the top of 
the mountain, and lighted them, and kept waving them to and fro, 
upward and downward, till they could perceive the same repeated by 
another person on the next mountain, and thus, on the third moun- 
tain, etc. Whence did these bon-fires commence ? From the mount 
of Olives to Sartabha, from Sartabha to Grophinah, from Grophinah 
to Hoveran, from Hoveran to Beth Baltin; they did not cease waving 
the burning torches at Beth Baltin, to and fro, upward and down- 
ward, until the whole country of the captivity appeared like a blaz- 
ing fire. 

GEMARA: The Rabbis taught: Bon-fires were only lighted to 
announce the new moon that appeared and was consecrated at the 
proper time (after twenty-nine days). And when were they lighted? 
On the evening of the thirtieth day. Does this mean to say that for 
a month of twenty-nine days the bon-fires were lighted, but not for a 
month of thirty days ? It should have been done for a" month of 
thirty days, and not at all for a month of twenty-nine days. Says 
Abayi: That would cause the people a loss of work for two days 
(because they would wait to see if the bon-fires would be lit or not 
and thus lose a second day). \ 

* The name of a place between Jerusalem and Jericho. 

t A sect of Samaritans. 

J The thirtieth day from the last New Moon was always New Moon, but in intercalary 
months the thirty-first day was also New Moon (second day); In the latter case the thirtieth 
day (first day of New Moon) belonged to the passing month, and the second day of New Moon 



39 

" How Were These Bon-Fires Lighted ? They Brought 
Long Staves of Cedar Wood, etc." R. Judah says: There are 
four kinds of cedars: the common cedar, the Qetros, the olive tree, 
and the cypress. Qetros says Rabh, is (in Aramaic) Adara or a 
species of cedar. Every cedar, says R. Jo'hanan, that was carried 
away from Jerusalem, God will in future times, restore, as it is said 
[Is. xli. 19], "I will plant in the wilderness the cedar tree," and 
by "wilderness" He means Jerusalem, as it is said, [Is. lxiv. 
10], " Zion is (become) a wilderness." Further says R. Jo'ha- 
nan, ' ' Woe to the Romans, for whom there will be no substitu- 
tion," for it is said [Is. lx. 17], " For brass, I will bring gold, and 
for iron, I will bring silver, and for wood, brass and for stones, 
iron;" but what can He bring for R. Aqiba and his comrades (who 
were destroyed by Rome) ? Of them He .says [Joel iii. 21], "I will 
cleanse them, (but for) their (Aqiba's and his comrades') blood, I 
will not cleanse them." 

"And Whence Did These Bon-Fires Commence?" From 
Beth Baltin. What is Beth Baltin ? "Biram," answered Rabh 
What (does the Mishna) mean by the captivity? Says R. Joseph. 
" Pombeditha." And how was it that the whole country looked 
like a blazing fire ? We learn that each Israelite took a torch in 
his hand and ascended to the roof of his house. 

MISHNA: There was a large court in Jerusalem, called Beth 
Ya'azeq, where all the witnesses met, and where they were examined 
by the Beth Din. Great feasts were made there for (the witnesses) 
in order to induce them to come frequently. At first, they did not 
stir from there all day (on the Sabbath ),* till R. Gamliel, the Elder, 
ordained that they might go two thousand cubits on every side; and 
not only these (witnesses) but also a midwife, going to perform her 
professional duties, and those who go to assist others in case of con- 
flagration, or of an attack of robbers, or of flood, or (of rescuing 
people) from the ruins (of a fallen building) are considered (for the 
time being) as inhabitants of that place, and may go (thence on the 
Sabbath) two thousand cubits on every side. How were the wit- 
nesses examined ? The first pair were examined first. The elder 
was introduced first, and they said to him: Tell us, in what form you 

was the first day of the new month. Bonfires were always lighted on the night of the 
thirtieth day, i e., on the night after new moon ; and if no bonfires were lighted then there 
were two days New Moon. In the case of the month of Elul they would, after twenty-nine 
days, observe New Year's Day. Now if that month happened to be intercalary (/('.have 
thirty days) and bonfires would have been lighted, the next day would have had to be ob- 
served as New Year's Day again, and the people would consequently have lost a second day. 

* For if they had already traveled two thousand cubits, they were prohibited from jour- 
neying more than four cubits more. 



40 

saw the moon ; was it before or behind the sun ? Was it to the north 
or the south (of the sun)? What was its elevation on the horizon? 
Towards which side was its inclination ? What was the width of her 
disk ? If he answered, before the sun, his evidence was worthless. 
After this they introduced the younger (witness) and he was exam- 
ined; if their evidence was found to agree, their testimony w r as 
accepted as valid; the remaining pairs (of witnesses) were asked 
leading questions, not because their testimony was necessary, but 
only to prevent them departing, disappointed, and to induce them to 
come again often. 

GEMARA: Do not the questions (asked by the Mishna), " was 
it before or behind the sun?" and " was it to the north or to the 
south?" mean the same thing? Answered Abayi: (The Mishna 
asks) whether the concave of the crescent was before or behind the 
sun, and if (the witness said) it was before the sun, his evidence 
was worthless; for R. Jo'hanan says: What is the meaning of the 
passage [Job xxv. 2] " Dominion and fear are with him; he maketh 
peace in his high places ? " It means that the sun never faces the 
concave of the crescent or the concave of a rainbow. 

' ' What Was its Elevation on the Horizon ? Towards 
Which Side Was its Inclination?" In one Boraitha we have 
learnt: If (the witness) said " towards the north," his evidence was 
valid, but if he said, "towards the south," it was worthless; does 
not another Boraitha (which says the following) teach the very 
opposite: If (the witness) said "towards the south," his testimony 
was accepted, but if he said " towards the north " it was valueless? 
There is no difficulty here; in the latter case it speaks of the summer, 
while in the former it refers to the winter. The Rabbis taught : If 
one (witness) said its elevation appeared about as high as two ox- 
goads and another said about as high as three, their testimony was 
invalid, but either might be taken in conjunction with a subsequent 
witness (who offered similar testimony). The Rabbis taught: (If 
the witnesses say) " we have seen the reflection (of the moon) in the 
water, or through a metal mirror, or in the clouds," their testimony 
is not to be accepted; or (if they say we have seen) " half of it in the 
water, and half of it in the heavens, or half of it in the clouds, " their 
evidence carries no weight. Must they then see the new moon again 
(before their testimony can be accepted) ? Answered Abayi: This 
is their meaning, if the witnesses testify that they saw the moon, 
accidentally, and they then returned purposely and looked for it, but 
they saw it not, their evidence is worthless. Why so? Because 



41 

one might say they saw a patch of white clouds (and they thought 
it was the moon). 

MISHNA: The chief of the Beth Din says "It (the new 
moon) is consecrated," and all the people repeated after him " It is 
consecrated, it is consecrated." Whether the new moon was seen at 
its proper time (after twenty-nine days) or not, they used to consecrate 
it. R. Elazar b. Zadok said:' If it had not been sent at its proper 
time it was not consecrated, because it had already been consecrated 
in heaven (/. c, of itself). 

GEMARA: Whence do we know that the (chief of the Beth 
Din must say ' ' It is consecrated " ) ? Answered R. 'Hiyya b. Gamda 
in the name of Rabbi: The Torah says [Lev. xxiii. 44], "Moses 
declared unto the children of Israel the feasts of the Lord ' ' from 
which we deduce that (as Moses, who was the chief in Israel, 
declared the feasts to Israel, so also does) the chief of the Beth Din 
announce the words " It is consecrated." 

"All the People Repeated After Him "It is Conse- 
crated, It is Consecrated." Whence do we know this? 
Answered R. Papa: The Torah says [Lev. xxiii. 2], "Which ye 
shall proclaim," /. c, which ye, all the people shall proclaim; but R. 
Na'hman b. Isaac says: We know it from the words [ibid.] ' These 
are my feasts," /. e. (these people) shall announce my feasts. Why 
are the words ' ' It is consecrated ' ' repeated twice ? Because in the 
Scriptural verse just quoted we find it written "holy convocations " 
{literally, announcements, and the minimum of the plural expression 
is two). 

" R. Elazar b. Zadok Said: If it Had Not Been Seen at 
its Proper Time, it Was Not Consecrated, etc." Pelimo* 
teaches in a Boraitha: When the new moon appears at its proper time, 
they used not to consecrate it, but when it appears out of its proper 
time, they used to consecrate it. R. Eliezer, however, says: In neither 
case. used they to consecrate it, for it is written [Lev. xxv. 10] "And 
ye shall consecrate the fiftieth year;" years should be consecrated, 
but not months. R. Judah says in the name of Samuel: The law is 
according to R. Elazer b. Zadok. Abayi says: We have also a 
Mishna to the same effect, viz. : If the Beth Din and all Israel saw 
the new moon (on the thirtieth day) and if the examination of the 
witnesses had already taken place, and it had become dark before 
they had time to announce "It is consecrated," the month (just 
passing) is intercalary. That (the month) is intercalary is men- 
tioned (by the Mishna ), but not that they said " It is c onsecrated ? ' ' 

* The name of a Tana, a contemporary of Rabbi. 



42 

It is not clear that this is a support for Abayi's argument, for it was 
necessary to say that it was intercalary, or we would not have known 
that the next day was the intercalary day. One might have thought 
since the Beth Din and all Israel saw the new moon, that it was 
apparent to all, and that the month does not become intercalary, 
therefore he teaches us that ( nevertheless the month becomes inter- 
calary). 

MISHNA: R. Gamliel had on a tablet, and on the wall of his 
upper room, illustrations of the various phases of the moon, which 
he showed to the common people, saying, " Did you see the moon 
like this figure or like this ? ' ' 

GEMARA: Is this permitted? Does not a Boraitha teach that 
the words "Ye shall not make with me" [Ex. xx. 23] mean, ye 
shall not make pictures of my ministers that minister before me, 
such as the sun, moon, stars or planets? It was different with R. 
Gamliel, for others made it for him. But others made one for R. 
Judah, yet Samuel said to him "Thou, sagacious one, destroy that 
figure ! " * In the latter case the figure was embossed, and he was 
afraid that one might suspect the owner (of using it as an idol). 
Need one be afraid of such suspicion ? Did not that synagogue in 
Shephithibh of Nehardea have a statue (of the king), yet Rabh, 
Samuel, and Samuel's father and Levi went there to pray and were 
not afraid of being suspected (of idolatry) ? It is a different case 
when there are many. Yet, R. Gamliel was only one? Yea, but 
he was a prince, and there were always man}- with him ; and if you 
wish you may say that he had them made to teach by means of 
them; and that which is written [Dent, xviii. 9] "thou shalt not 
learn to do," means but thou mayest learn, in order to understand 
and to teach. 

MISHNA: It happened once, that two witnesses came and said: 
We saw the moon in the eastern part of the heavens in the morning, 
and in the western part in the evening. R. Jo'hanan b. Nuri de- 
clared them to be false witnesses; but when they came to Jamnia, 
Gamliel received their evidence as valid. (On another occasion) two 
other witnesses came and said: We saw the moon on its proper day, 
but could not see it on the next evening of the intercalary day; R. 
Gamliel received them : but R. Dosa b. Harkhinas, said: They are 
false witnesses; for how can the}' testify of a woman being delivered 
(on a certain day), when, on the next day, she appears to be preg- 
nant? Then R. Joshua said unto him: I approve your opinion. 
Upon this Gamliel sent him (R. Joshua) word, saying, " I order 

* literally " put out the eyes of that figure ! " 



43 

you to appear before me on the Day of Atonement, according to 
your computation, with your staff and with money. R. Aqiba went 
to him (R. Joshua), and found him grieving; he then said to him, 
I can prove that all Gamliel has done is proper for it is said, 
" These are the feasts of the L,ord, holy convocations which ye shall 
proclaim," either at their proper time, or not at their proper time, 
only their convocations are to be considered as holy festivals. When 
he (R. Joshua) came to R. Dosa b. Harkhinas, the latter told him, 
" If we are to reinvestigate the decisions of the Beth Din of Gamliel, 
we must also reinvestigate the decisions of all the Beth Dins which 
have existed from the time of Moses till the present day; for it is 
said [Ex. xxiv. 9], "Moses, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy 
elders went up (to the Mount)." Why were not the names of the 
elders also specified ? To teach us, that every three men in Israel 
that form a Beth Din are to be respected in an equal degree with the 
Beth Din of Moses. Then did R. Joshua take his staff and money 
in his hand, and went to Jamnia, to Gamliel, on the very day on 
which the Day of Atonement would have been according to his com- 
putation; when Gamliel arose, and kissed him on his forehead, say- 
ing, "Enter in peace, my master and disciple! My master — in 
knowledge; and my disciple — since thou didst obey my injunction." 

GEMARA: A Boraitha teaches us: that R. Gamliel said to the 
sages, thus it has been handed down to me from the house of my 
grandfather ( Hillel ) , that sometimes the new moon appears elongated 
and sometimes diminished. R. 'Hiyya saw the old moon yet on the 
morning of the twenty-ninth day, and threw clods of earth at it, 
saying, "We should consecrate thee in the evening, and thou art 
seen now ? Go, hide thyself ! ' ' 

Said Rabbi to R. 'Hiyya: "Go to Entob and consecrate the 
month and send back to me as a password* ' David, the King of Israel 
still livejs. ' ' The Rabbis taught: Once it happened that the heavens 
were thick with clouds and the form of the moon was seen on the 
twenty-ninth of the month (of Elul), so that the people thought that 
New Year's Day should be then proclaimed, and they (the Beth Din ) 
were about to consecrate it. Said R. Gamliel to them: Thus it has 
been handed down to me by tradition, from the house of my grand- 
father, the consecration of the moon cannot take place at a period 
less than twenty-nine and a half days, two-thirds and .0052 (/. e\, 
seventy-three 'Halaqim) of an hour. On that self-same day the 
mother of Ben Zaza died and R. Gamliel delivered a great funeral 

* This device was resorted to because, in the days of Rabbi, the Romans had prohibited 
the Jews, under penalty of death, to consecrate the moon. 



44 

oration,* not because she specially deserved it, but in order that the 
people might know that the new moon had not yet been consecrated 
by the Beth Din. 

" When He (Rabbi Joshua) Came to R. Dosa b. Hark- 
hinas, etc." The Rabbis taught: The reason that the names of 
those elders are not mentioned, is in order that one should not say: 
Is So-and-so like Moses and Aaron ? Is So-and-so like Nadabh and 
Abihu ? Is So-and-so like Eldad and Medad ? (And how do we know 
that one should not ask thus ) ? Because, it is written [1 Sam. xii. 6] , 
" And Samuel said unto the people the L,ord that appointed Moses and 
Aaron " and in the same connection it is said [ibid, n.], "And the 
Lord sent Jerubaal and Bedan and Jephtha and Samuel." Jerubaal 
is Gideon ; and why is he named Jerubaal ? Because he strove 
against Baal; Bedan is Samson; and why is he named Bedan? Be- 
cause he came from Dan. Jephtha means just what it is (/'. e., he 
had no surname or attribute). It is said [Ps. xcix. 6] " Moses and 
Aaron among his priests, and Samuel, among them that called upon 
his name; " the sacred text regards the three common people equal 
with the three noblest, to teach us that Jerubaal was in his genera- 
tion like Moses in his; Bedan in his generation was like Aaron in 
his; Jephtha in his generation was like Samuel in his generation. 
From all this one must learn, that if, even the commonest of the com- 
moners is appointed leader by a community, he must be consid- 
ered as the noblest of the nobility, for it is said [Deut. xvii. 9] 
"And thou shalt come unto the priests, the Levites, and unto the 
judge that shall be in those days." (Why does the Torah say " in 
those days "?) Can you imagine that one could go to a judge who 
was not in his days? (Surely not ! but by these words Scripture 
teaches us that a judge is to be held " in his days " equal in author- 
ity with the greatest of his antecedents). We find a similar teaching 
in Eccles. vii. 10: " Say not thou, that the former days were better 
than these ! " 

" He Took His Staff, etc. " The Rabbis taught: (Gamliel 
said to R. Joshua): Happy is the generation in which the leaders 
listen to their followers, and through this the followers consider it so 
much the more their duty (to heed the teachings of the leaders). 



* No funerals or funeral orations were, or are, permitted on the holidays. 



CHAPTER III. 

MISHNA: If the Beth Din, and all Israel saw (the moon on 
the night of the thirtieth day), or, if the witness had been examined, 
but there was no time to proclaim " It is consecrated " before it has 
become dark, the month is intercalary. If the Beth Din alone saw 
it, two of its members should stand and give the testimony before 
the others, who shall then say " It is consecrated, It is consecrated." 
When three who formed a Beth Din saw it, two should stand and 
conjoining some of their learned friends with the remaining one, give 
their testimony before them, who should proclaim "It is conse- 
crated, It is consecrated," for one (member of a Beth Din) has not 
this right by himself alone. 

GEMARA: " If the Beth Din Alone Saw It, Two of Its 
Members Should Stand and Give Their Testimony Before 
the Others, ETC." Why so? Surely hearsay evidence is not 
better than the testimony of an eye-witness ! Says R. Zera: It refers 
to a case where they saw it at night (and on the next day they could 
not consecrate the new moon until they had heard the evidence of 
two witnesses). 

"When Three, Who Formed a Beth Din, Saw it, Two 
Should Stand and Conjoining Some of Their Learned 
Friends With the Remaining One, etc." Why so? Here 
also we may say, surely hearsay evidence is not better than the tes- 
timony of an eye-witness ! And if you should object that this also 
means where they saw it at night, is this not, then, the same case? 
The case is the same, but he needs to state the above, because of the 
concluding words, "one (member of a Beth Din) has not the right 
by himself alone;" for you might possibly think that we say, since 
in civil cases three (are required to constitute a Beth Din), but 
where he is well known (as a learned authority) one judge may act 
alone, so here we may consecrate (the new moon) on the authority 
of one judge, therefore, he teaches us (that three are required). 
Perhaps I should, nevertheless, say here (that one learned authority 
is sufficient) ? Nay, for there is no greater authority than Moses, 
our master, yet God said to him, that Aaron should act with him, as 
it is written [Ex. xii. 1,2], "And the Lord spake unto Moses and 
Aaron, in the land of Egypt- saying: This month shall be unto you 
the beginning of months." 

C45) 



4 6 

Does this mean to say that a witness may act as judge ? And 
shall I then say that the above Mishna is not according to R. Aqiba, 
for a Boraitha teaches: If the members of the Sanhedrin saw a man 
commit murder, part of them may act as witnesses and part as 
judges, according to R. Tarphon; but according to R. Aqiba all of 
them are witnesses, and no witness (of a crime) may act as judge ? 
You may state (that the Mishna is) according to R. Aqiba even. In 
the latter instance R. Aqiba only refers to capital cases, for the Torah 
says [Numb. xxxv. 24, 25] "Then the congregation shall judge 
. . . .and the congregation shall deliver," and since they saw him 
commit murder, they will not be able to urge any plea in his favor; 
but here (concerning the new moon) even R. Aqiba assents (that a 
witness may act as judge). 

MISHNA: Every kind of cornet may be used (on New Year's 
Day) except those made of cow-horn, because they are called ' ' horn ' ' 
(Qeren) and not " cornet " (Shophar). R. Jose says: Are not all 
cornets called " horn," as e. g., it is said [Josh. vi. 5] "And it came 
to pass that when they made a long blast with the horn." 

GEMARA: How comes it that the word Jobhel means ram ? A 
Boraitha teaches: R. Aqiba says, When I went to Arabia, I found 
they called a ram " Yubla." The Rabbis did not know the meaning 
of the word Salseleho in the passage [Prov. iv. 8] ' ' Salseleho and 
she shall promote thee." One day the)- heard Rabbi's maidservant 
say to a certain man who was (conceitedly) playing with his hair, 
" How long wilt thou mesaesel (twist up) thy hair? " The Rabbis 
did not know the meaning of the word yehabhekha in the passage 
[Ps. Iv. 22] " Cast yehabhekha (burden) upon the Lord." Says 
Rabba b. Bar 'Hana, " One day I went with a certain Arabian car- 
avan merchant and I was carrying a burden. Said he to me, ' Take 
down Yehabhekh (thy burden) and put it on my camel.' " 

MISHNA: The cornet used on the New Year was a straight 
horn of a wild goat; the mouth-piece was covered with gold. The 
two trumpets were stationed one on each side: the sound of the 
cornet was prolonged, while that of the trumpet was short, because 
the special duty of the day was the sounding of the cornet. On the 
fast days two crooked ram's-horns w T ere used, their mouth-pieces 
being covered with silver, and the two trumpets were stationed in the 
middle between them : the sound of the cornet was shortened while 
that of the trumpets was prolonged, because the special duty of the 
day was the sounding of the trumpets. The Jubilee and New 
Year's Daj r were alike in respect to the sounding (of the cornet) and 
the benedictions, but R. Judah says on the New Year we blow (a 



47 

cornet ) made of ram's-horn, and on the Jubilee one made of the horn 
of a wild goat. 

GEMARA: R. Levi says: It is a duty on New Year's Day and 
the Day of Atonement to use a bent cornet, but during the rest of 
the year a straight one. But have we not learned that the cornet 
used on the New Year must be the " straight horn of a wild goat? 
He ( R. Levi ) supports his opinion with the following Boraitha 
which teaches that R. Judah says: On New Year's Day they used to 
blow (a cornet) made of a straight ram's-horn and on the Jubilees, 
one made of wild goat's horn. About what do they dispute ? R. 
Judah holds that on New Year's the more bent in spirit a man is, 
and on the Day of Atonement, the more upright he is (in his confes- 
sions), the better; but R. Levi holds the more upright a man is on 
New Year's Day and the more bowed in spirit on the Fast Days, 
the better. 

"The Mouth-Piece Was Covered With Gold." Does not 
a Boraitha teach, however, that if one covers the place to which the 
mouth was put the cornet may not be used; but if (he covers) 
another place it maybe used? Answered Abayi: Our Mishna also 
means, a place to which the mouth was not put. 

' ' The Two Trumpets Were Stationed One on Each Side." 
Could the two sounds be easily distinguished? Nay; and therefore 
the sound of the cornet was prolonged to indicate that the special 
duty of the day was the sounding of the cornet. 

"On the Fast-Days Two Crooked Ram's-Horns Were 
Used, Their Mouth-Pieces Being Covered With Silver." 
Why was the cornet used in the one case covered with gold and in 
the other, with silver? All (signals for) assemblies were blown on 
horns made with silver as it is written [Numb. x. 2] " Make unto 
thee two trumpets of silver . . . that thou mayest use them for the 
calling of the assembly, etc." . R. Papa b. Samuel was about to 
follow the practice laid down by the Mishna; said Rabha to him, 
that was only customary so long as the Temple was in existence. 
A Boraitha also teaches this applies only to the Temple ; but in the 
country (outside of Jerusalem) in a place where they use the 
trumpet, they do not use the cornet, and vice-versa. And so also 
did R. 'Halaphta, in Sepphoris and so too did R. 'Hanina b. 
Teradjon in Si'hni, when the matter was brought to the attention 
of the sages, they said: That was the custom, only at the eastern 
gates or the Temple Mount. Rabha, but some say R. Joshua b. 
Levi asked: From which Scriptural verse is this deduced ? From 
Ps. xcviii. 6 which runs, "With trumpets and sound of cornet, 



48 

make a joyful noise before the Lord, the King; " i. e., before the 
Lord, the King (in the Temple) we need both the trumpets and the 
cornet, but not elsewhere. 

"The Jubilee, and the New Year Were Alike in 
Respect to the Sounding (of the Cornet), and the Bles- 
sings." R. Samuel b. Isaac said: According to whom do we now- 
a-days pray: "This day celebrates the beginning of thy work, a 
memorial of the first day?" According to R. Eliezer who says: 
The world was created in Tishri. R. Ina asked a question: Did we 
not learn in our Mishna that the Jubilee and New Year are alike in 
respect to the sounding (of the cornet) , and the benedictions, and 
now how can that be so when we say ' ' This day celebrates the be- 
ginning of thy work, a memorial of the first day," which is said on 
New Year but not on the Jubilee ? ( That which we have learnt in 
our Mishna that they are alike means) in every other respect but this. 

MISHNA: It is unlawful to use a cornet that has been split and 
afterwards joined together; or one made of several pieces joined 
together. If a cornet had a hole that had been stopped up, and pre- 
vented (the production) of the proper sound, it might not be used; 
but if it does not affect the proper sound, it might be used. If one 
should blow the cornet inside a pit, a cistern or a vat and the sound 
of the cornet was (plainly) heard (by one listening to it) he will 
have done his duty (to hear the cornet on the New Year), but not if 
he heard only an indistinct sound. Thus also, if one should happen 
to pass by a synagogue, or live close by it and should hear the cornet 
(on the New Year) or the reading of the Book of Esther (on the 
Feast of Esther) , he will have complied with the requirements of the 
law, if he listened with proper attention but not otherwise; and 
although the one heard it as well as the other, yet the difference (on 
which everything depends) is, that the one listened with proper 
attention, and the other did not. 

GEMARA: The Rabbis taught: If a cornet was long and 
they shortened it, it might be used; if one scraped it and reduced it 
to its due size, it might be used; if one covered it on the inside, with 
gold, it might not be used; if on the outside and it changed the tone 
from what it originally was, it might not be used, but if not, it might 
be used; if a cornet had a hole in it and they closed it up, and 
thereby prevented (the production) of the proper sound, it might not 
be used, but if not it might be used; if one placed one cornet inside 
another and the sound heard ( by a listener) was produced from the 
inner one he has complied with the requirements of the law, but if 
from the outer one, he has not. 



49 

"Or One Made of Several Pieces Joined Together." 
The Rabbis taught: If one added to a cornet never so small a piece, 
whether it be of the same kind of horn or not, it might not be used. 
If a cornet had a hole, whether one stopped it up with a piece of the 
same kind (of horn) or not, it might not be used, but R. Nathan 
held (only when repaired with material) not of the same kind, it 
might not be used, but otherwise it might. (To which) R. Judah 
added: That is, if the greater part of a cornet was broken. From 
this we may prove that if repaired with material of the same kind, 
although the greater part was broken, it may, nevertheless be used. 

" If one covered a cornet on the inside with gold it might not 
be used; if on the outside, and it changed the tone from what it 
originally was, it might not be used, but if not, it might be used." If 
a cornet had been split lengthwise, it might not be used, but if cross- 
wise, yet enough remained with which to produce the sound, it might 
be used, but if not, it*might not be used. [And how much is that ? R. 
Simon b. Gamliel explains it to be as much as we may hold in our 
closed hand, and yet on either side a portion is visible] .* If its tone 
was thin, or heavy or harsh, it might be used, for all tones were 
considered proper in a cornet. The schoolmen sent a message to the 
father of Samuel: (One has complied with the requirements of the law 
if he bored a hole in a horn and blew it. That is self-evident! for 
in) every cornet a hole must surely be bored. Says R. Ashi: If one 
bored a hole through the bony substance inside the horn (which 
ought to be removed), are we to suppose that one substance causes 
an interposition with another of the same nature, (and that, there- 
fore it might not be used) ? Therefore they sent to say that this is 
no objection. 

"If One Should Blow the Cornet Inside a Pit or a 
Cistern, etc." R. Huna says: They taught this only in the case 
of those who stood at the pit's mouth, but those who were in the pit 
comply with the requirements of the law. If one heard a part of 
(the required number of) the sounds of the cornet in the pit, and the 
rest at the pit's mouth, he has done his duty; but if he heard a part 
before the dawn of day, and the rest after the dawn, he has not com- 
plied with the requirements of the law. Asked Abayi: Why in the 
latter case (should he not have done his duty, because he did not 
hear the whole of the sounds at the time when the duty should be 
performed), yet, in the former case (he is considered to have done 

* The opinion of the editor is that this parenthesis is a fair illustration of the interpola- 
tions in the Talmud. The term Piresh is not Talmudieal and was only used in later times. 
It has only been left here because the explanation happens U> be correct. 



5° 

his duty) under similar circumstances? How can you compare 
these cases? In the latter case, the night is not the time of perform- 
ing the obligation at all, while in the former case, a pit is a place 
where the duty may be performed for those who are in it ! Shall we 
say that Rabba held: If one heard the end of the sounding (of the 
cornet), without having heard the beginning he complied with the 
requirements of the law, and from these words we must understand 
that if he heard the beginning, without the end he has also done his 
duty ? Come and hear ! If one blew the first sound (Teqia) and 
prolonged the second (Teqia) as long as two, it is only reckoned 
as one; and (if Rabba's opinion is correct) why should you reckon 
it as two ? (This is no question) ! If he heard a half the sounds, 
he has done his duty, but when one blows one sound on the cornet, 
we may not consider it two halves. Rabha says: One who vows to re- 
ceive no benefit from his neighbor, may blow for him the obligatory 
sounds (of the cornet); one who vows refusal of any benefit from a 
cornet, may blow on it the obligator}' sounds. Furthermore says 
Rabha: One who vows to refuse any benefit from his neighbor may 
sprinkle on him the waters of a sin-offering in the winter, but not in 
the summer. One who vows to receive no benefit from a spring, 
may take in it an obligator)- bath in the winter, but not in the sum- 
mer. The schoolmen sent a message to the father of Samuel: 
If one had been compelled to eat unleavened bread (on the first night 
of Passover, i. c, he had not done so of his own accord) he has also 
done his duty. Who compelled him ? Answered R. Ashi, Persians. 
Rabha remarked: From this statement we can prove that if one plays 
a song on the cornet, he complies with the requirements of the law. 
It is self-understood ! The cases are similar ? But one might sup- 
pose that in the former case, the Torah commanded him to cat 
(unleavened bread) and he ate it, but in the former case the Torah 
speaks of " a remembrance of blowing the cornet " [L,ev. xxiii. 24] , 
and (when he plays a song he does not remember his duty for) he is 
engaged in a worldly occupation ! Therefore he teaches us that even 
under such circumstances he does comply with the requirements of 
the law. To this an objection was raised. We have learnt: If one 
who listened (to the sounds of the cornet) paid the proper attention, 
but he that blew the cornet did not, or vice-versa, they have not done 
their duty, until both blower and listener pay proper attention. This 
is all right as far as the case where the blower, but not the listener, 
pays the proper attention, for it is possible that the listener imagines 
he hears the noise of an animal; but how can it happen that the 
listener should pay due attention and the one who blows (the cornet) 



5i 

should not, except he was only playing a song (by which he does 
not do his duty)? (It is possible) if he only produced a dull sound; 
(/. e. and not, for example a Teqia). 

Said Abayi to him: But now, according to your conclusion (that a 
duty performed without due attention is the same as if performed 
with due attention) will you say that he who sleeps in a tabernacle 
on the eighth day of the feast of Tabernacles receive stripes (because 
he had no right to observe the law for more than seven da} - I? 
Answered he: I say that one cannot infringe a command except at 
the time when it should be performed. R. Shamen b. Abba raised an 
objection: Whence do we know that a priest who ascended the plat- 
form (to pronounce the priestly benediction) must not say: Since the 
Torah has given me the right to bless Israel, I will supplement (the 
benedictions Numb. vi. 24-26) by one of my own, as for example 
[Deut. i. 11] " May the L,ord God of your fathers make you a thou- 
sand times so many more as ye are ? ' ' From the Torah which says 
[Deut. iv. 2] ' ' Ye shall not add unto the word. ' ' And in this case as 
soon as he has finished the benedictions, the time for performing 
that duty has gone by, still if he add a blessing of his own he is 
guilty of infringing the law which says " Ye shall not add? " Said 
Rabha: (I mean ), To fulfill the requirements of the law one need 
not pay attention ; to transgress the law against supplementing, at 
the time prescribed for performing it, also, does not require one's 
special attention; but to transgress the law against supplementing 
at the time not prescribed for performance, needs one's special atten- 
tion. R. Zira said to his attendant: " Pay attention, and sound 
(the cornet) for me ! " Do we not thus see that he holds that to 
fulfill the requirements of the law the act is not enough and one 
must pay attention ? This is a disputed question among the Tanaim, 
for a Boraitha teaches: One who hears (the blowing of the cornet) 
must himself listen in order to perform his duty, and he who blows 
(the cosnet ) blows after his usual manner. R. Jose says: These 
words are said only in the case of the officiant for a congregation; 
but an individual does not comply with the requirements of the law 
unless both he that hears and he that blows pay proper attention. 

MISHNA: (It is written in Ex. xvii. 11 that) "When Moses 
held up his hand, Israel prevailed, etc." Could then the hands 
of Moses cause war to be waged or to cease? (Nay); but it means 
that as long as Israel looked to Heaven for aid, and directed their 
hearts devoutly to their Father in Heaven, they prevailed; but when 
they ceased to do so, they failed. We find a similar instance also in 
[Numb. xxi. 8] " Make unto thee a fiery serpent and set it on a 
pole, and even- one that is bitten, when he looketh upon it shall 
6 



52 

■live." Could then the serpent kill or bring to life ?- (Nay); but it 
means when the Israelites looked (upward) to Heaven for aid and 
subjected their will to that of their Father in Heaven they were 
healed, but when they did not, they perished. A deaf mute, an 
idiot, or a child cannot act in behalf of the assembled congregation. 
This is the general rule whosoever is not obliged to perform a duty, 
cannot act in behalf of the assembled congregation (for that duty). 

GEMARA: The Rabbis taught: All are obliged to hear the 
sounding of the cornet, Priests, L,evites and Israelites, Proselytes, 
Freed-Slaves, a monstrosity, a hermaphrodite, and one who is half 
slave and half free. A monstrosity cannot act in behalf of those like 
or unlike itself, but a hermaphrodite can act in behalf of those of the 
same class, but not of any other. The teacher says: It is said, All 
are obliged to hear the sounding of the cornet, Priests, Levites and 
Israelites. This is self understood, for if these are not obliged, who 
are ? It was necessary to mention priests here, for one might have 
supposed, that since we have learnt, ' ' the Jubilee and New Year's Day 
are alike with regard to the sounding of the cornet and the benedic- 
tions," that only those who are included under the rule of Jubilee are 
included in the duties of New Year's Day; and as the priests are not 
included in the rule of Jubilee (for they have no lands to lie fallow, 
etc.), might we not therefore say that the}' are not bound by the 
duties of New Year's Day ? Therefore he teaches us (that they must 
hear the sounding of the cornet). 

Ahabha, the son of R. Zera teaches: With regard to all the 
benedictions, although one has already done his duty he may never- 
theless act for others, with the exception of the blessings over bread 
and wine; concerning which, if he has not yet done his duty, he 
may act for others, but if he has done his duty, he may not act for 
others. Rabha asked: What is the rule in the case of the benedic- 
tion of the unleavened bread, and the wine used at the sauctification 
of a festival ? Since these are special duties, maj' one act for others, 
or perhaps the (duty is 011I3' the eating of the unleavened bread and 
the drinking of the sanctification wine) but the benediction is not a 
duty, and therefore he cannot act for others? Come and hear ! R. 
Ashi says: When we were at the home of R. Papa, he said the bles- 
sing of sanctification for us, and when his field-laborer came from work 
he said the blessing for him. The Rabbis taught: One may not 
say the benediction over bread for guests, unless he eats with them, 
but he may for the members of the family, to initiate them into 
their religious duties; with regard to the Service of Praise [Hallel 
Ps. cxiii-cxviii.] and the reading of the Book of Esther, although 
one has already done his duty, he may, nevertheless, act for others. 



CHAPTER IV. 

MISHNA: When the feast of New Year happened to fall on 
the Sabbath, they used to sound (the cornet) in the Temple, but 
not outside of it. After the destruction of the Temple R. Jo'hanan 
b. Zakkai ordained that they should sound (the cornet) in every 
place in which there was a Beth Din. R. Elazar says that R. Jo'hanan 
b. Zakkai instituted that for Jamnia alone; but they (the sages) say 
the rule applied both to Jamnia and every place in which there was 
a Beth Din. And in this respect also was Jerusalem privileged more 
than Jamnia, that every city, from which Jerusalem could be seen, 
or the sounding (of the cornet) could be heard, which w r as near 
enough, and to which it was allowed to go on the Sabbath, might 
sound the (cornet) on the Sabbath but in Jamnia they sounded 
(the cornet) before the Beth Din only. 

GEMARA: Whence do we learn these things? Says Rabha: 
The Rabbis issued a decree concerning them according to Rabba; 
for Rabba says, Although the duty of sounding (the cornet) is 
obligatory upon all, yet all are not skilled in sounding (it), there- 
fore they feared lest one might take (the cornet) in his hand, and 
go to an expert and carry it more than four cubits on the New 
Year. The same rule applies to the palm branch (Eulabh) and 
also to the scroll (on which is written the) Book of Esther. 

"After the Destruction of the Temple, R. Jo'hanan b. 
Zakkai Ordained, etc." The Rabbis taught: Once it happened 
that New Year's Day fell on the Sabbath, and all the cities gathered 
together. Said R. Jo'hanan b. Zakkai to the Benai Betherah:* " Let 
us sounds (the cornet) !" "First," said they, "let us discuss!" 
" L,et us sound it," replied he, " and then we will discuss ! " After 
they had sounded (the cornet) they said to him " Now let us dis- 
cuss ! " He answered " The cornet has now been heard in Jamnia, 
and we cannot retract after the act has been performed." 

"But They (the Sages) Say the Rule Applied Both 
to Jamnia and Every Place in Which There Is a Beth Din." 
Says R. Huna, that means, in the presence of the Beth Din. Does 
this preclude people from sounding (the cornet) out of the presence 
of the Beth Din ? And, when R. Isaac b. Joseph came (from 

* A scholarly family of Babylonian descent, much favored by Herod. 

(53^ 



54 

Jamnia) did he not say: When the officiant appointed by the con- 
gregation in Jamnia had finished sounding (the cornet) one could 
not hear his own voice on account of the sounds (of the cornets) 
used by individuals? (Even individuals) used to sound (the cor- 
net) in the presence of the Beth Din. We have also been taught: 
Rabbi says, We may only sound (the cornet) during the time that 
the Beth Din is accustomed to sit. 

' ' Jerusalem Was Privileged More Than Jamnia, etc. ' ' 
(When the Mishna speaks of ) " Every city from which Jerusalem 
could be seen," it means with the exception of a city located in the 
valley (from which it could be seen only by ascending to an elevated 
spot); by " the sounding (of the cornet) could be heard," it means 
to except a city located on the top of a mountain; by, " which was 
near enough," it means to exclude a city outside the prescribed 
limit (of a Sabbath journey); and by, " and to which it was allowed 
to go " it means to exclude a city (even near by) but divided (from 
Jerusalem) by a river. 

MISHNA: Formerly the palm-branch (Lulabh) was taken to 
the Temple seven days, but in cities outside (of Jerusalem) it was 
taken ( to the synagogue ) one day. Since the destruction of the 
Temple, R. Jo'hanan b. Zakkai ordained that the palm-branch 
should everywhere be taken seven days, in commemoration of the 
Temple, and also that it should be prohibited (to eat the new pro- 
duce) the whole day of waving (the sheaf-offering; vide Lev. xxiii. 

11-15)- 

GEMARA: Whence do we know that we do this in commem- 
oration of the Temple? The Scriptures say [Jer. xxx. 17] "For 
I will restore health unto thee, and I will heal thee of thy wounds, 
saith the Lord, because they called thee an outcast, saying, This is 
Zion whom no man seeketh after." By implication (we see) it 
(Zion or the Temple) needs being sought after (or commemora- 
ted). 

"And That it Should be Prohibited to Eat ... on 
the Whole Day of Waving (the Sheaf-Offering) etc." R. 
Na'hmau b. Isaac remarks: R. Jo'hanan b. Zakkai says this 
according to the opinion of R. Judah, for it is said [Lev. xxiii. 
14] "And ye shall eat neither parched corn . . . until the self- 
same day," i. c, until the very day itself, and he holds that when- 
ever the expression "until" (Adh) occurs it is inclusive. How 
can you say the above according to (R. Judah); surely he differs 
from him? For we have learnt: Since the destruction of the Temple 
R. Jo'hanan b. Zakkai ordained that it should be prohibited (to eat 



55 

of the new produce ) the whole of the day of waving I the sheaf- 
offering)! Says R. Judah: Is this not prohibited by the Torah 
which says: " Until the self-same day ? " R. Judah was mistaken; 
he thought that R. Jo'hanan b. Zakkai taught that ( the prohibition) 
was Rabbinical, and it was not so, for R. Jo'hanan also said it was 
Biblical. But does the Mishna not say " he ordained ? " Aye; but 
what does it mean by ' ' he ordained ? " (It means ) , he explained 
the ordinance. 

MISHNA: Formerly they received evidence as to the appear- 
ance of the new moon the whole (of the thirtieth) day. Once, the 
witnesses were delayed in coming, and they disturbed the song of 
the Levites. They then ordained that evidence should onlj- be 
received until (the time of) the afternoon service, and if witnesses 
came after that time both that and the following day were conse- 
crated. .After the destruction of the Temple, R. Jo'hanan b. Zakkai 
ordained that evidence ( as to the appearance > of the new moon 
should be received all day. 

GEMARA: What disturbance did they cause to the Songs of 
the Levites? Said R. Zera to Ahabha his son: Go and construe (the 
Mishna) thus: They ordained that evidence as to the appearance of 
the new moon should not be received, only that there might be time 
during the da}' to offer the continual and the additional sacrifices and 
their drink offerings, and to chant the (daily) song without dis- 
turbing the order. A Boraitha teaches: R. Judah says in the name of 
R. Aqiba, what (song) did (the Levites ) chant on the first day of 
the week? " The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof" [Ps. 
xxiv.] , because he is the Creator, the Providence and the Ruler of 
the Universe. What did they sing on the second day ? " Great is 
the Lord and greatly to be praised " [Ps. xlviii.] , because He distrib- 
uted His works and reigned over them. On the third day they sang 
" God^standeth in the congregation of the mighty" [Ps. lxxxii.], 
because He, in his wisdom made the earth appear and prepared the 
world for its occupants. On the fourth day they sang "O Lord, to 
whom retribution belongeth " [Ps. xciv.] , because (on that day) He 
created the sun and moon, and (determined) to punish in the future 
those who would worship them. On the fifth day they sang " Sing 
aloud unto God our strength" [Ps. lxxxi.] , because (on that day) 
He created birds and fish to praise Him. On the sixth day they sang 
' ' The Lord reigneth, He is clothed with majesty ' ' [Ps. xciii.] , because 
(on that day) He finished His works and reigned over them. On 
the seventh day they sang ' ' A Psalm or Song for the Sabbath Day ' ' 
[Ps. xcii.] , for the day that is wholly Sabbath. R. Xehemiah asked: 



56 

Why did the sages make a distinction between these sections (for the 
last refers to a future event, while all the others refer to the past)? 
It should have been said, that they sang that Psalm on the Sabbath 
day because He rested ! 

What did the Devites sing when the additional sacrifices were 
being offered on the Sabbath ? R. Anan b. Rabha says in the name 
of Rabh: Six sections of Deut. xxxii.* R. 'Hanan b. Rabha also 
says in the name of Rabh, as these sections were divided (by the 
Levites) so they are divided for the reading of the Torah (on the 
Sabbath on which they are read). What did they sing at the Sab- 
bath afternoon service? Says R. Jo' hanan, a portion of the song of 
Moses [Ex. xv. i-io]; the conclusion of that song [ibid. 11-19] 
and the song of Israel [Numb. xxi. 17]. The schoolmen asked: 
Did they sing all these on one Sabbath, or did they, perhaps, sing 
one section on each Sabbath ? Come and hear ! A Boraitha teaches: 
During the time that the first choir of ( Devites who sang at the time 
of the additional sacrifice) sang their sections once, the second choir 
(that sang at that time of the afternoon sacrifice) had sung theirs 
twice; from this we may deduce that they sang but one section on 
each Sabbath. 

R. Judah b. Idi says in the name of R. Jo'hanan: According to 
the Rabbinical explanation of certain Scriptural passages, the Shek- 
hinah made ten journeys; and according to tradition, a correspond- 
ing number of times was the Sanhedrin exiled, viz. : from the cell of 
Gazith (in the Temple) to the market-place; from the market-place to 
Jerusalem; from Jerusalem to Jamnia; from Jamnia to Usha; from Usha 
(back again) to Jamnia; from Jamnia (back again) to Usha; from 
Usha to Shapram; from Shapram to Beth Shearim; from Beth Shearim 
to Sepphoris; from Sepphoris to Tiberias, and Tiberias was the sad- 
dest of them all. 

R. Elazar says they were exiled six times as it is said [Is. xxvi. 5] , 
' ' For he bringeth down them that dwell on high ; the lofty city he 
layeth low; he layeth it low even to the ground; he bringeth it even 
to the dust." Says R. Jo'hanan: And thence (from the dust) they 
will in future be redeemed, as it is said [Is. Hi. 2] "Shake thyself 
from the dust; arise, and sit down, etc." 

MISHNA: R. Joshua b. Qar'ha says: This also did R. Jo'hanan 
b. Zakkai ordain: that it mattered not where the chief of the Beth 
Din might be, the witnesses need only go to the meeting-place (of 
the Beth Din). 



*i-vii; viii-xiii ; xiv-xix ; xx-xxvii ; xxviii-xxxvi ; xxxvii-xliv. These passages are called 
Hazyv Lakh because the initial letters are H, Z, Y, V, L, KH. 



57 

GEMARA: A certain woman was summoned for judgment 
before Amemar in Nehardea. Amemar went away to Me'huza, but 
she did not follow him, and he then excommunicated her. Said R. 
Ashi to Amemar: Have we not learned that it mattered not where 
the chief of the Beth Din might be, the witnesses need only go to 
the meeting-place (of the Beth Din ) ? Answered Amemar: That is 
true in respect to evidence for the new moon; but with regard to my 
action "The borrower is servant to the lender" [Prov. xxii. 7]. 
The Rabbis taught: Priests may not ascend the platform in sandals, 
to bless the people; and this is one of the nine ordinances insti- 
tuted by R. Jo'hanan b. Zakkai; six are to be found in this chapter, 
one in the first chapter; another one is, if one become a proselyte now- 
a-days, he must pay a quarter of a shekel for a sacrifice of a bird, 
(so that if the Temple should be rebuilt the authorities would have 
a contribution from him towards the daily sacrifices). R. Simon b. 
Elazar said, that R. Jo'hanan had already withdrawn this regulation 
and annuled it, because it easily led to the sin (of using the money 
for different purposes). And what is the ninth (ordinance of R. 
Jo'hanan) ? R. Papa and R. Na'hman b. Isaac dispute about this; 
R. Papa says it was wi^h regard to a vineyard of the fourth year's 
crop; but R. Na'hman k. Isaac says it was with regard to the crimson 
colored strap (displayed pn the Day of Atonement). 

MISHNA: The order pf the benedictions (to be said on New Year 
is as follows) : The blessings referring to the Patriarchs (Abhoth), 
to the mighty power of God ( Gebhuroth ), and the sanctification of 
the Holj- name; to these he adds the selection in which God is pro- 
claimed King (Malkhioth), after which he does not sound the 
cornet; then the blessing referring to the sanctification of the day, 
after 'which the cornet is squnded; then the Biblical selections refer- 
"ring to God's remembrance of his creatures (Zikhronoth) after 
which <he cornet is again sounded; then the Biblical selections re- 
ferring to the sounding of the cornet (Shophroth ), after which the 
cornet is again sounded; he then recites the blessings referring to 
the restoration of the Temple, the adoration of God, the benediction 
of the priests; such is the opinion of R. Jo'hanan b. Nuri. R. Aqiba 
said to him, if the cornet is not to be sounded after the Malkhioth, 
why are they mentioned? But the proper order is the following: 
The blessings referring to the Patriarchs (Abhoth), to the mighty 
power of God (Gebhuroth), and the sanctification of the Holy name; 
to this last, the Biblical selections referring to the proclamation of 
God as King (Malkhioth) are joined and then he sounds the cornet; 
then the Biblical selections referring to God's remembrance of His 



58 

creatures ( Zikhronoth;, and he then sounds the cornet; then the 
Biblical selections referring to the sounding of the cornet (Shoph- 
roth), and he again sounds the cornet; then he says the blessings 
referring to the restoration of the Temple, the adoration of God, and 
the priestly benedictions. 

GEMARA: The Rabbis taught: Whence do we know that we 
should recite the Malkhioth, Zikhronoth, and Shophroth ? Answered 
R. Eliezer: From the passage [Lev. xxiii. 24] in which it is written 
"Ye shall have a Sabbath, a memorial of blowing cornets, a holy 
convocation," the word "Sabbath " refers to the consecration of the 
day; "a memorial" refers to the Zikhronoth; "blowing of cor- 
nets" refers to the Shophroth; "a holy convocation" means the 
hallowing of the day in order to prohibit servile work. R. Aqiba 
said to him: Why is not the word "Sabbath" construed to mean 
the prohibition of servile work, since the passage (quoted above) 
begins with that? And then, let the passage be interpreted thus: 
" Sabbath " means the hallowing of the day and the prohibition of 
servile work; "memorial" refers to the Zikhronoth; "blowing of 
the cornets " refers to the Shophroth; " a holy convocation " means 
the consecration of the day. Whence do we know that we should 
recite the Malkhioth ? A Boraitha teaches : The woTds, " I am the 
Lord, your God; and in the seventh mouth" [Lev. xxiii. 22, 24] 
may be interpreted to refer to the proclamation of God as King. 
R. Jose says it is not necessary to cite this passage; for the Torah 
says [Numbers x. 10] "that they may be to you for a memorial, 
before your God: I am the Lord your God." These concluding 
words "I am the Lord, your God" are entirely superfluous, but 
since they are used, of what import are the}' ? They form a general 
rule, that in ever}- selection, in which (God's) remembrance of His 
creatures is mentioned there should also be found the thought that 
He is the King of the Universe. 

MISHNA: Not less than ten Scriptural passages should be used 
for the Malkhioth, ten for the Zikronoth and ten for the Shophroth. 
R. Jo'hanan b. Nuri says the requirements of the law will be fully 
complied with, if but three of each class have been used. 

GEMARA: To what do the ten Scriptural passages used for the 
Maikhioth correspond? Answered Rabbi: To the ten expressions 
of praise used by David in the Psalms. But there are more expres- 
sions of praise found ? Only those are meant, in conjunction with 
which it is written "praise him with the sound of the cornet," 
[Psalm ci. 3]. R. Joseph says they correspond to the ten command- 
ments that were proclaimed to Moses on Sinai. R. Jo'hanan says 



59 

they correspond to the ten words with which the universe was 
created. 

"The Requirements of the Law Will be Fully Complied 
With if but Three of Each Class Have Been Said." The 
schoolmen asked: Does he mean three from the Pentateuch, three 
from the Prophets and three from the Hagiographa, which would 
make nine, and they differ about one (passage)? or perhaps one 
from the Pentateuch and one from the Prophets and one from the 
Hagiographa, which would make three, and they differ about many 
passages? Come and hear ! A Boraitha teaches: Not less than ten 
Scriptural passages should be used for the Malkhioth, ten for the 
Zikhronoth, and ten for the Shophroth; but if seven of them all were 
recited, corresponding to the seven heavens, the law has been com- 
plied with. R. Jose b. Nuri remarked: He that recites less (than 
ten of each ) should not, however, recite less than seven, but if he 
recited but three, corresponding to the Pentateuch, Prophets, and 
Hagiographa, but some say corresponding to the Priests, Levites and 
Israelites, the requirements of the law have been fulfilled. R. Huna 
b. Samuel says the rule is according to R. Jo'hanan b. Nuri. 

MISHNA: We do not cite Scriptural passages for the above 
three series that contain predictions of punishment. The passages 
from the Pentateuch are to be recited first, and those from the Prophets 
last. R. Jose, however, says if the concluding passage is from the 
Pentateuch the requirements of the law are fulfilled. 

GEMARA: Passages, proclaiming the kingdom of God that 
should not be used, (because of the above) are such as the following 
[E/.ekiel xx. 33]: "As I live, saith the Lord God, surely with a 
might}- hand, and with a stretched out arm, and with fury poured 
out, I will rule over you," and although as R. Na'hmau says (of this 
passage ) : Let Him be angry with us, but let Him take us out of 
captivity , still, since it refers to anger, we should not mention ' ' anger, ' ' 
at the beginning of the year. An example of the same idea being 
found in conjunction with the Zikhronoth is to be read in [Ps. 
lxxviii. 3] , " For he remembered the}' were but flesh; and in con- 
junction with the Shophroth an example is found in Hosea v. 8. 
"Blow ye the cornet in Gibeah, etc." We must not mention the 
remembrance of the individual (in the Zikhronoth) even if the pas- 
sage speaks of pleasant things, as, for example [Ps. cvi. 4], 
" Remember me, O Lord, with the favor that thou bearest unto thy 
people." According to R. Jose passages that contain the expression 
of "visiting" may be used in the Zikhronoth, *". g., "And the 
Lord visited Sarah [Gen. xxi. 1] or "I have surely visited you" 



6o 

[Ex. iii. 16] so says R. Jose; but R. Judah says, they may not. But 
even if we agree to what R. Jose says (shall we say that) the passage 
" and the Lord visited Sarah " speaks of an individual (and therefore 
it should not be used) ? Nay; since many descended from her, she 
is regarded as many and therefore that passage though speaking of 
one only, is regarded as though it spoke of man}-. 

(In the Malkhioth, they used Ps. xxiv. 7-10, which is divided 
into two parts). The first part can be used as two of the required 
passages, and the second as three, so says R. Jose; but R. Judah 
says: The first part can be used only for one, and the second for 
two.* So too [Ps. xlvii. 6, 7] "Sing praises to God, sing praises, 
sing praises to our King, sing praises; for God is the King of all 
the earth ; " R. Jose says: This may be used for two of the Malkhioth; 
but R. Judah says it is to be reckoned as one only.f Both, how- 
ever, agree that the next verse of the same Psalm ' ' God is King 
over the nations; God sitteth upon the throne of his holiness," is to 
be used for one only. A passage containing a reference to God's 
remembrance of His creatures and also to the cornet as, for instance 
[Lev. xxiii. 24] " Ye shall have a Sabbath, a memorial of blowing 
of cornets " may be used in the Zikhronoth and the Shophroth; so 
saj'S R. Jose; but R. Judah says: It can only be used in the Zikh- 
roiioth. A passage in which God is proclaimed King, containing 
also a reference to the cornet, as for instance [Numb, xxiii. 21] 
"The Lord his God is with him, and the shout (Teruath) of a 
king is among them," maybe used in the Malkhioth and in the 
Shophroth, says R. Jose; but R. Judah says: It may only be used in 
the Malkhioth. A passage containing a reference to the cornet, 
and nothing else, as for instance [Numb. xxix. 1] " It is a day of 
blowing the cornet; " may not be used at all. 

' ' The Passages From the Pentateuch Are to be Re- 
cited First and Those From the Prophets Last." R. Jose 
says: We should conclude with a passage from the Pentateuch, but 
if one concluded with a passage from the Prophets, the law has been 
complied with. We have also learnt: R. Elazar b. R. Jose says, The 
Vathiqin used to conclude with a passage from the Pentateuch. That 
is all' very well as far as Zikhronoth and Shophroth are concerned for 
there are many such passages; but as for the Malkhioth there are but 
three in the Pentateuch, viz.: " The Lord his God is with him, and 
the shout of a King is among them " [Numb, xxiii. 21] ; " And he 

* He excludes the two interrogative sentences " who is the king of glory ? " 
t He rejects one, because the words "our king," referring to one people only, was not a 
sufficiently broad expression of praise for Him, who is the King of the universe. 



6i 

was king in Jeshurun " [Deut. xxxiii. 5]; and "The Lord shall 
reign forever " [Ex. xv. 18], but we require ten and there are not 
so many ? Said R. Huna: We have learned that, according to R. 
Jose, the passage, ' ' Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, is one Lord " 
[Deut. vi. 4], may be used in the Malkhioth, but R. Judah says it 
may not; so also they hold with regard to the passages, "Know, 
therefore, this day, and consider it in thine heart, that the Lord, he 
is God there is more else ' ' [Deut. iv. 39] , and ' ' Unto thee it was 
shewed, that thou mightest know that the Lord, he is God; there 
is none else beside him." (Deut. IV. 35). 

MISHNA: The second of those who act as ministers of the 
congregation on the feast of New Year shall cause another to 
sound the cornet; on days when the HaelEE (Service of Praise, Ps. 
cxiii-cxviii) is read, the first (minister) must read it. In order 
to sound the cornet on New Year's Day it is not permitted to go 
beyond the Sabbath limit, to remove a heap of stones to ascend a tree, 
to ride on an animal, to swim over the waters, nor to cut it (the cornet) 
with anything prohibited either by the (Rabbinical) laws against 
servile work or by the Biblical laws; but if one wishes to put water 
or wine in a cornet ( to cleanse it) he is allowed to. Children may not 
be prevented from sounding the cornet, but on the contrary we are 
permitted to occupy ourselves with teaching them until they learn 
to sound it; but one who thus teaches, as also others who listen to 
sounds thus produced, do not thereby fulfill the requirements of 
the law. 

GEMARA: Why are the above prohibitions made? Because 
the sounding of the cornet is a mandatory law; now, the observance 
of a festival involves both mandatory and prohibitory laws, and the 
mandatory do not render the prohibitory laws inoperative. 

' ' Children May Not be Prevented From Sounding the 
Cornet, etc." May then women be prevented? Does not a 
Boraitha teach: Neither women nor children may be prevented from 
sounding the cornet on the New Year's Day? Answered Abayi: 
There is no difficulty here; the one is the opinion of R. Judah and 
the other of R. Jose and R. Simon, who say that as women are per- 
mitted (in the case of sacrifices) to lay their hands on the animals, 
so here, if they desire to sound the cornet, they may. 

' ' Untie They Learn. ' ' R. Elazar says: Even on the Sabbath; 
so also does a Boraitha teach: We are permitted to occupy ourselves 
with teaching (children) until they learn (to sound the comet) eveu 
on the Sabbath; (and if we do not prevent them doing this on the 
Sabbath) how much less do we, on the feast (of New Year). Our 



62 

Mishna says, " we do not prevent them " (but it does not say that 
we should tell a child to go and sound the cornet). Is this then pro- 
hibited ? No ; a child already initiated in the performance of reli- 
gious duties is not prohibited, but we do not tell a child, not yet 
initiated, to go and sound the cornet; yet, if he sounds it of his own 
accord, no law has been infringed. 

MISHNA: The order of sounding the cornet is three times 
three. The length of a Teqia is equal to that of three TeruoTh, and 
that of each Tenia as three moans (Yababhoth). If a person 
sounded a Teqia and prolonged it equal to two, it is only reckoned 
as one Teqia.* He who has just finished reading the benedictions 
(in the additional service for the New Year) and only at that time 
obtained a cornet, should then blow on the cornet the three sounds 
three times. As the Reader of the congregation is in duty bound 
(to sound the cornet) so too is each individual; but, says R. Gamliel, 
the Reader can act for the congregation. 

GEMARA: But we have learnt in a Boraitha that the length of 
a Teqia is the same as that of a Terua. Says Abayi: Our Mishna 
speaks of the three series, and means that the length of all the Teqioth 
is the same as that of all the Teruoth. But the Boraitha speaks of 
only one series and says that one Teqia is equal to one Terua (which 
is the same thing ) . 

"Each Terua is (as Long as) Three Moans." But we 
have learnt in a Boraitha, a Terua is as long as three broken (staccato) 
tones (Shebharim ). Says Abayi: About this they do indeed differ, 
for it is written [Numb. xxix. i] " It is a day of blowing the cornet ' ' 
which in the (Aramaic) translation of the Pentateuch, is " It is a 
day of sounding the alarm (Yababha); Now it is written con- 
cerning tne mother of Sisera [Judg. v. 28] "The mother of Sisera 
.... moaned " ( Yat'yabeth); this word, one explains to mean a 
protracted groan, and another to mean a short wail. The Rabbis 
taught: Whence do we know (that one must sound) with a cornet ? 
From the passage in which [Lev. xxv. 9] "Thou shalt cause the 
comet .... to sound, etc." Whence do we know that (after the 
Terua) there should be one Teqia? Therefore it is said (later in the 
same verse) "Ye shall make the cornet sound." f But perhaps this 



*The cornet is sounded three times, corresponding to the Malkhioth, Zikhronoth and 
Shophroth. The order ot" the sounds is Teqia, Terua, Teqia ; Teqia, Terua, Teqia, etc. The 
case here supposed is that the one who sounded the cornet sustained the second Teqia as long 
as two Teqioth, intending thereby to sound the second and third Teqioth. This, we see, is 
not permitted 

t The Hebrew words Utheqatem Terua are interpreted to mean that first a Teqia should 
be sounded, and then a Terua. 



63 

only refers to the Jubilee. Whence do we know that it refers also to 
New Year's Day? Because it says (in the same verse) " in the 
seventh month." These words are superfluous; for what purpose 
then does the Torah use them? To teach us that all the sounds 
of the cornet during the seventh month should be like each other. 
Whence do we know that the sounds are to be three times three ? 
From the three passages, ' ' Thou shalt cause the cornet ... to 
sound " [Lev. xxv. 9] ; "A Sabbath, a memorial of blowing of cor- 
nets ' ' [L,ev. xxiii. 24] ; " It is a day of blowing the cornet ' ' [Numb, 
xxix. 1]. But the following Tana deduces it by analogy from (the 
rules given in) the wilderness [Numb. x. 1-10]; for a Boraitha 
teaches: The words "When ye sound an alarm" [Numb. x. 3] 
means one Teqia and one Tenia. Do you mean one of each, or 
do you mean that both together should constitute one ? Since the 
Torah says [ibid. 7] " But when the congregation is to be gathered 
together, ye shall blow but ye shall not sound an alarm, ' ' we deduce 
that (in the first citation) it means one of each. But whence do we 
know that there should be one Teqia before the Terua. From the 
words [ibid. 5] " When ye sound an alarm " ( /. c, first a " sound," 
or Teqia, and then an "alarm," or Terua). And whence do we 
know that there should be one after the Terua ? From the words 
[ibid. 6] "An alarm shall they sound ! " R. Ishmael, the son of R. 
Jo'hanan b. Beroqa, says: It is not necessary (to deduce it from these 
passages, but from the following ), in which the Torah says, "When 
ye sound an alarm the second time ' ' [ibid. 6] . The words ' ' a 
second time " are unnecessary, but since they are used, what do they 
signify ? They form a general rule that on every occasion, on which 
" alarm " (Terua ) is mentioned, a sound (Teqia) must be used with 
it as a second (or following) tone. Possibly all this only refers to the 
practices followed in the wilderness, but how do we know that they 
refer to New Year's Day also ? We learn it by analogy from the 
use qf the word "cornet" (sic! Terua). which is found in the three 
passages, [Lev. xxiii. 24] "A sabbath, a memorial of cornets; " 
[Numb. xxix. 1] "It is a day of blowing of cornets; " and [Lev. 
xxv. 9] " Thou shalt cause the cornet. . . .to sound; " and as for 
each Terua there are two Teqioth, we, therefore, learn that on New 
Year's Day there are sounded three Teruoth and six Teqioth. R. 
Abbahu enacted in Csesarea that the order should be first a Teqia* 
then three single staccato sounds, or Shebharim, then a Terua, and 
then again a Teqia. What are we to think of that ? If by Terua is 



* The Teqia is a long tone produced by sounding the cornet. The Terua is long tremulous 
sound. The Shebarim consists of three short staccato sounds. 



64 

meant "a protracted groan" then he should have instituted the 
order to be a Teqia, a Terua and then a Teqia; and if it means " a 
short wail ' ' then he should have instituted the order to be, a Teqia 
then Shebharim (three single broken sounds) and then again a 
Teqia ? He was in doubt whether it meant one or the other (and 
therefore he enacted that both should be sounded). 

"If a Person Sounded a Teqia and Prolonged It Equal 
to Two, etc." R. Jo'hanan says: If one heard the nine sounds at 
nine different hours during the day, the requirements of the law are 
fulfilled and we have also learnt: If one heard the nine sounds at 
nine different hours of the day the requirements of the law are ful- 
filled, and if he heard from nine men at one time, a Teqia from one 
and a Terua from another, etc. , the law has been complied with even 
if he heard them intermittently, and even during the whole day or 
any part of the day. The Rabbis taught: (Generally) the sound- 
ings of the cornet do not obviate each other, nor do the benedictions; 
but on New Year's Day and the Day of Atonement they do. 

' ' He Who Has Just Finished Reading ( the Additional 
Service) and Only at That Time Obtained a Cornet Shall 
Sound on the Cornet the Three Sounds Three Times." This 
means, only when he did not have a cornet at the beginning (of 
the service); but if he h^.d one at the beginning of the service 
when the sounds of the cornet are heard, the}' must he heard in 
the order ot the benedictions of the day. R. Papa b. Samuel rose 
to recite his prayers. Said he to his attendant, When I nod to you, 
sound (the cornet) for me." Rabha said to him: This may only be 
done in the congregation. A Boraitha also teaches: When one 
hears these sounds, he should hear them, both in their order, and in 
the order of the benedictions (in the additional service of the New 
Year). These words only apply to a congregation, but one need 
hear them in the order of the benedictions only, if he is not in a 
congregation; and a private individual who has not sounded the 
cornet (or heard it sounded) can have a friend sound it for him; 
but a private individual who has not recited the benedictions cannot 
have a friend say them for him; and the duty to hear the cornet 
sounded is greater than that of reciting the blessings. How so ? 
If there be two cities (to which a person may go) and in one city 
they are about to sound the cornet and in the other to recite the 
benedictions, he should go to the city in which the} 7 are about to 
sound the cornet; and not to that in which they are about to recite 
the benedictions. This is self-evident ! for is not one a duty pre- 
scribed by the Torah and the other by the Rabbis? (It is not so 



65 

self-evident as one might suppose) ; but it is needed to tell us that 
in the case in which one is sure that they have not recited the 
benedictions in one city, and with regard to the other he is in doubt 
(whether they have sounded the cornet or mot, he must nevertheless 
go to the place where the}- are about to sound the cornet. ) 

"Just as the Reader of the Congregation is in Duty 
Bound (to Sound the Cornet) so too is Each Individual." 
A Boraitha teaches: The schoolmen said to R. Gamliel, why accord- 
ing to your opinion should the congregation pray ? Answered he: 
In order to enable the Reader of the congregation to arrange his 
prayer. Said R. Gamliel to them: But why, according to your 
opinion, should the Reader pray ? Answered they: In order to en- 
able those who are not expert, to fulfill the requirements of the law. 
Just as he enables those who are not expert, said he, so too he causes 
those who are expert, to fulfill the requirements of the law. R. Bar 
b. 'Hana said in the name of R. Jo'hanan: The sages accept the 
opinion of R. Gamliel; but Rabh says there is still a dispute between 
them; could (the same) R. Jo'hanan say this? Have we not heard 
that R. 'Hana of Sepphoris said in the name of R. Jo'hanan: The 
rule is according to R. Gamliel: from these words (" the rule is ac- 
cording to R. Gamliel " ) we see that there must have been some that 
disputed with him ! Says R. Na'hman b. Isaac: It is perfectly clear; 
by the words, "the sages accept the opinion of R. Gamliel," R. 
Meir is meant, and the rule arrived at through those who disputed 
with him (was arrived at) through other Rabbis; for a Boraitha 
teaches: R. Meir holds that with regard to the benedictions 
of New Year's Day and the Day of Atonement, the Reader can act 
for the congregation; but the other Rabbis say: Just as the Reader is 
in duty bound, so too is each individual. Why, only for these bene- 
dictions (and no others) ? Shall I say it is because of the many 
Biblical selections used? Does not R. 'Hannanel say in the name 
of Rabh: As soon as one has said (the passages beginning with) the 
words, "And in thy law it is written," he need say no more? It is 
because there are many (more and longer) benedictions (than usual). 
We have also learnt, R. Joshua b. Levi says: Both the private indi- 
vidual and the congregation as soon as they say (the passages begin- 
ning) with the words, "And in thy law it is written," need say no 
more. R. Elazar says: A man should always first prepare himself 
for prayer and then pray; concerning this R. Abba says: The remarks 
of R. Elazar clearly apply to the benedictions of New Year's Day 
and the Day of Atonement, and to the various holidays, but not to 
the whole year. It is not so; for did not R. Judah prepare himself 



66 

(even on a week day ) before his pi avers and then offer them ? R. 
Judah was an exception, for since he prayed only once in thirty 
days, it was like a Holiday. When Rabhin came ( from Palestine) 
he said that R. Jacob b. Idi said in the name of R. Simon the pious: 
R. Gamliel did not excuse from public service any but field-laborers ! 
What is the difference (between them and others)? The}' would be 
forced to lose their work (if they went to a synagogue) but people 
in a city must go (to the House of Prayer). 



max nob "rnanb ■ bx'bcj pnb vb n»x ,K»an ."id Tm Tir ba'np a -, .n 
aananb : a"n anb nox .mb-an nuv tvb& Tianb na anb -?;x ? pbbans 
ara :nnb n»x ppa irxL" ns x^inb na rib res ?na*nn 'jab mv x"b> nob 
aii ,y*^ anoan mra /"nx rraanx .'pan nx x^no "p /pa irxi" nx k , si»B' 
pnV n"x nxma^ n:n 'n n»xm -an pnv '•an nnx ■•km -npibnra KTipH]? nnx 
jxo pmr na \on: an nox C.r6) '^rban bba-a xna^n b&bm pna xnabn 
rpbca'Tv btri n"n be niana ,x"onn .pan /rban bbara nabni ;*tob s an ,om» 
ba -p ,a*»n nnx n-b^"' ara ,x"am ;D"n nan /nam t a-ann x^iia Tiant 
bxjjn an n?axm ? *snp ^an aitro x^b'x ? ^n kjb> *sd .3"n Tnn tit 
Wni dil"o xbx ?-pv irx aw nraxb ama inmnai no«B> ;va ,an n?ax 
n,minai noxc pra nia-x nnxi vrv nnx :nb p jKsnrr s an nrox ,nojTK .mana 
•bbarv a"nxi inb'an anx tid^ abiyb nrybx n"x -"ins irx aic noxb ama 
bax /Q'-pna bfcn 3"rr ben n"n be manaa nrybx 'nn irnb'o xnanaD ,xax n"« 
jva ,rrwr an ^xe ? "bv?ai rwibx nnDo nmn" 1 3-1 xm /rx .x} njen ban 
n-x na apj? s n"x p3n xnx »a .nan a^iaa /bvn xin per pnbnb pov pnbnon 
«D'3M1 aie>o ? e>"£ ,nine>ae> ay xbx >«"»boJ pn naa xb rKTDn pyrae* n"x 

.xb rya bax ,naxboa 

'3 .ypn w^i Ti'a ox n nx it pssya ;<x nvayn paa saSjn r ni3iai rnjppn -.-loxp >oa 
ms nx 1-130 i*n» Sax ,*iias nnian ,"vj? irnn x^x .nsnan 'no^Di? ja^ ,"iS M3i»na 
d» mso» i»3ia»n Ssn -|S' d«» lS sin »»m ,psD xm '«ii wn .n'ypn yen j?pw 3-nxi 
DHia .cnSa ,n ,;, Smr2 iias noS .an 1 :'? iaSm nay 123 xo» pypinn Sss i^' 0x1 rntry 
naSni ,a"-i 3"Hm njtrn »xi hv ni3i:3 iS ,c'-;ia jxb .mm run ip^nic inx ,a>a3n 
,]33i .jnpiSnoa noyn SSso yotsran ina Sx ,; ?a."i 1313 nsSn pnv '-1 iaxpn ,^r£n SS30 
nun3Ti moSai nni nas'n trxi ^snian >o\vi ,'xip 'C"S3T .»"na pin D'oann ixts* 
iQ3 laisi niso3 -^s ! ? anpai n»j?3 loxtt* ;va -101S3 ,aina irmnai loxt? ;va .ronswi 
yen ]x3 nne ,'ti'nsi oitro x^x .psoian rnxipo noiS ,-jns px .-nmna w?j? nana» 
ntno tptw f ]v\hrh pn^no .nnyio ,o»pi3 Sci .;na j»x'p3 S3n pxn mytsoi msiixi 
p^iavi »d^k xSn niffa ,xS Tyi Sax ,ox>sio y»w ,'ia n»n ibis ,cv critr Sa ma^ri 

.jnSsn TicnS 
v -nien cxn naora nb xp^bai aita av n,by pnn 



pinn -itj?3 rp w sb n";nn -nn n"n '2 or cisnn rras nn^j] 
uar p ,n3it^»nn ns majbi moS iraw am .njn msb 
.ids ♦nainrmn Knaoan na maabi moS 



noi^ moi?n ? nnnxS nonpar pjoi "njmn naisr mayni,, (no x-ipi j S"n 
."Trawi enna ff -»mb iiobn ? pan njpn pira ,pava xi>x n pxi ,"-iaifc> rvapn* 
mnn niynn pa iiw ? , y , ac:»n trma p"n noi /"jracpn tnna,, a"n px£> (."6-> 
inat pnaK> ,njrnn naiB> maym„ Wi whwvhw ^ b6b6 pae .no nt wapn 
"mqjO xom nanoo K"':a n^» *n w » x^n »jwti -"aaS nvn nynn av ,nynn 
"jsa nypn noix nnx ; novy 'aaa nynni novy »jaa nypn "nynn anypni,, 
noix KinB»a ? sti nnx nynm ny'pn x^x irs ix ( novy yaa nynni no^y 
nynni novy ^aa ny^pn noix <w "lynn xSi lypnn ^-ipn nx b'npnai,, (obO 
p'joi ."nynn anypni,, (ntr) non mobn ? n<:ai> noipap pj»i ; novy 'jaa 
"•an pb> ua ^>xyoe» ■•an ."lypn 1 nynn,, (dp) -ion mobn ? nnns6 noi^at? 
b"n pxe> /'not? nynn anypni,, noix xin nn :-pv wx ,noi« Kpna p onv 
rroB> nypn xnn nynn -io&«b> aipo btr ,ax nja n? ? not? V'n noi ,not? 
niynn B^tjn ; &s>":6 nynn nynn ^"n ? poo n'ha nanoa x!?x n px 5 n> 
(na xip'i) /'nynn ai\, 0= "mo) /'nynn jnar pnaB>» (aa ^P'O nfna now 
B>E>1 mynn 'J piop irvo ,nnxi nnx baS niypn Tit? /'nynn nait? nnayni,, 
,nynn ,Dnae> b6b> ,nypn : nDpa max 'an ppn'K .n"ia nox: niypn 
Tayp ma 'no: s xi ,nypm nynn ny'pn rayb ^ ^n* "x s "|t?aj no .nypn 
ypn .Wp ^n- 'X ,mj mm "$ : nn xpqdo ? ny^pni nnat^ ntrbtJ' ny^pn 
nw ytrna mypn ycrn (:1^) yo^ pnv n"x -Dvn^a n>:ca ^»i njicxia 
anx oa 'bo ,xv s ova niy^ yi^na mypn yc?n yotr /an s oj x^n -xv ova 
n"n .nia nvn Sa l^axi ,p3iT , D3 i^axi x^ nro nynni nio ny^pn nnxa 
n"n b& maiai niy'pn ,it nx it nuayo p« nma ,1T nx it maayo ps mypn 
xoyo -ypini ynoi ypin naie> n n^onj a"nxi pw "o .niaayo a^n 1 - ^1 
niaia -iidx inb yot^ ""a ^xip'yo naiB> nn mn xn /Xip^yo iai^ nn mn x^n 
•^ ypn i^b xn^nj 'a .T'yocb n^ nox ,"ibvb op ^xioc ia xsq ai -inb yoB> 
by jyoitr ,|yo"ity xin^a 'an *oj x^n .n^y nana x^x nox xS ,xan jvb nox 
jyoi^ ~\'y nana xb^ !?ax n>y nana amox anan noa ; nma mo ?yi "nan 
l-ran px rTJ'a xbty Tn^i ; n ypin iTan ,ypn xW n»m ; niana ma py 
pypin nnxa nn^y '•n^ ? "wa ; panaon jo nnv pypina nixoi ; vby Tnao 
xn ! XB"^a pa-iaoi^ aipo? "6in pxi ,pypinc> oipoS pa^>in ,paiao nnxai 
-nav n^vv at^a .paD xm ••xm xm j"yxn ,xanx x^> ? pan xn xmmxn 

1 " t»» -1 

nDian dijo ,W' '^ .in'nin'SJta panMD» D'Sinn -pna ia^n n:un m«3 ,nw »m3J 
dih nimpo noaa jS ana sm ,iaiS moSn p»w .htS m psiao onsp mSip |aipoi 
.nnx Sip niayn yotro naits'S ,ninj»m .a^na anisan oi» sam sin 'yawn cnna anisan 
tvish n-ic'Q "i;m pao f whv vhv .n»n3a Na^na nynni Bflfii nSnn niayn nn r nnyn 
S"n ?«nn nncitrSi j<in manaAi sin nraSoS :»aon snSn tanay ysiasa 'ynm nnn«Si 
n^jsS naie'Q Nnnc ,ianaa .nnnsS nuiti'si n^eS nmcs nn« SaS /aon NnSn ,nynn 
sSk ,»'« is .nvnn pypin vn p"m ten snn sra<n sSi /ia nosy 'JEa .nnnsS 'tsnven 
lypnn niyDOai SSao l'ynn sSi ij?~nn i?dis sinca .nynn pypin vn p"m s'n nns 
iras naat* ,n>atr S"n pst? .nynn mm ,nnypni .nypn nS np sS nynni *iosp lynni 
n»atr nynn snn .sin n»aen s'J'cb onypm nras *nn >a >aiSs nana yoai nynn onypni 
niynn ,my»pn yen .in"nn najn ,n»S spsno .nynnS n'ac* nypn onypm n^sp 'am .nS 



[i onan) ,ni33» nrx nois rriw 'n ,*ov 'n nan ,ni33& "nnx *n irn?x 'n 
; »m< 1 nil ,ni33D /"my px ovfotn mn 'n <3 n,aa3 3x nnt?,m ovn nymi„ 
my px D?&Kn xin 'n »3 nyni n^xnn nnx,, (dc) ni33o nrx pox nm.m *n 
_"0Q3 nniyn ''•jfiB .nia^o nrx noix mw 'an ; -dv 'n nan ,ni33» » J Yiate 
"no 'D3 #>nn ns xipa ppmn 3?nr nyc*'3i ,ypn» wn n"n 3t? B**a nmn 
l'x n"n 38? nei&? '""JflO .ut? ni33»n nrt: nyt?3 pnv n"x ?jppno *j&? mp 
r'y pawn 161 ,j>K3 pbiy X3 ,3Jn nx v?y pnpso pxi ,mnnn nx vbv pmayo 
pa ,ni3ts> dii?b xint? nan3 pa mix psnm pxi ,Dv:n 'jb 3y put? Xt>i ,hdh3 
p33yn px .pr ,p ix nvz lsinb pv3 nn dx 33X ; nt?yn X3 nit?D xint? n3nn 
yDit?m ,x>r X3 poynoni ,in»3"&? ny jnoy ppoyno 33X ,yipn3» nipunn nx 
n&?y pxi ,nt?yn N31 nt?y ta"n ,xm ntry nsic? ? d«o 'qj .nv X3 pDynon p 
d*s?j xn .yipn3» nipirnn nx paayn px (.:6) -nc?yi nc?yn X3 nx nmn 
? t3'"a yipnta mpirnn nx X3i bnmpi nx X3 paajns px : x^nm ? paayo 
.mtn nisttiD dt*: n»8n ,pyDP':rn w »an xn ,mw 'n xn ,p"3 ,"3x nox 
i^lx nc'/v ny jns ppoyno ,n"jn .nafc?a i3'sx nry3x '•an nnx . tf nc?'fc? ny„ 
xin xaisy .anta ora noi3 nn* pxi ,n3t?a yipnta nipirnn paayo pxi ,nat?3 
yam? japa 0:6) ;x3 x^*p xp ?iypn pnox xb nb^nnsp xn ,paayo xbn 
.t?3t? c?3^ 3t? t?3t? my<pn nnD y,| jnQ -mj»n? y^n N3c? |Di53 |X3 ,n,i3*n? 
n"jt?a -|t?oi njij?x-i3 ypn .maa^ 'J3 nynn myt? ,mynn t?3t?3 njrpn my^s? 
ypmi ynoi ypm r nait? 13 njon: n,3 nnxi n.n^as? <o .nnx x3x n^a px D*nt?a 
: nDix b^POJ tan ,a«n n^nn I'm 3a n,a ,a M n nn^ n^t?^ ds?3 -n^ya 'j 
new ?nynns nypn myt? x^nni 'oj .jnsin n' D^ann nx X'vie ma'V n^f 
xp xin x^n ; 'aa mbnn mynni '3a inbian my'pn 3 , t: , n xp ^ , ^ xjn r^ax 
nc3t?3 nynn myc? x^nm .nna 1 '33 nynn niyt? 4 x3 ini ,X33 nn 3"{?n 
"D33 n>n> nynn dv„ (oa 12103) 3 s nsn ,T3a 'xm xn3 ,"3X nox ? D*n3cr 
nspt?3 p3nn ny3„ (n trasic) x-iD^n n , DX3 S'nsi ,|i33 xm X33 1 dv p^cannisi 
?nmt'3t? p^o ,p3nun • 3 , 3'' ^n 1 ~i3D noi /mj ••mjj n3D no /'xnD'D dx 33»ni 

pBDia n^Bn SSshon ,y»pna ''jno .n-nnn D*St8>a >'n loxpi mm jno »2iKi ,icv p'ya 
D»3i« ,ijc ( nnSon mM ny»3 'dj .2"b i'31'ya lanoxna SSn tts'b n'^ian ,SSnn .ypna 
.psoiaa yipYiS m*rayn naS nnnc nSsn ypb mj?» e»c ^a onS paiw vm iypn' nSb* nw 
.M3B ;pna sp janax nSi ,'w n»a .ny»pn yiae^j DinnS pin i 1 ?' 1 ? ,mnnn ns ''jno 
latnc r'at 'la^S nmusT ,p2a; % a cea xn .in«ai:nS »yan ,paaj?a ubi xin nipwn '03 
M*nD'8 to 1 ? xip inanusi a"y« xaSx nitri maaio .«)'Din Sa xa^x 'ypn 01 ,x\n kbu 
.paapa p«» wsn mcfrv inn ppDyna ,ii3'nS yunc jap .xau larntr nvy nisaS n"m 
nypn ,»^» vhv bv ahw .miBitr 1 ? nnxi nunatS nnxi nvaSaS nnx ,'ia trSt? '^no 
nam's ,niwxia .xintr Sa xaSya niSip ^ ,niaa* vfav .nnxi nnx W nypm nynni 
mv» D^nty »t na r\»ih n'nB'a i^a nj?nnn inx bv nypn ,n'aca icai .nynnn asSt? 
,nnx xSx n»a px .nuiian n>*shv nuitt'sn nvaSai nnnxSe* news it nitryS i,n^ 
.maia nyvn 1,1m psoia nSsn Wenn ^I'au' 'a .p^posa nb wnvb nnx nypn »piDQi 
iaxp »am ,»aa inbia^ 'oj jninw S'Dtt'a pi miliar ^»a»a jai nvaSa ^aca # d»bj?b 'j 
xn^a xin w"iini nynnn "njwa nypnn nytf ,xaa xim .niynnn 'Jia niypn 'J iiytr 
Sy u'Sb xS xtj"i2i x:a'pixi xyx ,u'Ss 'xn xna "3X iax .niaaia n»anx ,nnats> /iax 
.aa'ni xitt"S »«n 'aa a»na xid'di n»B^«ai x:;' njrnn ,]:v:iinai .wbs xb*d xna ima 



rr t-"~- Mj^ni^SI Stow 86 

niL"!) naaa nrax e|ov 21 ."-ibis? ypna mibbn,, tap ctoin) inn a"nan "jan i nn 
xnaa inner rrnDKo mtry na:a ,ncx pnv "an /roa ntrob ib nowp nmnn 
,minn p e6b> : ^np »yn ,inb K'iD'K xv jbiara b6» b6b> ion bx -a^iyn 
,xrabn ix ? xnn lm^a xa\xi ,ycn 11m ,amnan p trbtn ^sraan p b^» 
xaw ,b6b» in!? pirn Hainan p nnxi ,flwaan p nnxi ,rrnnn p nnx 
mpyo ,manaT mews rW3^ mw pnma p« -.x^am ,^'n ?K3ua ma 
,-iftix nu p pnv *an .BTpn nyac* naaa ,kjp ,ibiaio yap irax bxi ,nninp 
,amnai a'xna rnwi naaa ,xv jbiao t"bc nias axi ,yacp n1^3 , xb nrcian 
pnv ma nabn bullae? ids xain an ncx .a^tn^i a^ib a-ana 1323 nb noni 
mina b'nno ,may-iia btJ> nnam manar ,nraS» pTa?» px '^DD .ma p 
paa nvabo 'DJ C:^ 1 ?) xtf" mina d^kti as* ,-idik *dv un ; xnaa d^pdi 
•pbrax naiBtr nranai miraa ynrai ,nprn T3 xb ax 'n axa ^x , n„ (3 toptnO 
xnnnan p*3 ^pina^i py n"ap nmn xnnn *xn "a ba: jona Y'xn a"yxi "Da'ny 
ijya "a man,, (ny c ,! n) paa pnar 5 pnano xb xnt? m3 xnm manx mox 
Tm btf pnar p-rato px ,'iai "ny3a3 "ibib> iypn„ (n ytwn) paa ,-ibibs> 'iai "nran 
paa nianara jn nn manps /npy pvna 'n *anar» Op n^nn) paa ,naitab ib'BKi 
'n ,'dv "V'n "aanx nnpa nipB,, (a mac) paai ,"m&> nx nps 'ni„ («a 'wki) 
nps 'm nianara jn nn nianpan ^oa s na •'dv mh .nijinara }a*N ,n»ix min 1 
ixk',/ (^ n^n) .Knsn D"aia na-D can inxn p^a ?xin T-nn pnpa rn^ nx 
/or '"i nm ^^ n^asy ,dtik' naiB'xn "n^D niaan i^d ny ."iai aa^'xn anytr 
uabob n»T i"i»T D^n^x iinr,, 00 cr) e^nty n^jtr ,nnx njicxn ,nnix ririrp 'n 
piun ; nnx ,-ioix min^ 'n : ^dv /_ i ,_ ian ,a^n^ "a^nbx pnxn ^a i^n »a not 
ta i^tr piar .nnx x^^* y "iL*np xaa by a^ 11 a^nbx a^ia by D'n^x iboa,, [db») 
,nianarn ay mnix ,"L M ~np xipn nynn pnar .mar,, (^ mpn) paa ,njrnn 
manarn ay xbx moix irx ,n?aix nmn^ 'n -/av 'n nan rfinaiK'n ay niDixi 
;"\2 ibro nynm i?ay vn^x 'n„ (^ imo) pja ,nynn iny ^B' niabo ; naba 
irx ,n»ix min' 1 '1 ; -av 'i nan ,nnaiB>n ay moisi nvabnn ay nnnix 
ar„ (03 lanoi) paa ,ara xb n?:>y px^ nyiin .naba nvabnn ay x?x moiN 
mom la'x ,-ijdix min^ "-an pav »an nan ,imBWn ay nnoix "aab n-m nynn 
a'b^n axi .mina anco iroix -dv 'i /X^aa ancrni mina b"nno .-ip^y ba 
.mina nnix prance vn pp">m ,'av '•ana nrybx n"x nn ^a x^an -x^ xnaa 
'n„ : (.13 dbO pm Kin nbn nvabo xbx xaita xa^x nneien nianar xop^a 
libra'' 'n„ ,(iq mo?] "ibto pniE^a "nn„ ,(sb o"m) /; ia ibra nynm my vnbx 
bxnty yot^ff (1 onm) xan xam an "idx ? xani icy p^ya pxi "nyi abiyb 

,noSh ik 'roa .D3S jhn ':x ;m ,! ? xm ,B3»n^M 'n '3N .nynn in3T »ya»n anna 
,nnsits^ c'Styi ,niai"i3TS tr^en ^nva^o 1 ? t^• ! 7t^ , /xp nnsici ni:n3Ti nvsSox 'j 'j »xn 
,02*13 ins D'avi 'raa .ooman 10 nnxi D'X'aah jo nn<i minn p nnx nS 11m 
x 1 ? ,Mshab no: .x; ,, :o*: ixS m:3n i^o r(T sin 'a ,D'ntt' nests' ,m»pB x'nnn 
XD3 Sy 3B" p'jo xSt '13 j'lts'i .nns hdtx Sj? xSx nn3' ; ?2X xhi mini »3*1 3'B'n xp 
.xnns lEit? 10TOT "ij? xin nnEic pcS ixb nyiin ,man3Tn ny .hrsSo pti'Sn icip 
4 enoa nnxi nSnn: cStt' minn ja ynx inS mm ,niin3 .D"nj3 n'awani ,n'x»a3a o^cai 



nwi pis rwn irai ^ta dt» 



35 



rDXna»6 KB*IK»1 ,XtTlxb rUTEl ,nja s b X^N01 fSBnab H3T01 (:&6) ,nj3^ 

,jbian npmy 'nam ,«n3ta> mavDi ,mavb Dny&? marai rDnjnpn'ab nyna^oi 
n»xats> ,mb:i bw n»iM ntybx *an .'nam pup nbaen,, Cm rrjw) nox:t:* 
ny nayr pu ny nbw nabiatr najt^a nnp diid ntrv njyn s a„ (ia b») 
,*»aty <oip nayo nyann,, (^ or) nDxae> b&wb pTny dpdi ,pnv 'n nox "nay 
trxi ib^xtr /xat p pnv pi ppnn nsr myi ,nnnp p ycnrv n n»x '""UTO 
Knnw kvwi '03 .nynn aiprab xbx pabin onyn in 1 Kb&? ,oipo baa p ma 
ana ,nnna nbtK xbi xnnrab invax bt« ^jmrwa nonain rrop xanb maotsn 
baa in ma t^xn ifc'BK pn px «m : n»'»xb '^k an mb nox ^nbvy xmna 
cnnnmnypayb n^ 'an ,b"x Jijmn mpob xbx pabm anyn in- 1 xbt? ,mpn 
Dmbnaoa mbyb psen Dnna px ,n"n ."mbo tno nib nay,, (aana<a) xan bax 
rNDp xpnsn xnm xpma "-xm ivb> : fan ppnnv niapn yc»nn nnx in ,pnb 
naa ,x"acn nox .irpb yam ttnew -jnv ntn pa n«ana&? nj :X"jm yrw\ 
an ^"am X2D ann xmnbs ?itxi -nbpnn nao ,n*>D»ai pnv pi mby njnj 
nnD '■'JDH (.2^ .mmnt b^ pcb n»x prop na pana an ryan ma nrax xaa 
rnsnnp ,ypm irxi poy nrctts bbiai f DE»n ntPinpi romaai max n»i« :niana 
iD'ana naiai nxmm nmay noixi ,ypmi ninai&y ,ypim mainat ,ypim dint 
? mato xin nob ,nrab»b ypm irx dx : y"i lb nox ; ma p pnv 'n nan 
niJiiar ,ypini nvn ncmp ny nvabo bbiai ,nc*n nmpinmaji max "itoix xbx 
)«ao ,n"n 'Di -D?ana naiai nxiini miay idixi ,ypim nnaity ,ypim 
par pnaty,, (^ mp?\) ,a'nan ,-idix x ; 't ? nnsm nunar nvabo nnoixL" 
m-iaitr ibx nynn ,nui-iaT ibx par rDi^n nenip n? pnaty "unip xipra njrnn 
inxj xb no "jdd : xa'py , a-i ib nox .naxbo n^^ya wivnp cmp xtpo 
pat ,naxbo m^ya \nunp pnac xbx ? n^nn ainan nna lat^ mac pnat? 
onoix^ p^ao .dim nemp it khip xipn ,nnew ibx nynn ,mmaT ibx 
"•dv n ; niabft it "^a^n ^nnai na^bx 'n ^x,, ( uv) -ioix m x^n ? nvabta 
"na^bx ^aab piaib Dabvm,, •mo3)-iDi« xin nn ,-jnx irx noix miir -ia 
,nijnaT ia -idxj^ DipD bab ax naa nT ? b"n nrai ,Da^nbx 'n •ox b"n px^* 
n-i*L"y» ,nunaT nv L "yo ^rabo mtyyo pnms px y, jn*D .jnoy nvabo rm 
nvaba nntry ^n 'DJ -xv jbiao 'a 'a irax dx r.oix ma p pnv nn , mnsic" 
xaita D'bvb'.n .D"bn nDDa nm nox-j* omb^n mwy njja "an n»x ? , o nj^a 

.nan^ scino ii:m ,Ssfo^ pi >o*a kbm« ,pni' pi 'B*a n:a> .sbinS nsa'oi ,atp iaB"i 
.j'jiao npioi' xnaui .nn »ai 't3»a j'jia snatai ms^si nn^tr rra .ntn wa pva» pi wai 
p« ny nSn n^str» nn na^BB" xin ntr'n r nna cl- .njc niyaon S:a ts vn nnsc* 
oipoS nSs 'nrift .isy^i p» iy na^str' io'eS »sbi cr lay ny ntron nayy yan« 
.]nnoo nnx as ,a"xi .xnrac iac* ,sn'ns 'oj ,i"3 cxi s^a imtr'ip' jmnaoi nynn 
xn'm nyats» S^a aSn sn»ci pypin in^c ppnn "anm »om >xn xin ,spi's ;xm n'c 
xim nvnn mpoS xSx paSm ony in' xSai nvn S= p^apa inTi nrx nia q;n nn 
in pi ian »«n ia»m Spc* ,yan .na^a ntrm jca iy xSx pSino in' x^« ,xap xpisi 
nmrai max "jn» .laanpi wa»a unpen ma naa' xrar ia\-;i yaii ens' laS'n ,jp »»i 
ainan ia nns nn» '»a .tr^e* cir Sr niypn tr-'-ca msai ,'ia ypim ann ncn-i 'ia 
nn -pool aityn ini »aj,ni ^ca'n^x 'n »a« ,ip»y xnr naxSran bv vmnb xa xim ,nS»nn 



r ys-\ pis nj^n E?K1 -^ ^ 34 

ppnn o"na nirnra -snip nnsbi chip avn mix pjnu ,nbyobi nruon p any 
D'lbn ibpb'P bipb" 1 ? no 'qj .nvn ba snnn nny paps trpB> "kst p pnv pn 
nny pbapia in" 1 xbtP irpnn :inb nn pia nna nanxb ktt 'n b"x ?Tts>a 
nvs? nmbi /Qn^DJi paDioi pTon anpnb ova mn^ KiTB> na xbx /tsnnn 
? anmx vn to pewia :y"n aico nnix rrorr *an x^n (.fr6) .enanw xbt^ 
no wa ; vabiya \ybtr\ njpm napp dv by "nxnoi pnxn 'nb» C"» o'Snn) 
; prby iboi vcyo p^rw bb> Sy "nxo bbinoi 'n bna„ (na dp) ? anois vn 
woana pnx n^jc dc? by "?« nnya a*a D'n^K,, (as or) iDnoix vn -^bca 
non xnac:> &>"y //y n ninpa bx„ C* or) : anew vn *y*ana ; innyb ban pam 
"iany nnbxb imn» fxs or) :on»iK vn n^ona jjnnaiyo ynan Tnyi n^abi 
nbo 'n„ (« or) s d^d'.k vn *wpa ; i»e'b na^b n^m niciy map de> by 
(a* or) :DnD'.K vn 'jraea ; ;nny n,bni inaxbo noaK> dc by "crab nixa 
pbnb avaan ixn no ^ona 'n nox -nacy lbotJ' orb ,"na^n ovb tb> mono,, 
an noxn ,wt3p ana ybs'Dpi. ;napp db> by 'yatia* s6k ?ibbn a^nan pa 
Dva nab '" awn,, i? try*) nDKatP ,ann nm *»by 'in w 'aba nn»r wop 
no xnacn ^DDioa ."Dn:vo ivn\, (1 yrm) noxaty ann nn -iox "ax ,"Ninn 
nox xan na pn an now .-|b i"nn ,an nox Nan na jay an nox ? onoix vn 
?Dnoix vn no xnatrn xnn^oa .nDjan n^aa ppibn n,a fsa n^ibntr n,nna ,an 
xna^ nna inbia »an onb K^ya'N .n"&» tni nioa ^di ,n , ^ , ' tx ,pnv 'n nos 
ny ,"dv n /; x x^nn ,yo^ xn ? nn nox xnacn xnaL" ba xobn ix ,inb nox 
no« xnacn xna^ ba n:^ yot? ^dtik' nnnn n^jK' ,nnx mois njicxnn^ 
^xnpo ,nva^ nyDJ niyDD -iK»y ,pnv n"x n^n na nnin^ ai nox .nro y»E> nn 
a^nn^i /D^cwb nvunoi nvvjnb ,rwan na^bo .xnoaD ,pnruo nnb: pas\ 

ino nny ixi^ 1 »nr rnp 12 una njfiwn onrj? nn narnran »«p ravn r«ia ,rnip 
any 1x3 dki ,ni2an ny ovn Sa i-aS ;ai sin u"' W nm nS'Snr sva:i T'a imnp'i 
nSyaSi n~uon ]a dki ,rmp 12 un: ns^r pnwi rnnn nx cripa p nn nnjan D-tip 
o«m:i a"Byn i^a 1 ? imrnp« bibx ns nayi ovn lripS jm* papa T'a pK» B"y« ixa 
D^n Sa nasSa 12 iryi nxan naao nn nitS;S »nx mhn nax^an iisni nrnpa imx 
,mS un pis 'DJ .Sin la wjnai iairn nSya^i nnaan jai oan rnip 12 laana npnrx nasi 
D'ar ,napr .iiatan Sa ,p«n 'nS 3m hv in* naxr na^' naaar it xn"i3 on^nar 
oainy pa ypi ''nan ,vrya pS.-r .mapnS na nnp laiSa na nnn San ,napm .psi 
jnaNa ca* nrr Sar ,iSSn nvrisn pa pSnS yn nx-i na .onaa acn nSynii ''ainnn^ 
nn n^aia "1 ,x:nsp a-na uSe'a xpi ,x;nS nr by nar Sri *iayr or Sy iS^n cp-ian 
la'Txn ni'r nans ,yb vnn .nax i'r 'xa ,xn:n naiaa .»atn xSx ,xa'Bp an nn 
,pxan 'n xti ,px 'ma: by inam< ,nSiy mc iiar ,ia>mn :o'pis nra'S nnix onSin 
nna ppSin na .jya nxrn m»Bn 'pin ,ppiSnr inna -iay 'n pn» n ,nax a'ix oya ,; iS 
ni'r f i'tS" tx .;SnSi ni'rn pa xnip 'mi mm iq^: pxiipn nrr nnix pxiip ia ,n^aan 
nax xnar nna .ixa 'Syi Sxir r *rr> mi jrvvn qia ny ,-iaiaa »ai .naiaa 'a ny D»n 
7'DDian nn'r ,nairxnnr ty .nnx -^2 nnx narS pnsi pnD Sa ,xaSn in .ciSn ,inS 
>pn»B n»r onnn ,a'nr nn;in .onnyn n'an Sr nnaan nn'r ,n":r .mx oya rfybn nnnn 
n"xn nira 'is myaa nry .cSia pi n"ar nara mrr ,nnx na»a ian«n rxn'-n xam 
•ixanra aya aya Sxnr' Sya pSnanS ,n;'ar nyoa .Man nS tapa naa' Sr niapna ''ana 
nnn nna cnS icy nvan ,nvar,S nnan narSa .('xnpx naai inS 'rnn nrsiSa ,'xnpa) 



n^ bax ,pypw vn enpoa ,nat!>3 nvnb bnsr njen exi be 31E DV 
Dip» ^sn pypwi m^ ,"xaT p pnv p-i ppnn enpDii rva aine» , nno: 
;i3b3 nwa xbx ,na? p pnv pi ppnn xb ,iTy?x »m ion .pi rra n k w b> 

rvrrr D^bew rovn nxr ivyi .p rpa ia enp Dipo ba mxi nja 1 mx lb nox 
vn xb rm^ai ,pyE>in xub nbia^i nanpi nyDiL*>i nun n , Hb> -pp bse ,nj3" by 
rfoma f rra iim Kin pan xai iiax ? »"njtD 'qji .nabn p rraa xbx ,pypin 
tibiS" 1 xoe nm riaie ny*pna px^pa ban pxi ,tbw ny^na pa«n ban nan noxn 
ti«m ,abibn xoya ia«m .n"i3 ni»x 'n irvajn ,iiobb "pan bvx -jb'T ,W3 
oys ,p3i un .'ia 'xdt p pnv pi ppnn eipon n s a amea .nb'am xoyo 
"jab ^xar p pnv pi D.nb irox ,pDjan» onyn ba vm ,nae>a nvnb n"i bn nnx 
nraxvypne mxb ;pj a"nxi ypnj :anb i»x ; pna nb iidx ;ypn: :rrvna 
•ib nox .neyo inxb pa'eo pxi .srau pp nyoej iaa : anb i»x ,pj : lb 
■"piDxb fpn iva ^aa (.*?) ,x:in an iox .T'a ia c"L" dipd ba mxi nw nnx 
xn^be d^do nin "-a ,i»x ?pv ia pnv an xnx 'a ,xni ?xbn pn n"a 'jaa xbe 
vn Y'a 'jsa ? »KTm xnypns n^ix bp trvx yotr xb ,naa^3 nypn xiia'vn 
.'vai nja- by mw .paw ypl" jot b3 xbx pypin px »m iiax ^oj norvK .pypin 
pin naevb bid nanp ,mn trxia natrrb Di& nyoitr ,bma natrvb did nxn 
enpea ton abibn n^n njvj'xia '"'jna .xnnjnb p^sobDiDXiabnbia^rDinn^ 
abib xn^» ^xar p pnv pi ppnn vnpvn n s a anntw ,nnx dv nrnoai ,nyae 
larpnayn jbjoi 'D3 -tidx lbia^n dv xn^i ,cHDob tar nyar* njnoa bo'J 
•'a 'n dxj qxa-ix i^vaooi "|b nanx nbyx ""a,, (h rvar) xip nosn ? vnpch 
ma «i3n dv xn^'i .rom x"yai bbao "nb px Knn x^n jvx ib ixip nmj 
,moK ^^^n , »an ncea (:S 'xar p pnv pi pmp na ton: ai ion iidx 
"•oi .b^>aa nyi ny -qdpi ,dv be icvy ny "nrn nvn avy ny„ (.13 mpi} ioxn 
pnv pi ppnn enpon n'a aineo ,pm ? n'by 3'ba vbso xm n^nia nb iaD 
a^ai ,iidx xin minn \o xbni ,min , » i"x pidx ibia ^an dv xn-L" "'xdt p 
'xar p pnv pi iaD in-x -/yo xpi xin mw 'i onn ? nrn Dvn my iy 
em rppnn , xo ? ^np ppnn xni .ioxp xn^nxio ,x"n xbi ,ioxp pane 
ciyn inn^j nnx Dys ,ovn ba i"-nn nny pbapo vn nntrxia '"'jno .ppnni 
ixa dxi -nnaon iy xbx pbapia in" xbtr irpnn n^ci D^ibn ibpbpn:i xiabo 

'"L" 1 

r=r nypna r.-1'r. 1 n:^:aa pniya ,c ,! 'r•n , nn\i t.nt myi .jmnaa nn^r cipo ^aa jai 
vm .»i[:oa pan mats' iid»« p»n ""it; n^ tnpoai ,'iai i:Su' xac nm '03 .n;a' Sy 
;a I'Sri vnc »bS p rva nttcs nypn yiott^ g^S ,D>a:ano .n:a' nia'aac* ,nnyn ^a 
l^Ni .iibri" 1 xr:c p no aipraa s\tt niui c ex ,]H3 .vn inn »Svm f ni'na ';: .d ,£ ?c"i-<2 
I'n .win ana ,'»a -isn'x .wiasy Sy cym tj, ,j ? N'i'iair xin *x:; f ntfyia inxS pa'trs 
.I'vn Saa j'ypin pypinrn loipna paw T'ats' pjta x'rx ,Sava nnio'an ova an'n' ,pypin 
vi nu'tra .imo n^Tia txhco xn«iixiai f ennn jo SiasS max ^ianmynranDvxn»Bn / ' , jn)D 
xa xin nai'ra ,naxp pains .iraa lyi iy laapi n;n pra nvn 'ra nrx n-nnn \o iaxi ,nia» 
i.inrc ppnni xipsn en 1 ? cm , ppnni m .naa» xatn I'ySn cya xmn nira vSy imS 
nvn mix cvm; "jno -I'na laiynt? naiyn aiptra nana in'n n'n vcay nytt» »s^ ,*>id»8 



,xan xm "nain by l^Din xb» (i wO b"n *i oa'by *idv oaviiax \nbx 'n„ 
,n:va ^ya xb nxvb ,xan nox ? nayn »jnpi ,n*30T n»b may irb -jnm tva 
riVjH3J?b xnn 'an rT>b uast .n:va 'ya uoTa r^ss* ,nma *ya &6 uoTa mayb 
yoia* K^m -km \x:n ? nana 'ya yoiro naop xobx ,'b ypm pia'x ( .E2J 
vn'a bax ,"Yia* n'bca x"na ,'dv n"x ; \ym 'sb jr»jj>q yotroi novy? yoic? 
11" nro ETT -irwa pppii» 0' nwMO '^HO -yo^oi yoitr plan''!" ny x^" 1 xb 
noib xbx ? nonbo nmaiL" ix nonbo mtriy n&o bw vt '31 'iai "bans?' naji 
iOwa» DiraKb Da? nx paiwi nbyo ■•aba pbanDo bsosr ww jot ba :^ 
"lb nw» (xa nanaaj noix nnx nana Kyra ; D'baiJ. vn i»o dxi ,onajno vn 
em ix n'oo pro »ai *»m mix nxm -pcrjn ba rrm d: by mix d^i Rp*» 
Biraxb Dab nx pnaycoi nbyo 'aba pbanDO b«nB»B> joTa xbx ? n"no 
nx px^no px jopi noil" ,nn -D'pio: vn ,ixb dxi ,pxa-ino vn ^ocacr 
*v o-ann nx X'vio lrx nana a ,v ino irxtr ba : bban nT .pain *r d^h 
Dmayi ona ^icwi Dnbi D'jnn .naiB» nypna pa«n ban ,vn 'oj :|nain 
x^noivx diooio ,p-nn javxm nay vvne> va -Diromjtti Diooim D'-nniro 
'vxt? nx xb bax ,iro nx x'vva Divjvmx -iro ivxl" nx xbi ivo nx xb 
yn ^x JNtrtPS .D^xncn D ,v ib D'jna maity nypna pa"n San ,no nox .ire 
nw ;pm b'xin xrox T'd ,n s S xanovw D":n3 ? 'a^n'o ;xo ,»3«nnj xb 
,nj^'n ss»x-n mvoa n^n'x ,bavn mvoa n^n\sn ;xo ,ma~iabi ny^pnb n"ib bavn 
? n v n^ xb n3L"n L"X-n mvoa xo\x ,bavn msoa inan^i ^xin D s :na ^n\ 
pin ,x^io W& s"yx ,jbia nman ba : xtt 'an n^a nanx ^n '■ V'op 
,xan ^ya -x^'io irx x^ dxi ^"Vio «v xb dxc." ,pn naiai Dnbn naiao 
,X'n naim ;va ?ino Dvn m'p bt" |"n naiai nso/btJ' onbn nana (:^2i 
ai "a jvin ■•a /w'x 21 noxn f yots> xn ? x'n nam ixS na^a ,xobn ix /p^o 
dtis" 1 xS rpan un .inb ctpo mn xnano irons mx mn ^ai ,jb L'npo nin >aa 
*ia ^nn ^aSi vjab xin diis bax ,onoy baix p'ox xbx ,pn-iixS none Dnx 
• x^*va xv'c "a by fix nb^oai bbnai , msoa panb 



n n-2 ims" 1 ^ s 



l^ 1 



, " c* n 
»jn'Vj? i3ii' i'N nixg ? t^pin S2 dwo 1215? nntr ,npS' .mvo nicS vhv ,naiDa ra»a»a 
ny» Sj? ny» in D'a' ^y nv nsoin S:x 2S172 pa^a ntpan pja J3DT2 nSs n.'Din S=3 
,n:nD »ya yoi'U /n:in »t »3K»xir6 'otya i'lpnS pann ,'S j?pnl pia'N .tioio nr p« 
,Di:um2Ni DiBOiQi ,»S jninitpa pwc S:n ^mmtro onayi 'o: .yoi»n n>xi,-iS 
nt j?pm xor ,imoa mania ,13^ nx .i:r nn»n is aira ,n:y vsntr 'n .xin iat xot:' 
nnay ts *n« ahi ,'ia lay vvnc* 'a .miaa cuum:N ,u'a K'Sia -lar nbm napa 
n?a ht paiy Sxir' Sa nnc ,s^ia «2»ty 'a Sy ^x .ynien ni-vn Ti ,£ ? p'sai yorai 
.nana xSa ntn o^iyn ja m:r.'S iirxtr xSx nrin p'xr ,j«m cnSn nanaa pin .nisraS 
,ina .tm'p »asS paiaac r ]«n naiai ,s»sian n , aa { ? paiaat? nsa n-'ax ^c ^nn^n nana 
.P'n nanai X'Sian nana xnx ,p'aai ina« naim i^ >j;a'n x 1 ? nsnr' enpai nsa nS'ax ^y 
nsa nSrx ,M»n naim ;va ? »«a nana »yai ayaaS in"3»a irh n»S a»n' xSn narx 'xn 
s)XB' xtx msaS nam ltr? nx:nn nana ,Nam ix .vSy nam cvn »n'p :ai vny nam 
.nn^y n:m na'xty M'Sian nam ,aina< xS .n.mi3 xm nvsm ma 
•pn n-a mixn n,?y pnn 



vrhm pis rij^n VVD H n - ™n 31 

,P!DB idix! 1 piDJ ; iB>a lxb dxi £idb iiviy niEoo tap nantw nx jnnao 
? njppn iijw noDi ; ^ids tub dxi ,ne>3 njrpn itjw u "i'ti^j dx tarmb 
nm in n3y in pn tptp n»n ; jnspi jx3^ nmi nu umirr na ,j"3Bn btb 
.xv u ypni imp : bsoocn nta»6 n^> tnbt? .naiB>3 pva ntapn ?3K> ,-ik>3 
s»*m tno ,tnmaT3 imps? vtm an ids ! tnb imp mp'o ro: tnbta ! kb»#b 
xb ,xain 3-1 nox .nnn -pnb i« -nan -pnb ypinn ! yop ? pnn troa p» 
yo^ (.PD) .wnr inn piotyn jniK Ssx nun ns^ by nnotyn jmxb xbx up 
dtip nyun n*po ; mr nun nap by nyun nvpoi ,T»aa njnpn nspo 
•■vb -inx xr xb ,nnpn may rppp nnxb ny^pn nxpai ,nnpn nicy nbyp 
nbta xrya »di «an ? xa»bt Mama nyun nbu xryan ,onn tup nm ,"3N 
ma Kan ,bba xin xarn pr t*o nb'b nnn : xnrn »an ? xd^i xavna ny»pn 
«ba nyun cpo ync : nan uDn no'Db -nm pnotyn tntxb xin X3vn nipa 
ypn ! p"n ? xv nypn ^d xb3 nypn nb»nn xb'DQt ,xv nypn nb'nn 
? , n-ina nb pbon 'xnxi ,nnx xbx 1T3 px ,dvip3 n"jP3 iPiat natp&ro 
yipnb iniD ,vv3no nxjn Yit»n ,x3i nox .p<pDD Nb mno xnypn uus 
noxi .niSD >p nypn u yipnb inis ,natPO nxan -man ; nivo bp nypn ib 
niou xb bsx ,DffiP3n ntou nxtan »d vby nro ,vinn»3 nx:n Tiffin ,xan 
xb ^3X fD^OB^in nffi'a ,niVD ^ nVao ia ^aio ,p^yoo n^xjn mion -nr^nn 
-i"x ?jxd ixdd -xv pvs baxi 1XD3 6«ffiBn nnxi? n^ inSL" .nonn niou 
I^nwn P Mt3^a ,xv tl^ ypinn n-ioix nxr ,X3t idx .d v d-iq inixD3c* , h &x 
Cjs x-ip'i) X3n ^3X C:n3) ^3X xni ,K3om nox nxic Sidx nnn ,XD"m mo 
x^i ,wdw plana ^u^'x ! S"op ,xin xoSy3 poynro •'xm 3'nD "nynn pnar# 
xo^a .yDL"^ yvK' pian^v iy ,xv xi> yoi^pun^ j6i jwd fy^iatyo pun: 
x^i yDiu* pianj x^x ,xin xoby3 m»n "ii3D3 ,yaw pun: xh yot^o pun: 
b"x ."maa na:o xpn xo^h ?t , b6 ypina ixS ,rh nnae'o 'a'n ,you>D pun: 
naiy irx nixa "i?3ix ■'jxl" ,b"» 1 npb' nmD3 tdl'^ js^n ,nnyo x^x ,«ax 
T'ox 1 ' x^L" ,pnS nbiyc jnsb p'ao ,X3X -13 jo^ 3-1 3^0 ,pio?a x^x jn^sy 
(s nn:n) pu ,^e»o nnx n3i3 f|^Dlx ^xnL*" nx -jnab nun mm ^ njnai ^xin 

nn:n aj^T'Dpi ia|?a ,inip .tra' pc-S ,ins .iko nypn mytr no nn:n mpo ~y pnon 
j K'Sioi '«in^ D33ai CNin p a 11 '!: nsy nanna i:ino s'inro ,innDt2 imptP .ioxp nc 
inrn ^p jn» mi "nnn jntaiyn jm« .nnatn nx rp: xSx ,wsin x? nn f i3ina mix 
xi- ioiy rvn :ioxp om inyi xp"?^ xp ,'i3 11:2 nypnn nspo j?»b> .iyo» dSijtS 
mip .x^v >a: nspan xan ;:'yarsi ,nypn- »srn pnS x^n 11:3 ypin n':m inn natrs 
xa;"j ^ ,L, *i -i-ntr nypnS "ica avn S3 -.rfvm n3302 pnoxns xm n^or wS ,in»n 1103 
H»ai .nvaSon ny'tn »3sS» noics ,n3i»x*i3 j?pn ,rM x^i ov ,^3^ nvn' nynn nrr: 
manatn nynn 'aa^tr ntsitpo , -' ^x ns nxsS pisnai wnvs nnnx ?c* noit?33 ,n»;r: 
.lin 1 : man»S ixS m»m di»b 1^1:1 xa;a ,i? ypn 1 ? inia .nS qam ypnS vSj? vnyw 
,nann ma*3 xS Vax .mvon cvp nxan xSx 5x3 pxty ,caran niO'a v^y rwa n^an 
Sc* jr^xi S'Sn nsa nsin n* nxsS piana xSr a"yt«i ,d"d*i2 irnxsrs* .own nx:n xs'xt 
ina .p niois nxrn ,nu'b*3 .jprn nia 'so »nj/a» 13 ibtSi ■n^t: ,t, n't^ i'pmn w n32 
xp .xin pDi'no ixS i3Sn inSoxa na-ai , t, 2x xm x::m laxp nsa Siax nnn xavn 
[awn .'ai punaa mvaS piana pwsn ,nn*,*a x ; x .xv xm poynm j"vxt ,jS yava 



it 'B^rp-ifl nj^n^N") prrsvnfcn so 

ntaix min' "i x'am ;x:n wn »a noxn sin ? bib>s V b&? nn bs> naiK> pnn-i 
i3D io ?'aban3p naoa ■d , V bira mbarai ,paiaa anar bB>3 pypin i ,J1 n*na 
^btfcata nTiyn ira-x ta^en noa a"iT3i ,nyi3 nata n-nyn K> , a , xspmn»3n"-ia 
puns spm no3 nvaynsi r'byo nsta n^nyn era's B'B'En noa natrn b>k-i3 iaD nrai 
,biaa va nnan anoa ant inav* aranm .anr nareo vai (.13) /bpo 'an nmyn 
nmn aipoa sbp prions '»: pn "a ^as max '? tea wj nmn aipraa K>tp. 
naitra "pKD "P^ ? towd "o np nni .omxn j» nrown '•nan .pn na 
xai" »kd -iDa naive vai paiaa onar bs^ nvaynai .naitra Bin nixoty yvb 
n,b ntyy,, i2i»2) anai ,xin span xmra b3 ? spsn Kan b^'idi ,ann ann 
rvh nos rpn^noa xn3iy naynab nao bxiocr ta xaa an ."spa nmivn nit? 
bax r ».ipD3 anmx anai nna ."an naa x'an .enpoa xbx nox xb :X3n 
anan pi .nmivn px nan' pns» aipo ,nBie> px nmivn ^c aipo ,pbiaaa 
:nDK anaan bvx nan xatrai ; ^aaa |mn p x^aan nni ,nia s va xnsbn "an 
b"an sonvxi xa-i nrax .na^a nnn nnai mio nysya xbx p pama in xb 
-aaSi ,'"n nbnn 'jab iynn naitr bipi nnvivna,, (ns n'Snn) 3nan ? xip 'kd 
nynnb n"nb bav.n mty .xb xtabya Sax ,new bipi nmrcn p'yan xin 'n ib>an 
yvyv nbnn avn nr : xarxn p'bsta }N»3 pnx' ia bxiDU> Y'k .'ia niaia^i 
mt? : xry ai aTiD .o^yn x-q: nwu "ioxi ,-iry^x '-13 ? ptrx-i ovb jnat 
^lt'xi ovb pi3T t^V^ nb'nn nvn nr X3\s xni ,ni3"i3bi ny^pnS n"ib Sav 
,Sdb ip3Ti pnojL" new '^Jno -xixcx ^np '3 ? xn^ bavai xn^x n"-im 
axi ,biDQ ny^pnn nx aayra ax vanDi ap^ (:T2) ; SiDa nnaitr nac pan 
bip dxi ,xv yoty -iavj' ?ip dx ,DD"an iinb ix ,nnn imb ypinn .iK*a ixb 
lino lira rvnt? ix ,najan n'3 mnx iaiy n>n^ na pi ; xtt xb yoc man 
,xv ah ixb dxi ,x^ M ia-> ;va ax n^ao bip ix ,-iaitr bip yo^i ^nDjan n^ab 
rivpi ii-ix ,-i"n 'pj ,iab ?va xb nn ,13b jva nr : yo-j- nn yoc mv a"yx 
ibip njnt:'j ax ,pina£ ,bica n^sao anr ina^v pea rib: by n^ym m; ,-itr3 
;-ic*3 ^ /y xi ,biaa nypnn nx aayo ax vanai 3p n J ;it?3 b"xi ,biD3 n^n^ nioao 
nap pan .x^ xb yac? p^nbipaxi rX^yocna^a bip ax naiK' -pna -iai^ ;n: 
•hdhdi ap'j ; biaa ir»3 xbr pa iroa pa ,w*a vby sixain ,-i"n .biaa rmew 
xini ,""nx .biaa iro3 xbc ntra wnaanoiM fru ^n ;biaa iroa xbK' pai unaa pa 
,biDa a^aao anr ma's ; Tea nn nnar-» a"yx iroan bbara ,nn rinsac 



' " L" "I 
f?» ,n:ti*n "ja ban 'iaa .^v "?» onwan ova niaia nyts»n i»'0^ 'yan jniaiah .ptsitfea 
pis'? ptwaa iub m^En: ,c"j^ q"an noa .mm' 'm sop x:n ,^hvn sp '»oa .nvayn 
»dj nmean nvm »>n n^n^n pavrsa naa'n rxna ia^n ,qnj? 'Eta tawzi noa .qny *Bta 
cipaa .K-ranS pEisa janayi i 1 ? nca^x nS K'BU':^n n'aynai mtr rrvna mvn nwo 
,Nnaij? nayo 1 ? .Kin ksvw .neiwa -,n«o -aS .iswa xSi anra nypnnty ,"?ids ns nnjn 
,^n:n .nvayn p.ia ,nnxixn cc* cipo 3avi n"n pw naia* ^c' mpo .nsit^i nnsisna 
nye»a n'"»i ,n^an ina mro ny»a xm sn^a xnn ,rvan inai .nnswm ioib* wnitroa 
.pi ■!*» ,n^ by .nnsitr '3B»a n^ mm Sirs .paia ,ipaii ^jnD .Q 1 ^ niTya mro 
i3'N nx ,-iK'a i3'aa .nypnn n-c;:a 'a<::n ,ms'no xa'xn ,xs' xb .an;a nypnnw ,bias 
cipa p ,ia i"ntt ( : ex .12'pnS r.-i u a ,r.nm pnsa pi ,iSia ,pna: ,ny«pnn nx aayo 



Tn\n b*x Drrnnno tawi n^rn riDy P"a jm nrbt." imsi .mipo tmpo 
Y'a lmsn 'DJ -i»sy v 'y jidsj Trrn pxr ,ynpe tmpp npsn Dn>jB3 lTyi 
,kti "i"K arvN-iio nbnj nyotr xnn xb- ^koni :D.T3B3 vryi n^r ney* 
bvx nnn^no xrvm ww n»y pn ira {m nc-br vmxn nb^bs inixni" paa 
pua j"n sen »ai ?n ,,, 'Kn» nbna nycr xnn xb kid": »dj tan ^xdx -wn 
,i»vy *r ?y ;dx: tith pan ^b lontMPK xa'D t *in u«n ,n^*»a lrRtr.p 
p cnnb nnoio n*n dxi ,nB>be>a niji»» Tn pm b'xin xrcx n,nyn xpbon 
-|b px ?*»j *an xcxi :jb y»B>D xp f^rrra nnsnp'a nsa «an ,T»rra lb'BN 
,npna pnx xa^xn ny n"apn n-b -.»xpi ,wan nppo nnv pxntra n^anb nnpua 
ntn ennn ncxb onso pnxa pnx bxi ntro bx 'n n»Ki„ fr niatsO yny\ 
lxntr p-nnjD ,&nm ,y"na xbn '^no x^b ? |«i ntryj njn Knciab ."nsb 
<an -nan ,p:«n \&w inspoi ,any ltry: |nxpo CO) vz:n nx jnnB> nnx 
s an xeti lb-as ?pn nspyj ny pxi ,D"*iy ]tvi |bia pidik xa s py »an jpano 
(nS nana) "idk x:nnnn ,niL"E: ^na xbx ,onn xa^py m ncxp «b jxa ny ,sa*py 
bax ,xniar .Tb irn »sb xb ,kb>bj bopn nvwri p*ai "myn lyvm myn men,, 
'3BB ,rna bsye pn b*iea nniras^n ba ''OHE .mus xa'py m i^sx ,xdh 
*liL"n2„ (i p?nnO ioxj^ ! pp ixip: nnsieri ba sbni ,'dv *an ncx ,pp xin*c* 
,xa"py 'i nox ,x^rn ? xin xiam x:l"^ x?av ^m yore »no -"barn ppa 
(n ^Sro) »kd pan "'yr lin xp (:12) .sbav -x-irnS pip vn K^anyb Tia^nr'D 
,x"i:n xinnb rno« minn ,^an "ai xnox^ niyoL" nn xcv' '"ponm rbobot, 
lyT 1 iin xb ? Tiyca ^d^do nnx tid ny rrb m?ox„ ,nnyt:'a n,2no xp ninn 
mn nn xov ,njn na na nan ncx ."•prr 'n by n,?L"n„ (r; o^n] "xo j:an 
/x^Dix nan n/an^ bipB' ^ nasi ,xjit3 xrnn mn ,xy^D xinn nna xrbrx 
jd nnsivn ^^l ,anr hbixd vdi ,dil"d by' bt? njen cxn br nBity '""jno 
onar bca nvjynai ; nsira nvn nixoty fHinxpo mnvivni n,nxo nsit? ,pnnv.n 
.nianso rvmvixni nvpo natt? ,yso«a ninvivn 'nan ^oa naiso p^i ,paiBa 
b^a nibavai ,Dnar bra pypin n"nn noix v/ n ,nianabi ny^pnb n"ib barn mtf 
.pDiL"Ba njrn ba ban ,paiBaa a"n> bri n"n ?k> nisio nb 'n nnx 'D5 .D'by 

\»v n 
ixSi ,nn*«i<Sx "rjrtr «ta psc ,naf?s T'3 mwn .nnyn npna v;: <k ,nnj?n nprui 
l^a» cvxi ,nn'3Ba n'jn n^c* nay .cnpS nnc irntr n^s ,n3'»nS -ia:2 'Np Kt?n« 
^icinS inx -|aS f iosy 'aea anipia ioib ,i?:s: Tn»n psr .c:rn ,on'3B3 n»yi .ihint 
inijatr .nn^xia uiim^' 1^3 inixi x u n n»yi cutr noy ,'kcni 'id: .&*» jnn»rna 
nvnS »imi» »a ,pn nt^yj np «ia'a^ .imp' na ^y nya» ik 1 ? »n inaS i^^n ,r.^»^a 
,dhi? p»ya jnxpa .misi c^a nnw nny nvnS d»'wi j^ia n«i ,pn n»y3 1212 nj? 
ennn nny cm ,anr:y »iti i:c nS an'yan fe« ,c;"n pt^ya jnspai .nnn'm 'jsa n'yi 
itj," ?cnn:na U'W ,c ? r^ 1 ? Mti ,c < :"- D'wy: onpn nvn'? '':n.B2 sritrax nb 'a: ncu 
i32n> ,mvn l^sm .TynS ensn ,nn dhj? pia .lenpii lay en 12B" -3 inxi Tm »3B3 
Ni3H S:vi ^zvn pp3 ,3'n3 i2ic 2' n» »35i ieic 'inp u>s ,pp »ints» "^jno .inista 
yaea ,jnypn ppDis nnsisn» nns^ ,-;nsa nsi» .iDsp enpa 'rca ,3m nciva vet .sin 
.paws janitr n'^« ,cn:; 'rr: .ij?pn oaron lypn mayna ja^OMn ,niaynai ,iBi»nS\p 
ovn nivDc .jrvaxD ;m jxrs irxi jnaa y x p^ nnew atr ,ysa»a mnsisn »n»i 
nj?'pnS .myn xipaS -S n'm yr\2-i nn^ivna K'bi:3 'rr-i inaa waSys «»B«aSn ,nnsisna 



t w pis rucn &'K"i p^o p« d« 28 

aiba»a xn :i? no« ,ia>xn by tpswi btf'boj pi noy •iJiaspna rvpnb a fl nr brie* 
fan anb ids x-on 'D3 . , 'ian nx nbapt? 'robm ,noana *an ^Tobm 'an 
ttap arayai nam«a Kac a^oya xax *ax rrao '•ibaipD 13 javsanb ?K»feeJ 
pna xbp bpe> ,swm ontpjn .snaxa \\*p mm Nnn-ab x^m x^n 'an -rmpa 
♦an rr»b nox ! ♦saw bn ? «an no^p n«i rja 'anpn p^ya »mi«b /nox ,rpa 
.D^pi 'n bxnu" n,bo nyi :k:o , d ^ nbtsn ,NriTb nvnpi an pyb bn wn ^anb 
,annb nyam antpya njab men n'uui a^ayn anas? nppna nns ays ,pan wv 
rpao ^baipo -[3 : j"n anb nox ,itrnpb pi rra ia>pai mT'i noib ayn amaaa 
i{j»bfi5> "JEsn nvnoi av nytrni ana>yo nnina njnb b&> ntsnn p« : sax 'ax 
xb rbna naan a"n nTaam xrr ;a br ids nnD avn imsi ^pbn a"yi nycr 
ib X2 .annn nx pn rva it!>Tp sbt? ayn lyptp na «b« nab msny ^ao 
? ibbn a^pr bcr amoa' lBnana xb nob ,n"n .'id aramn p sen 'n bvx 
f nrai nbsa ^iba ?inrr3W an::: ♦aiba ?pnxi nsroa ^lba :an« nox 1 xbr 
,"pnx nxi ntro nx ntry ncrx 'n ayn bx bx'Dcr noxn,, O « Sxiatr) noixi 
nr ,byaini "bxioa> nxi nna 11 nxi pa nxi byam' nx -n nban,, (nc) noixi 
xnpj nobi rpc'DL" nr pa ,byan ay nana naw ? byaw iocr xnpa no?i ,pyn: 
yonaa pn&n na>o„ Casein) noixi ( :H— ) oyDttfaa nna 1 " ,p» tint ?pa 50^ 
^b iD^b abiy mon n^ba'D nbiy ^p ncba* aimn bpt" /"idl** "'sitpa bwow 
; -nm bxiD^a nna nna' 1 ,nna pnsa rna pa ,nn: hl m d3 nna byan s 
,an"2X3L" I'axD Kin nn niavn by ajia njDnn pbpaa' bp ib , a«B' n»bb 
,"ann av^a n^n^ -ia*x cait^n bxi a^bn a^nan bx nsni,/ O onan) -idini 
nPn* "|b'b lb p« xn ? vd^ n^n xb^' pnn bss qbin anxa' n,nyn by nbyn 'ai 
aniD rn a^ia'xin a^OMty vn no noxn bx„ rforrp) noixi rVo^aa' osia* b^x 
D'yoa'j a^bruntr inn ncx :i^ idx ,n"n .inn vniyoi ibpo bca ."nbxo 

.jovya V'p a^npn awci: nr n,moi a^opb 

ny ,1'HipD -ioib ip'aan xbi anyn npn: ,bxna" bai pn rca IHIXI 

: n»6W an^aa n^i d»jb> noy naba n"a inixn .nniyo nr nn ,na , B>nB' 

Sj? *ri»a jfwni '2iS j?"i isi'Ei -]hn ,i«sai i^n .nnn nx iay^ /I'i^t hn »jk nxi~\ 
i;-i ,iS N3 .a?nan -ntbn \n n'a n«npa ,ixnpn ib»« .a"nv SSn'? 1% *im K , t^ , J^tl , 
/TcnpS jvj?a NmisS .D'aai ro^r ,xSp Spc .rue" r «in»D^ *wn '03 .ndh >ai Ssn j?wni 
r'x-ij snn dni ,N3n no"p nsi .SSs nx nanS n"i f?» u"v nWn rn^yS \h» pyis 
irsipoa nac nww t^Ta ma .n'tsnpi au r^S 'rr .inaS trinn nx «tnp 1 ab 21c n'2ijr 
lia 1 m'a hji: c*ac*a ix^a 12 ias;cj> naaSa Sra: ,Sxia*' i^a in .annn nx ianp» x're* 
ra'atr va Sy ,m« ias^ x^c ,a"i»a jn*aoo pM» ,trinn nx Y'a icnp k^b»ijh?» .nSij,>S 
,pnxi nc»aa i3>« nx iS naix itsnsna x 1 ?^* vts»aj? ?i ! ? v^exe pnxi ncaa ^aiSn »3iSs »a» 
x>:;n Sxiac ,pnx nxi nti'a nx ncr^ irx .an 'a jnv 13'XB' nupt ixtra nnxa xin nn 
nnrn rnzi Syan» proo nra :iSSn a»apt nca' »"j? n>33 naS na*y n"apn 'rxicS lax 
D'aiB'Xin B'amazi ,p,nsi nc-a cj? Sxiac aman Spfc nn ,ia» >«iipa 'jxiaci .Sxian 
•\b p« xn .onion nr^c ajr n'Sp ncSc* Sxiacn ;inxi nc'a ay nnsn ]ia ^j?an» avo 
■T8»a n^nc tssiip x^x c-p:'? i 1 ? ]'xc ,;xo rman -pa'S nn ,'ia iW 

pnno pw ax i^y pnn 



nOIX T"3 B>8ntJ> JK30 "'PI HyiO nx niTO mT1„ (aa xip'l) Xn|i nDN ^m n0X 

(crj sip "inx ,xdd 3-1 ion ? ]b:v .BHipo BHipo vnnx pjiy oyn bi .BHipO 
on "nyie on nbx„ («o nox prop in :"n .onx ma np ,"anix ixnpn ntrx,, 
in x"n ."tsntp xnpo,, a^nan ? n nob yon nn &>mpo Bmpo .nine noto 
p« won ,no x ion jpai -mix penpo px won nxnj xb dx noix pro 
pcripo px i3 pai in pa ,noix nrybx nn ;imx ptnpo i:on xbcr ,imx ptrnpo 
nnx <«i tjnpo nnx w:v "n^onn nyc nx Dncnpi,, (na crj nox:cr ,inix 
, M ax nox .pns 13 nrybx nna nsbn ,bxiotr nox min 11 -i"x .Dnnn trnpo 
ampo noib lp'aon xbi onyn npn: ,bxnB^ bai T'a mixn :xr;n ^oj px ix 
T'D ,mb X3novx naiyo ? xb BHlpo ,px nmyo ; naiyo nr nn ,n3'&rni" ny 
nion ''•JflD .b"op ,nmyn x?i xoDnc^x ,bxn&» !ni nn lmxm b"!Xin xrox 
:noixi niomnn nx nKnojn355> ,imny3 bni33i xinoa :"-\b \b rn nnb mm* 
moi3 pB>yn x? ""nx pcyn xb„ xwnni (:"D) ? ntr >oi 'qj ?mai« ,n^xn nrrn 
iB>y onnxn ,:"n 'jxe> ? nibroi ;, 33n ,nnbi non paa ,usi> pcrotron 'b>ob> 
lontn Dnn ?pm mry *od ,x:rtr :"»-i*> bxiotr b"Ki lbitry Dnnxn^nxni .n 
xyn-inj3 3 , n , "ificnxn^W3 , '3xinn xm mTanb \y&»n ""oi .Nntrn dib>oi mn obn 
^nn xbi Dnn lbsoi *i>i b«iesn nnxi bxion an nny mm ,xonnjx nn mm 
.nnj Dm mn^ xm x ,% c*jn pn ?mnw yhsni •wnb' onn ? xntrnb 
p3ns nob nnx ^3X ,"m^y> noSn xb„ (n' onan] a'nai ,n3y no^nnS x"y3xi 
nmyi (.n^J mton nnnc lmrxi :noxi d\jb> 1x3^ ncyo '^DD -nmnbi 
mm ; bxno: pn j^p nj3n ix3L"3 ,Dn np» ny ,m: p pnv T'x ,3iyo3 
p X3n T'x -yn ;n'pi ,nx-u x^ nuji bnm wot3 imrx-i :noxi dwl m 1x3 
? mrB> pa nDna inoS ,mW n-j'xn by pmyo ix , n ; n -iptr ny Djmin 
■•bvx X3nc iny wnnj 6xnoj n ib nk" .mnan nx wx nxn lynn" 1 n iS -iox 
nnx .-ivo X3 , py nn ixvoi ibn .-pntrna nvnb br\-c 3"nn mmyosi ibpo3 
'n nmo nbx„ (ja kv 1 ) nowcj' ,ntry yn ncy^ no ?ac mobb n L''' 1 ,\b 
.nx xbx nnyio n px ,pon tabw pa pon pa "dhx ixipn il"x L"mp 'xnpo 
pi bt^ in nn nnx pnb wx pxa dx :n iox ,D3nmn p xon n bsx n X3 
,v^3y nyi na'o m^o noyt? pi nni pn nn n nnx pnS nx \w\)t ,bxnoj 
ah nobi "bxi^"' wpto D'yaci xinnxi 3nj pnxi nco bin» (na niac) noxj^' 
bxn^-^p nnnoyc n^cri nwbv bw nopb xbx ?D , jpT bw jmoty rjnsnj 
Din yn bvx nian n,Sm nn vniyoi npo bo: .n^»o b^ irn nn3 tnn nn 

»*» n 
.yatwa 'an^T nn ,cip ^Kipo ,p^ ay -c hay ,n=v nd^id .vby n»yn^> na ,wnjnfa 
^t;t\i na'B'ntso yoron ,r« laiyo .pinn nns wtttr ,imx penpo px w\i 
t*m ,»n'p *ya -inaS nSiyS i»iSa ,n»^ xr'-avK s\rrh Cipro nr nn »anp ,vh cnipoi 
nn sjn »»i ,nn^yn ah «"id ,imxi 1:0121 ,*i:ij?o li'viotrx 1 ? nantsvm mtwa n«:n nSt 
f Kjnmaa a»ni n 15 " 1 .nnnyio ja*apno xap novo oSiyS Ka'DN nin ~\^nh cnpna nr 
»irv3i ,mn •vn> xn wm .iSon man oSs ,su"nax .n::ai itni aintr jnnis ci y xm mpo 
nv .ntsnnri nx ,anyaa n»anyi .naawn nx ,mtoa nnn» mii'xi 'wno ,xntrn t ? »sa 
■sni .d'^Sb' nva ,ia^T2 ima'xi .xnn'D 'Dar2 »y» nyanw entry j 1 ? xa"pn ,nn ipe 
.nnS nxna xS ^nva mxi D'nyn» inxa nixi'i nSiao xnnc* cym T'a pEi'ro vnr /Ctr^r 



t w p-is nj^n csn p H 30 J^ DM 26 

:r ,*|dv 2i nax ? nbia »kd .mn it KD) an nax ? pnba nn »ito .pnba 

B>«nb nbisn nn npn« bsia nnxi nnx ba s:n V trxn nnnaa ^xa .xmnaaia 
txnvn ba ptfbi ,nxnpj nmn prv nm D^Ennn rwwi nbna n*n '*3fiD -ijj 
.xab pbvn vm bnan ,onb pcwy mbna nniyai dc> omx ppma T'ai .pDaana 
D^abs pabna irrB> ,prn bsobaa pi ppnn ,Dvn ba d^'o pn vn xb nanrxna 
.np^bnn fa b"¥.nb nam ,nb"b nxan naan p)h xbx ,naba ibx xbi ;mn bab nn« 
.nn bab Dnbx onb s?*i ,Tjjn nwsa lbx nn ,nbiaan jdi ,nnan jai ,D«an ja 
bnan nx po^aoi ,pcxn pmx pp-na ,pr>xn xaj* an ? nnyn nx ppnn nva 
?nann nnxb ix ,nann nab ,naabn nx mxn i^a ,max :ib .pnaixi piv 
nax dx ? am rvn naai ? naia n\n pxbi ? niaa mn naa ? namb ix ,naiBvb 
ixxoa dx ,imx ppmai »jbti nx po'aaa vn a"nxi .Diba nax seb ,nann »aab 
rnz> xb ,nnan ^xn jnix pbxur mann ba nsen ,na"p jnny rDMvaa onnm 
i3"n 'dj :xub o^a-i vw bwa ,traa *naa ixv xbt? na xbx ,onb trans 
nho^aa /'ax nax ? nam u«n ,nann nnxb ia«n ? njia^b w v n ,nann ^sb 
s xa ,pnv n"xn ,mba nax xb ,nann 'aab nax dx ,nann nnxb ix ,nann *aab 
nan nnxi xb abvva ,"vanoa n\b& nunj? lay nnai biran,, (na ai'Nj Tnan 
nraia n^n pxbi niaa rvn naa (.12) -ntrp bsf nno^aa xbi ,n:ab be? nncaa 
nomb :xaa\x x'an.-n ,Di^a idx xb nomb »PD"P i 113 " 1 naiavb -.xtn x:n .'ia 
man jxa r nonn man jxa ,wvp xb ? mba iax x^ naiavb ,pa«p man 
bax rnb'aa jnny ,'a laix nnxi ,mjma n nna naix nnx n"n .D^ran 
px ,nn*;a lma^xi ,tvvyjj2 vvwvn ,D'aa imr>n r n*n .mnx mnyb pamsxa 
np nn nn ba ,vby prva px ,onya vsn ^nana vvn n s aa vvn ; vby pn^a 
px /ima^i xbi la'nyna imxib laaK'i ia^xa inia'xi : p"n -nx -iax ? -brxi 
naix n /; a etx-i '""JTID -nm xm xabya xa^n xnnn naix ?a"a ,vby prya 
nxia xbc pa oaara nx-i:sr pa -^mpa t^mpa vinx yny ayn bai .empa 
,imx panpo px laara nx-ia xb dx oaix pnx ia x"i .mix penpa laara 
bixc p 'dv T'x xnaa ia x^n -i"x ? "b'a s anaa '03 ■epob' lmcnn -iaay 

.nnoS hds'jo ib^i yap: 'S nine »jn< /! ? nv iinS i^hn nixieo pnaj? o Sax it"i 
nva ,i»D33no DHj?n S3 ''ana .Sjok" Sc noio npjx nS ,wpa j*S ♦|-»«n nc 13 ,x-nx 
,nio« 'i nSn iS p« ninnS pn ix^'e *bS ,ntro p:r vn nS .tj?hSi ni=S i-i^ne nren 
nSi^SnsSin nonn ,nonn ':bS -nn^n nxi "vjrn »aa ns n^ 1 ^ 1 nixns Snj xine pnan pi 
liQD xS« nSiyS Q , r t ?t: , ni»3 n»xna n:'s ns^m ,iiasS aiyaoi myoS nmoi nmS mtoo 
»:np xSia ;nn*na33 nonntr nij?a n'Ki: na^K n;tapi npn x>ne ninoe ,nonn nj?*p»S 
nx ranyn nx pSxitr' vnc t'd xpi nma nnS rvxia px nro yo» naiyoS in nmnS 
?non Se nomS is ,nnis an-x-i non Sr njisi'S ? nnnxS in ,nonn »asS raSno hint 
: ptaia ns ht'nS na'Jsn 'cnt ,naw n^n rxS .ns'vj? n^xn »b^ ,pisn p ,ni3j n^n no3 
n'B^sna x'n NnS'o xnn xn ,nai2sb w»n nonn 'aeS wpi aa ? am nsS in ,pss is^ 
'jbS ion hn ns'3 <jnp n^yi ,inN ni ,! 7 in nonn fsb naia ,nr^^n ubS nnous .S'jrS 
naaS nNso: o'own man .na:S Sc nnous nan nnxn nS n^iy^-r ,mS3 naN xb nann 
inx nj? nj? spusa jna nnx ,mnx nnyS psiaxo Sax .nma nx^a: nann mam ,pssa 
pi^an nv f n<aya .naaS Sc nnioi ia'Ni p'jra in in: iin ,n>aa imrxi .wiaa iax»e 
?inixi t 7 nons nn nSijrS '3i ,^tni ^rn on S3 ,ay Sc vaij? "pn n-i'xa nii'Nm ,rm 



W pi2 nj^H t^XI p^O P"« Q« 2;i 

onb nox ? naabn nx rrxn W3 max :ib nax m>b> i*sn "inny Tpn Dnbt." 
,^jyb nan i^xn ,D'j6a '3 pa pun xinr vrvx-n ,D'Dns nbya3 w»n nbvr 
'nyrrui ia wrm ,vnia-p pa lb nruio nan ^asbnian vnp ,n:bpan ntx 
nax .'3HD3 n prra r.t dtixo nn ,«? D'raxa onx px dxi ,mnxb vbts\ 
,D'Dan nx niyanb D'owa wpap 'nyae ,Dnb nax ? *nab tip'ptn 'a lb 
.n-oann nx iya*i paiina dj\nb> din »aa isir xap ,anb ynvxi »« -jb« "max 
njv nnixa .mayn by row "pawm ,n"jnaa np pawa tit DTixa lb nax 
fjnwvo piwo vn njiwra ^JTIO .p'aon ja xbx ppapa i.t xbe> wpnn 
px'aa ? nvxrj'o px^a vn Tra .pxsv pnw w vrpnn DTivjn lbpbpE'B 
n?iyi nrwaa *piai ,{ns?a be> mp ps> 'xjn D/:pi ,panx nx be mxDJiba 
nx nun xint? ny miai nbyoi X'aai -pbiai nixn nx jna rvxm /inn trxnb 
piPWJ vn pxai .'trben inn pxna tm ,^sti inn crxna p nmy xini" wan 
pnnai ,pnnb xranuai rxranab xaansai ,x3aiob nnean nna ?rnx"iB>a 
rrnzny ,nrai nbyai ,x*aai ^bio xbx ,D2>a nt xb pnba rraai ,pnba rvab 
tsnnn by xbx nwwtt pM'PB px n"n '£M .trxn mnaa v:ab nSun b3 nxn 
pnay nanxn xwab .nvrjj "nxb ?px , e>a via'xi ; vjnpb uata nx-ae* 
mwa* nax ?bb3 nonx T3yb xbi xbax Tairbi (.JO) ?jnay xb xbax 
nax -'i3i ni3i3ib3 px'aa mxitpa pspspo vn nv3 .wo* aB> nyb n3xba bia'a 
,3-1 nax ,annp ; enai ,pe> )*y ,nnnp ,nx :jn dtix , va 'n ,min^ 3- 
pnnnb n"3pn Tny □ , bw , n , a maix ibave na^'i no'L" b3 ,pnv i"x -xmx 
nax3B> fD'biS'n' 1 x^x naiaa pxi /'na^* nx ~i3na3 jnx„ 1 no n»y»0 nax:e ,nb 
mpa3 mabai min noibn b3 ,pnr m naxi ,wi "nn'n nana pnf» (to d») 
pxi" D'xanb Dnb ■'vx ,pnv T'xi ;jam rnanaa Dnnb nan ,D3n *rabn pxe 
nnm ^D3 x"3x bnan nnni 3ni x^ax neran nnn„ (a ccj "iax:L" ,n:pn onb 
Dnnyi ?px'aa »xa warn xapy »m nnn ,"bna ovaxn nnm ne>m D'vyn 
n'aoi '13 mxvea px^a vn pxai ."'n'pa xb Dan wpji,, p Ssrj -iqix xin 

,i;Strr3 ins .lyotroa n't^ttna nnc mnoo ,i3eu % n:c*n ninoo |'trin ;nc <sS ,n:c3 inx. 
-^c »x;n rwhvmxbv »''sy«i pay^ wen xnm ,n:non iS D':m: in dtino .inn'an ah\ 
nairwia .mpSaS f nioyn ^y nn»' .ipsn imcySi ,paa DwpS vzh mtsn ph -nrrr? 
f yninS nSuS n^cS D'niSc matrS pans vn sSi »inn wnpc in.xS ,risitrn p«»B'n v- 
mytsr6 tsnnn jma k^» niNi»a an c.i wtrni ,n»nian iSpSpco .jnix cymo nisitftan »a 
vn N-itroi ,j»p*i'Ba 'noxna n ava trnpnjtf tfina n^n niNie'O pN'tra vn sS 1 -li btrw 
is'rn sSi trrnn n« Ta na»y nnw ayei ,iaiya trnnnc pynv ^an '? av ^tf :i; ,t ' px^o 
,aonx ,~\jn initryS nSun »aa nx lyam nnSc* anna dixth cmam ,'? aijn niMitra 
,nn»ts»oa jaiiai .n:n?c a'aio iSx Sa jnra Sc miyai pt? »syi Q'pi .pimo^ ixtc na 
inrs ?annn at? n:a ,,-nxrrra p«»B>o vn puoi .'v^iSan 'cxn; nn'tpa bv taina aitrip 
nx 'iai pv.n^ .xzan^ ina ja pttntf iy antyvv 'asVy D'n'Tn in xm f pS'nna ,nncon 
jyninS ,w.pb 'a J 3aa nana 'Ja Sa? pynio nam ,xnnarais 'rax ^aa »aa ,nSun 
,«Sai«Tayni .ma'y nv »np B'tfVr nv ,x"S 'naa a'une' av aiyS ,nu'y mxS .tsnpnaw 
jn^n n'cn Sai ,xm nam '«t yn»o janay xSi nac aiya ion nn ^-o 01 ,n:nx x-" 
p^aana pxtr n ,/- i -\b px ,'ia naxSa Siu'a aia*a "ax nax .may x 1 ? 'a: \xm janay x ; 
avni trinn nx naiy xac wb avi ,n"i ovn xae* '^ nv :B'0' 'air naxSara nSan »aa 



y pawn pis PiJtbntWn ^^ ^^ nyiiN 24 

n-xT -iedTw** xbx ,}2TV y"na> vn ,nnn' n"x x'jn -'13 y"n pa^yi jit D^anxo 
nx ixns? 1:31 ax '''.jno .inbii3» innnim b^boa P"> nbw ,pa"y in: be> 
oy '3EM ep^y ,|ne in« bos* nxcr xbx ,nr oy nr pentaxDC xb ,13^ annn 
.1*2102 ntryo w vx .trmn nnyb pnt-a panpn bai 1321 ax ,i»ik tr"n -~nx 
mix D"3nan ibapi mniBTO nay 1321 son d^cit: trmn nx nxnc ,xsnn 
.132 nx ibasi ,nay nxi mix ibap n"2 *3eb iK2BOi ,nay nx ibcsi ,132 nsi 
pnx bxi ntyn bx 'n ibot» (2' notrj amai ? L" ; 'm xrayra *xra ,ib n"x 'D3 
xnn it nny f pan ,022 mi?3 xnn it nny "02b nrn srinn nnxb trixe pxa 
tpbi'Bsn jn ibx '■'iTlO -^"13 xnsbn bxTOP n»x xapiy in nnx .nab mice 
b3 :bb3n nr .nnayi rn , y , 2B' nmm ,n^v mnsm n , 2-i2 ib»i ,x , 2 , ip2 pnssron 
irxi ,ennn nx nxntr to .nb pnw p*x jn «|k ,nb n-vtra ne>an pst? nny 
p*2 pnpib ,nnb mis nxi ,nora2 vVsx m»nn >y mix D^buo r|bnb bin" 
obbne dvi nbn *pnc bye ,m3iT?2 DT2 pnpib ,npwn *pi nn*n dxi ,nibpD 
lxnpn tl."x 'n nine nbx„ (>a mp»o n»x3t}> ,tsnnn nnyb pxsvi ,naen nx 

."oiyioa Dmx 
l ju wfs i ny-j ifs j/>( j i in 

nny pb2p» vn n3i5J>x"i2 .ii^ynb nnx my pnbfcTO ,imx p*ae p^x CN 
•pinion pa xbx pbapb in* xbi" ,wpnn ,DTOin"2n ibpbpsjro ,anx ban tnnn 
praia p*x dx ?"an xom xb *xn ,xnanDto j"n .nnx air (:22) ?inx \sn 'Dl 
xbx ,rv2 2^3 "BBB'iOff (ssc'tj spNiio *o ini ,in mix xd^x ?imx ""xo ,imx 
, 2"i2 ntryo ^x^nni ? jeno xb nm .inx jit r.nx 'xo yn ,3iin mix ,imx ••xn 
,xl m ix2 mn xvinx xnno ?xl"ix2 n2L-2 vby n'ynb lyn bsx ^bn^* "x-iim 
xb xp'DDn xcm inn ? «-i»TOb 'xn , s an "x -n^na "snnsxb ""Kiina '21 ^txi 
xm2 2-1 lox .X2~iy»2 KriT'b niBHp :"idn xbiy xnx "a ! b"np ,xn2^' p^bbnn 
,10^0 too xnbyn w* ib"sx xbx ,,|iamoi xin n2*i xi2jn xbiy x^to xb 
nny pbapn vn nntrx-o .•'l-vx na npen xb "ibjxb xn^yn xnbm b2 ? u'TO 
1K'P2 nnx nys ? pDin^n ibpb'p bipb'p no ,pan i:n .'131 onx b3b ennn 
,anb{JTO nnxi *\:bwn nnx ,tit mxo '12 nnx ^2 ^c* i-oc ,DTO2n nx mynnb 

irira ynn TO3 .impn:'B*3 vea ^•a' 1 ^ds' cnc '^no -i»c ia ,i2Ttr* ..in inx .in nnj? 
Bfinn wnp 1 i nnyn l^ap't? iDia »3« inn mrnS ,c2b niioo xnn .n*nN antr B"y.«i ,oaa 
v\ba\ .panya ppnB'OE» dsj? Sty ma»nn ,«'aipa pne-an "ono •«= B'aiip ^ca.-i'? x^i 
»03 i3«n /D'av 'nneo .Don nj? ncn Ss dics dSd'E'dS mr: nn^iiMn pa^M ixS ,n'a"ia 
m Sy iiayS lSs u a ncmc 'bSi f jry»a» 'n'sa mino piny ,n^ac nnici ,«>aip pya 
pa'aio ,'ia ts»nnn nx nxi» ^0 .iniB-i poo '";• ipB* d»tj?» nvnS cntrn poo nono 
nnS D'aiin vn an n^niam D'Dwam ,"i*na D»a*nn B" bx ,orh mis dxi .nat^a rx mix 

.D'oan nx niyonS »ta D^rj; 1 ? 
D'3c Hwn ny2ix n,by pin 

105? nnx .lTvatr i"a ,pn^a .xin icai ;os: dx tyn nx T'a ,pioo p»x DX 
dc jmnao nacti-a ,xit'ixa .tnnn nnyS ,p'no »o nn TOJ 3nan T'a 'isS vS» -pjrnS 
xoc ,'p 1 2D0 .ntn nyn nx "vaon ,xti*ixa mn x:nnx xino .»nnn nx panpn vn dpi 
,iaoTa »nn nxia xSi natra -nx Sc 'S nv jn»«» ,0'oann nx niyanf? .in'aa nyn mix px 
nivyi ,natra nnxa noiyn ncin xnnc* na natra nos hv pcxi dv xn^» pixno pain^am 



ptnn p-g nilPn fr'iO trot? nwn n^a-w 23 

pnay idit^i iD"om xno'cb rjj'HB' mppb sp^D ba ;ona an ion ktt "in 
?bib«b rmcm axb nr.cn xo^n ncriN tj idi' S .pnay xn id^-.n 
D'oa n?:x /-trna nDina ^aib ybp'N ""'b -inb jvx xbp 'Ten *nT ,_ n i X.j 
'nyos» xb Anh -r;x rvncx ,n*b "r:x xa-jxn xan hd^o. '■Nbaan xb'tran 
♦nibs' ltsio x s i jD'j 'nv/K' xci xa*n ba ,j:nv % an mso .tmpC :n"a ^eo 
xn\3j;na Tn* 1 mm b'an nin xan .ntrn iox jd^ mva ^ov nn nayb ntm 
• ma^an »ov irbia xn^yna a^v a"n -nT\v,a nans'N sin x;on ;tv nn 
n^bp (n na*0 n*»by ,- .p .*anyoa nan hot nnob b"N ,xnaa xinn xnx xnmxb 
,snri syapa wj/T xbn pnx rxo 11 ^in: in:nb jona an inb ncx .warn vn 
pbbno D-cnn w by '"jna (:fcC3 -K-pon wjo ,xovb D^bs'sn xnn<D in'in 'a 
.nnyion nx papno jnai r s^D? p&wv "mbc inae* ,ntrn byi id'j by ras'n nx 
D^nn '2 by 'DJ .jonpn napn ^ao pia by f)8 pbbno a^p snpon ma mns'ai 
j-ni^K fbia by : p"n "ax nos vpxsr pmb&'n cnnn '1 by ,1i"unm ?xn ini 
pbbnos* p^o ,n"n ! imps : n"a »bd wbcp ny ns>n byi joy ny ,anyao paw 
bo 1 /'anyioa onix lxnpn ncx 'n nyio nbx„ On xnp) b"n natrn nx jmby 
/'onix ixnpn ntrx,, b ; 'n ? lo^prr'tr ny pb?no sp ltnpnT" ny pbbnct}> era 
by *i« pbbno D"p n"a mncrai .jovp by bbno nnx tki ,bbno nnx nnxnp by 
snpon ma nnra ,pia ?y n^ pbbno vn njv^x-in ,n"n '.pnpn njpn 'jso ;bi3 
p'j by xbx pbbno in^ xbc u-pnn ?pnp s" 1 »ai pjwt p pnv pi jnb idk 
nx vby pbbno b'byn nxn: xbr pa b'bya nx-i:^ pa "Jfifi .nn^n nm ?ji 
nays' ncyo -nacn nx vby pbbno px b'bya nxn: dx ,-ioix "dv "an .nat*n 
nxvoj D'ann nx nnx aayo dx :"-\ ib nb^ niba y„n oaa^i air D^yaixo "in^ 
cyp^a "psn ,_ ian xivob nbnp K'p-'a,, O nSnp) ,-i"n 'DJ .xab Tnyb jb'L'-ao 
ainai,, ib nnoxi p"a nn^ ,nxnnna xbL*") D*nya xbt v abar* prn jnb n^np 
nnv •nayL" ni"yo (.22) "noui Dnj? d^L" s"y (i» d»] ,"nos nan m*' 



ux pons Srs ,nvc*ni ontt»j? ova annn n« to lanp nob* pco nenro W« Sri inx Sts* 
inxi d*»S» ova ib'3 lyrpi msn nx to na»y ndb» p^co t^d bio «3» :vj cv mryS 
nan xchn .on ]ron3 21 p^yats'N ini^a ,»nin»ja ,'ia iDn»»i "©'Dm xna'D^ 3i^»a pi 
1a 110-1 inSr no'Sc nv n»n as nx unryt? 1:^ Si^xa nyt^ni Dne'y cv »sn;i r =xS 
D'anyoS n^nS iSax ,»»^aan xSo'an 002 .tsaB ,£ ? rcn xof?n jcj paj;^ pi ,n:irn r.vi 
xS .Sa.sa nhi wSy Sap;! ,1'ncx ,D»ayno vm »*inn nx i-ia^y to nn» ,' -xac* a*no 
]D'3 'niSc .p'3 »niSB> itsm .ov pinnae iaB»B» Diyaa »n"n xSr .enipa t: »sa 'nyat^ 
iTi »> ot?nai ciaj,'? n^naa 0011a o'B* px »in» ,py'aa ntrn »niS» pxc ci-r:S pyaa 
,inyap ov D'niStt'n nnS nunc' B"yxi oa ,»ai' nn nayfj .ia paSin pmStrn pxc a nn 
umihv B"y xSb* nrna p iana' nnx dt jcaa mcyn ca\nan cue ,n»n itsx p»a r.Tia 
ins am tyinn nx to na»y xrar f nn>niW oy ,'rav nn xn^ayna a-n^ .lyta'c D'aysi 
13'xc nr:nn pan ny liixra D'St5»a niMB» .xai'S D'nB»ai xm'a .pre n'tpy xin wSc icy 
no jD'niSc nn^c .cinn nx ixir nny ,nacn nx p'&na ""jno .nnnt ny» ny -j'tyna 
pxan' 'oa .iaara anpo* n"i bv ,pip napn .anijoa cv nSiaS v^inn xmo^ jt6w 
p«sv print? px ,nrn Syi p^a ny .no >sa cni[:o lyraco' ina^ ny pa'naa pxi ,anya» 
^nnnratr ot?a nia» .pixnp |o; S» iyian nay xSc* onyiaa .B»npa T'z 'sra l^oro' ny 
nxna) "•ano .para nnyian io M pn»» ny c\-iintrn ,pnnna na ,jaia lrnpno* na onyn 
»3B» ,aiT cyans .n,iis pxtr 'sn ,jn?na px .(pixn nnya laa nSa pen xiaaa cn:a ,n^ya 



s^ pawTpna njCTI IP-SI wm? ■wn ,t;^n 22 

'jss mx byi noun 'jbo vbaa byi .»"b> ,nny,»n n:pn 'jaio ntwi hy 'jtipt 
?"jnp xi oman 'jb» 'jb> ns ?y pin pxvr rfuswi rnayru iS\\*i .omsn 
tjm mx by pjs p»iT ,nwn maynj ax mix 'an wsm ,'3ia xbn pn'jno 
'waa p-an 'yT ,Naiy-i»x .bibxb nnaj; ,-ion xbiy xnx 'a COJ -oman 'ja» 

13 XIX '31 ,it'pT mCD "IDX xSi; ? Knn'B 'WO .in"in3 pmy xnnna 'WO 

pa nic? thodh ta" irrro xrx ?in"j'3 »«o .wno dil"d ids wnn 
tj'bx ,x'no mswD Y'di ,pna»D ,wpr dil"o -iowi ;xo :nnnxbio pa mapio 
lmnb fSoby ;S b'an pHp ? '»j lmnb "6'bn pnb wjb> 'wo ,'an 'x .'ooya 
nwn nx pnayDP D2>a pia' ^side» na na-i 'jnm ,tk .woby in? p'3n x? 
k>ni aab nm ennn,, C=' «m») ,b*n ? mixp ennn nx pnajro *p rT,-m6 
: noxp 'am ,ianpS jxa ,nay? jxa ,p"? ,wn mx ? BHpi nm ma ."a'cnn 
? *pw*) Bnnn nx penpo *p ,miv? ennn nxi natyn nx paj»p oca pia' 
npiap \Jipn? sop'3' pwidep tor CO) .enpi nxi nra "aa? nm crtnn,, b"n 
maa «ym xn?'» \xn -id yr ?kidb6 'mios? 'am nux xax if? nnx .ni>u 
m xniD ,m? inx ; m ,p"x ? mvn -inx nbu ix nixn amp npu : ma-yn 
wvsp-pmj :in? npB> wvpan p'?D "a .id yT xm xm'rinx 'p'o xo'x ,-iio yT 
mu ,impin nx papnc : 'mop 'm nux X3X moxtr in ,trrinn p dvi nb'b 
WW yn'3 nivn mip npu xb ,nnnn nypcb ti»d nxi:i" yvra nivn amp 
idx .'nna '^naxb was an inx ?nj'D xpaj 'wob .n»nn nyp^ ^idd nx~o 

' * K> 1 
Jykti piaya dn nsSna nhjn ua mscy nSc' xvqjt ,nat?n ts>tn x'rpSp'ap sm .N^no 
.SiSs ns na'yt? Sxic p« »aa pay p»iy» nam nonS aS pani: nai^a ,'«^2a pian »yT 
nzca D"n pea mSax:n nipi' ltfioa' xSc* na ,nTO nr b"vi nac nnsn 1 ? ,x»p*r citra 
na nna> xSc ,nra p» a"nvi na» nna"6 ,x*na aira .nap inst? Q'^a ix u"< i.-ixc* 
.inan'X in"inn ,in"j'a 'xa ."naS xSi nvn xS lap' xSi ,p»xn xn'c* pa inxa ma^tr 
^2 ':a us ,xaSy p ^an pnS .poay ia ipow jitfxi u"va na io laxn ,'aaj?a itfss 
u'^tf rxi , v, xa myaji onn px nrxi x'n rrpioy Saac 'bS ,S;n uS tt"i n'jiyn i:'? nn 
»2i ,':'« .mS'ara xSx ,x'pT mtrai x^na ma # a lav 1 ? I'ans Sx-ic" px »aa pxi ,-i'ix xa 
jS'.x'n nn»ai n:ipnm a'zxn kbq ,-\~\^b nzvn ns piayot? atra .tiis^ mn janaya 
m»y7 »myS .ava n tynp nxinty jra ,»ipi n^n nta .jmnaai xap 'aa xn^xia 
ina dv "TJ? i3'na' dxi r n»x"ia xS naaSm D^'?r nvn ,itinp^ ."ima ills'? xSa iann nx 
jtsnp 3'tiki nSnn nsi ,aHpi nxi nra -i-nsS penpa ps ,p3ioa nnisan mn na» x,t 
nnSina ax »pa 'a dhj? n^xi xSa ,»aiprA xj^a 1 .xin cipi nxi naya nnx'ra ^ax 
na »wb> ia ,nisn insS ix .anaia n'ljty xn"in f na'yn no .mSran nai nai^ni naaSn 
,1^ nStr ?»» piSn na ,na yT .man inxS iS^a pi'rn man onp iaiS xm xa^ya tan 
trim p nvn nvn 1 ? nS'-n inx I'nn nvn ,c*inn p 4x2 na^tr D»iai a^* £ ?aa2a* n'rnS 
S'S xint:* ny»m nntrj? nv na-a'nra natrw naa^n n^xia nxc i:iaS ,vas^» W 12 n^nr 
na n^isS j?t xSi ^xioty asS /xSaa' 'n max .w-ybv nva mix ptpipa px wwhv 
.naa^-i iSa nx r paB>na .naS ns-ija ax ,msn inxS iSiaS nisn mip iHa pa piS'n 
vx aaa naana naa^n pxty nann ypens' anp nrn nxiac yn»a avn ,nisn anp iVu 
nxS niytr »»a oViyS naaSnc naaip ima nwtn inx niyty wv xSx aiyaa ontr 
'ja naap xtic nvn nxi' xStr j?n'a r rnsn inx .nnS n^xiai nwi nmya ]ipa nriw 
! p»ipo lax any »b ^y nn ? acn'a 1 ? ,na'a xpe: 'xaS .Sa pya na^yai my» cc 
,ovn icnp 1 ? na ,nann nj?pc »asS nnnn ia'xi naxi ,msn inx iSia nx ,nna 'cinaxS 
D'cSb' Din Y'*a niaia ix no£j nnpnS pans iax rx /lanc n»apS xp'ea Sa .an ■vpu* ny 



baa "^bo "jdd ul" ,nntaa nnpy nr wtyn ais .D^ennb 'ya^ ? ^at? rrb 
nnpyn Bnna rvytwin natra ^k 'n nan wi,, (~>2 Sxpn') n?axaE> ^burp by 
n,bo -pa nrn dvn axy n« avn db> nx -|b ana anx p -iraxb nn? nitrya 
ana*b nr nxn nin xbni ,a^ennb n-'cy ? n^y rvb np 'xoxi /d^btp }x baa 
mv xbx ,p noix ^x yw ipp'DD a^i'-nn nnonb na ?jxa ana: nebi ,p»m 
(J6 at?) idkj^ ,-ryn rinaintp nbiab nyiiap nxa iacr ,nataa nsrcn nr ,*myn 
D^Bnvo ta^ban ^x xa wnibab tnnb ntrora nnwa natr nicy *nis>a vri„ 
-idix •aw rinmo nn pxnai ,nant? ara nyinc* or itryi ,"ryn nnain ntaxb 
,pt'xn ,p-inx byi ,pnnx ,pt?xn by noix xini ,-p-inx ,pnnx byi pt^xn ,pcxn by 
wan *am an ,"i»n , x .nvayna nnab naio "oxi ,u^m nnab naiD xine x^x 
'm an jrpayri nS^o nbtaa xb ,nDK b"ani pnv 'n ;myn nb'ata nbtaa ,nox 
,nniat?bi pcrtrb rrr ,aibcr b»b> p?a :noxp 'an ,n^yn nb^ao nbtaa no* xrjn 
nb'an nbtaa xb nox nb p y^n- 1 'm pnv 'n /an 'a ^a sjam -,aiv ,aibt? px 
a"*no (.ft v ) • , D v, p lD^pna -jan bax ,n"a paaa xaran-s lna^m xin ^ni ^ayn 
pvy xbi wifrb xnata Kmnsft nnx rvn x^om antrya : nann na ^aita an 
,DiTaa nx ibira"- xbfcn .nnina ipay &6b> ^pitm mabon nine .xrrmxD 
mnooo nvy ibtaai iD^n ? vn^ani yiDB' p nmn" ni"y nn .ninatJ' i^n^n 
la^am i3^n .n^ : ?a uyem ixia : anb max ,nbvx pnsm vyn ^na ba^ ^nnx 
'aa xin ?ianax nnx ax "aa xbi ?ian:x a^nx k xb »d , db' w : nnx ;n^a 
? niL M p nnna why pina anx^ ,pt^i nraix ban irant'a no ? ijnjx nnx ax 
,^taa xn^np ^ayn n^ao nboa n'^'xi .aita av imx^y arn mixi .aotam 
■n s ayn nbjaiaa painan ibxn n^n :X"ann ,x s n >xan C: tS"*J ? pa^Dic xn^ainx 
••an ,d*i nan ;p-nax ,a v p o"na pxc jon pa ,D^p ^npon n"3E5? pn pa 
tsnpDn n^a px ,anb x^n nnncc 'aao ,pniDX ,.D"p »"naB> para nmx -av 
K'^P -W2 xb Kna^ni ,ntaa xna^m -anb xm baxt? 'asso ,pnmo ,D"p 
"'assra bibs by -^ov nxL M a jxa ,amai n^iana |N3 ,KH5>p xb ? xna^nx xnab^n 
■»ai ? inb nob ncn« ,bibxx inS -paan p^ .nnyiran napn "asn nswi byi n"-i 
xiry nio^o an ncx xans na xaa^n -an noxm ? bibxb ninay xobn ,x^n 
? rp? janayo n,nov\x xn ;n,nov\s' xbn ria^'o xb ?i2iyD bibx wnm xb n.b'Ni 
,"oa xpn .ninyio mbia ibpbpn' 1 xbi ,njc»n trx-i bpbp'n aoio ! n"i bpbpv xn 

V 

■ * " {j> n 

n^ioc ,n^y ii^ ^nnn ,Sna i^o ir23 .hdidt snsoina i"i:c 'jm jno nnx m ,'ia iSSn 
nj?p:in ^S , ^nD rnajrns^ ,p^nt .sopo -n^rc ,p^xn Sy ioik ';xc> .n'33' niSaS ,nSi^S 
nnx3 innxSt? nsusi n^Su Jin: vnxStt* numi :x: n;cnn n'2n c\ntya 13 mxi i^n 
pcx-i ,«ipa3B' ,pinx byn .msy-nab jnnx ,piD2:c' ,;itrso S; 1 nmx xim .n^iocn 
ns'onS jnnx sipr^a jicxt xinc* nans r" x^aa ,nj?pam 3"n«i io^ nrnn nnty majnwf? 
^5? xSx xipan Tspn xSc io«i ,n<tnn m^S n:io xinc xSx .x-ipan imxo Mints' ,S:n 
rn'jjyn nS^a nSun .'nwywa "n^S t^x n:io ':xi f nats^ amp nan nsa n^S ,n^nnn nno 
jotai a"j?xi ,nn mSr px .n^yn: nnoxi nnn ij?^x» no»3 v/ y D'aan lyaptt* D'aio n'o* 
,'Su; »am »3»n »a ,inS nnca »an »a ^'ayn nSuon .'»a i:m .n^ita nnyio inanp nnn 
jncya .a"^ lyapm paan »"yi dixS iynpin pmnn "'yn ,paaa ina^m .^taa 'aa ^n 
ipys ,»usn .minn jo jasy pnaS la^ai" xSc ,xn'ms |a jn»y xVi .nx: ,n»a x'aani 
mra »» ,xpT mtyo 'x ,-inu^x xn .n'ayn nSua n'rua 'x ,x>n 'xan ,'iaimai D'pwa 



pawn p-is Ilj^n IPfcTl c ^ ^"i npns 



20 



nox .'nropai nan ny nn py naarp ax *hy nnb 'nyatw pSi,/ (.j x tab*) 
nrusai nnn ,-idx s nx .rmna naano bn« ,-iEnnn irx nnjmi nan ,X3n 
; mxp 'by n'3io "axi mn .anon nv^om mina -laano bsx nssno irx 
n^n DHDn ni^DJai miro poyn "ax ; pju? pyanx nvi ,min3 pDyn nai 
1X3 ,njj5? n"- 1 y-a pno rrno vn:r DnEnn nirn nnx nria^n ,n"n ,pjg> prpB> 
rra 3Ti3i ? anx ny nnaB>»» k»b» ,anS nox ,*k3t p pnv pi hn lynim 
rrnruipDyi labn ,vrn nmna ipDyi nS /'d^js iwo 1 "inn dto i?al,/ (2 qb») 
nnD^D xtx -12 SxiDt? 3-1 nox .1»K> by pnv pi nnacn nmx ^p vni .vm 
'■13,, C ° , " 13 "'J npk)» ? y'pJ ,ann;B> ryxe .-nant Sir pi iwb pvirs ,an 
,Trpa ann "?ixy»na 'n iE»-n„ Cn: 172") ynarn ,"vbx uxip Sd3 lrnSx 
.3"iTb n"-i pass* D'o* 1 miryibx ,nnx 13 n3i ids ?nan< T.nn .-nanra X3n 
^33 lo^-in X3n ?jv)d "J33 \s?o .pin "333 v:ab pi3iy aSiyn >X3 S3 n"-i3 
Se> m^'-nn bxirx* idx mirr 311 .jn» nn niSyns iftx E"pS cn ; xn^x 
I»nj 3-1 nox .nnx nTpa3 pipDJ }bi3i ,pnv i"x nan -13 -13 rm iex .in nn 
33b in 1 nxn ivvn "nib in" 1 iypn„ 06 n6nn) xr:n ■'ej px tjs pnv 13 
•oan jd'j by :pxvv pmbB>n a^ann .ib>e> by "'jnft .awyo S3 bx pa»\ 
,nnynn njpn 'jao ntjri by ,n"i ^ao bibx by ,n^ynn ^jan 3x Sy .ncan 
,t\\* Sy p|x pssr 3 v p n''3 nM^3i .aman ^ao -nx Syi ^nsun ^dd vSd3 Sy 
xjr3 "13 xjn 3-1 inxn (:n , j ? nniai n»nx vdj ipa-'Si 'DJ -Pp nDD ^jbd 
di^i "ymn dix mx3* 'n n»x n^„ f- m:T) 3Ti3n '•sp ,xT"Dn &"'n nox 
inS np /'nno^Si p^-'S mirr n^S n^n- 1 n^yn aw •'yntrn divi , cnnn 
,diSc px ,nrr:o*Si \\&yb n^n 1 ,3iSw' t)":'» pn ? nnb!^ pec* inS npi ,div 
mn t:" ,nn.o^i xwwb vrr di^ c"^ ton :"iDXp ■•an xaa 3-1 niox ? div 
,nn ^x .pjyna px ixi ,pjyno i^'i ,qiSw' pxi nnSon mn px ,div ,ni3Scn 
'02 -10 13X1 ,nns 13 iSasim ^x\n 3x3 'n ^xl" ,X33 3-1 idx ? nsj 3"o 
,c"t -i3x x'jn ..Tyn na^imi "in-3 1-13^31 n^j^ai novj'x-i3 nnn 3-in 3x3 
nc ,nona nycn nr r^yann n^v :inio3 L"in px »aw enn y"i n\n cnan *i 
,'^Tyn yp3m "ui cinS nyB>n3 ■•ymn Bnna,, (=2 n»DiO -iroxrc p^n nyp3in 
nn siicj nc ,3x3 'a ni ,^onn aiv .annnS '•ym ? Tai n^ np ^ndxi 
13^ f nBT»3 ': nr ^yncn mv .wvrtnb n-v^n ? n^nn nn np -xroxi irnSx 
^ip *«»ki .irpSx nn nana>3 D'pnx be jnn^o nSip^L" ap'nx p nnn: nnj 

1 // p -, 
rii^rib .nr iS2 nr i^S pfjw o»atr p«i "isp i-nn ,pio n'a nifjyoa .into nxv 1 ? 
.n^nSoS onNsa nr ins ht n'NSv :ams piia vn 121 ,mr«i nn» ptrS ,pia ,nn n'3 btf 
lan'ptp ,B'«si' B'm^»n a^innrti'Sy "'jno ,hn« m*pp'a anpoa p^iai ,x:^n »oj ps qx 
f n»tf?» ova nx ^mti'-ntr nv nSu? D'mS»n cynio'i tmn ns ix*iB»a dhj? b"v tsnnn T'a 
S'nnn vra D^ynin ,n"i »jsn Srs S;*i .sSo naya* trnm ,s"S nva ix ,inn nayt^ tnni 
napn uaa ntwi S^i .naij:a SiSx px n'jtt* am ^n^wa SiSxb D'B»^» pi's nn ptyiyi SiSx 
pSis'r mpra ly paSim mnon nvS pxsv pmSrn ntr,^ i"a micnp^ insS ,nnj?ion 
iraxn 'oa /a» nos ,pp n^s .in'? dsi SiSn nx pi n^a Tia'g nx '>jp-nm ;nn iy pun 1 ? 
pxt? ,bi < j» cc .D"p n"a pxtr n?n jnta mva nuyn to 1 mSiai ,'ia x:rn na son ai 
,dis niaSon nitj ts» .nuynai iD^na iax'S ,mi3cS pwwS vn 1 .'rxnr' 'jy ns'pn ymx n, 
nnan 'i .in'^y otoHv lamtsn xS xin mem p'ai ,payno px m .;na nuynn 1 ? nam 



f'lntryoa crxb oban nnx ^ aTiai /'nan 'n ^?v„ (an dbO a'na /on nTybx 'an 
/on xab'K nb nbw 'ab'K -non # ri tjSi enoabi ,inc*yoa obem nnx »a nb'nna 
-non 3ii epb^ri ,noxi nb'nna "?noxv a*TOi ,"nan mi,, (nA hoc) a*na 
ikbb jinoitfb n2>ax 'X aina xipo xbobx nnv n"x ,"*np'i no by 'n mayn,, 
^kicc? T"a ib iox ,nban iid na>ob lb nxnni nav n'bcra n"apn epynap 
,aixn kbitc anip xin 'ax "'n 'n„ .Drib bmo nxi ,nrn m&a 'aab icry ,pxoin 
rrna mirr 31 ion "pani Dim bx„ ; naian ni"yn dikpi xon't** nnxb xin nx«i 
i"x ."n , -i3 nna 'a:x n:n„ Cro) nox:i" ,Dpn rrnrin jrxr nno :'"b nnna 
Dj?n 3b jofc>n„ rvy»0 noxaB> >anx b& in -1;; nyipoK> naicsn n?na ,janv 
in nab xobm , M axb xaa an b"x ."ib xsm acri pa* mbi yoa" lnTxai 'w nTn 
»awb !pmn mioiKnn ? nxiai ~pnxB> ian inr« -3Tia ,'"ib xan„ p"x ?pn 
px abiyas? nvaa 'b'x ba x'an lb'ax ^via'a at" xb ,ib pbroo ^nra atrn 
mnxa dm mr, (tp o^n) ,e>"n .mava xn ,-prpa xn ,x'trp xb ?ib pbmo 
aonm rnya mi noy»i loxn lai 'n nyyo ixn non can a'oa naxbo nsny 
n^y /now nan 'nb nv "131 ona nxa 'n bx "ipyvn "ui niatpa iyian nm' nb: 
nnxb ipyv ,paya ,pn m amp lpyv -jb noi? ,nninaib ppm paxa ,nvao'D tnb 
jan nx nnvan xmba nbxe> ,L""n .101 pn^n^a »oa s Jn ? paw p"x ,pi it: 
'n xl'",, 1=103) atrial /'ana «b« xS t^x,, nn ="" osmina 3Ti3 : ha'boi 
? n»n -13-tn nob ,Vj<,o t|? biB'OX ro "»»x rpan 'dv 'an nS ban: /'^^x vas 
yjn ,n,bon «n3 lb y3^i ,n,Son *aB3 jot n y3pi ,n:o n^ana n^"ijc onxS 
;in*-an nx d^b *b r\b bino nnby n noxi ,n,ban nx D v sb xa ,iyns xbt jot 
nm'OT) .i"i H anb anx p3c nn'aya |X3 .aipob din pac* niTaya |xa ,nw xan 
,ni^ pni pT'b omab ibyty D":^ :idix ia*n mn ,xnnn f R>n 'xan n^nn pn 
inra nT ,tp xS nn ,nn^ nT no nan ; b^a xb nn ,*W3 nT ,it xb nn nT 1 nT 
xb nn ,nayj nT no nao .njyj xbi bbann nn ,n:y:i bbann nT ? b^a xb nn 
•n:yj xb wbw n^an bbann xb nn ,njy: ,ruyh& nb'an bbann nT ? nay: 
npyv na s ,iox prw 'an .pn nn inxb jxa ,p in amp |xa ,iox iTybx "3i 
ain3 xm ?yip"o "•» nia^vn pn mi -pn in inxb pa pi in aiip pa aix^ 
>aini in:a 'oasn ax ra„ (.3 no a^nai ,"iab nyio "Daa„ h nnsT) ioix inx 
ts r«b ? i"n ins*b jxa ,i"n anp |xa ixb \so /'nab i:iy ans: nma -jb 
p«6> pn nraa jxa ,nyntp loy k"^ pn nraa ;xa ,wp xbi f pn nn nnxb h^xi 
n"x nb noxi /ox na bxio^ an ioxi /ox ia bxio^ anna ,nyi3B> ioy 
iox:^' ? yip: lrxr* nyaL" ioy ^"L" ri inb p:o P i,riav n"x non: na bxiotr 



.aitr' ns Ktsmw ins cjn mip oma ':x ,D'oni mo ,'n 'n .pi: n»pno cbv;r\ pxtr rkii»3 
nan .npn minn ]ytt on'ayn ni^sna b«iB" dits^ dm» iSSn nno mtr'^ trSc 1 ? nnna nna 
piDs p: ,»ivjoo .nmsnn di^ natrn cni pa ,o*n3'a .nS^oS iiosn ^j? ,nna nna '3jk 
p» ppii paxa iiann ns a^oS nriiS pxa f ppn pax .: nra paisn pao'D ts" pias 5 ? 
wj?s ;a c« x'-x ,n ) n , nipisoo bk'st arh isa 'n Sx ipys'» nyty Saa xS 101S ptsiya 
i:t by i^anj nnoc ,mtf nam '.nann^ mesa ia nunty iyn rra ,nm.iS .jh in mip 
iS mvo ,no's i»n'i .plan: ,no^c nS'sn .iyiin ;o ,^ix>j nr .ntaon p f n' m .inx 
l»x» ]up nnaa nr nnx nr p»si*i pc^ piix p:ioa* n'traaa ,xjiox »aaa .lxvona a'nai 



a ptwn pis Hj^n t^tfl && T^n njniR is 

^1 Tiibn,, nbia nenan ba in ids Drr;>yi /"bip nx 'n yotr »a \nanx„ 
a'" 1 na prrn ojmb piv jsian o"iay wbi '?sua btnv wifi .'wn ( 
'jub> iD'pnv ^bn niaa nrrn jmtBD nni spew nba jau arm a'" 1 nnxb ,Bnn 
nniDDni prpn baa ."na^n nisa nnn nax vrr 'a dwi aniDyv ante] 
urwi ,nm 'ams ian , aa>i ,DTion rvnna naapi ,niina inaac? D'Dnip'axm 
fin»am aa: ja ayav pa -D'ann nx wonm tsianen ,o«n pnxa orvrpn 
njBa lxm ix*"% (w srprO iso? ,nnn nnb na pavra DJiTjb piv 
dim„ [na b*Sti) -idxjp ,pba p*« jm nba wrpj now y/, a awian dhmwi 
■"ib Piara,, iDXJC ,biaTa oppt iootm? 'jbd ? nob na bai ,*^i«» mbab 
pan d.tjbi ,pax na p.w n"x ."vans wrr 'n„ (a x ^»t»] njn moK Drvbvi 
.djh'j »ja pnp.ai ,xnno ya *tbb» n'ajpo mrsi xan now .mnp 'bicb 
D"iay »jwid .p^an njo x?t C* xnapnp an nox ? i.tj \xd jsua *>vrw* wb 
b'DDn dj-id nr„ ,xnan an nox ,D""n pnxa orvrpn un»n -nraya ,jaija 
b'oon dj-is ^a ,an nsx smrp -i"x ,Dn»B> otrb xbc nunm by nvir nD'x 
( ib am) idmjp /Dan Tobn p nxn ivx ,diw DB>b xba> mavn by nnw nn>x 
♦a-n nan 'aba hdd non am x"na ."ab 'oan ba nvrc xb D'WK lmsrv pb„ 
•"ivnuiy enaa* udht mb*. nans) idswp r waia no* njybx 'an 1 n^ay 
s an m xjn ."yra by naijn }iy Wti» i?v) idxjc ,xcnj idx xrjn na "Dr "1 
,pn,o: irx iosj; pyi ,xan idx .man x^n pi ,pa>xn pcxn n^ayo ,bxy»^ 
pray» ,wino by n'ayon ba ,xan idxi .m>nna tbtid n««y xan xa^x ^xn 
b]} naiya* 'dp ? py K»w "ob /'yra by naiyi py mpu» noxj^ ,vyL"a ba py ib 
n>b tr^bm n^rn ,n»a 'br^b xaa an by ,»bn jwnn' am nna x:in an .yra 
,n"Tn'DbxD2 an ^Dava nin ,nan\x epiD^ -xnmn n^ was :inb nax ,xoby 
,rr^D3 Q'piD xbi b'xm n"apn inn noxi P mn s an px inb nox ? nnn \xd b"x 
;ys?a naiyb ? py x-'o s ab "y^a by naiyi py KPti* nox:^ ,nnna lDipn xb 
onbnj nnxa'b : na ppi n^bx ,xrjn na xnx nn nox "mbnj nnx^b,, (w) 
(nap n>?n) a^na I'-Dn X3in an .on^a iDVy d'cdc ^b (:TM ,mbnj bab xbi 
•n^Dn sjiaabi ,pnx n L 'nna "?vbvo baa Tom* r3TDi ,"vam baa 'n pnv„ 

'"B> n 
nrsa f ?nip's« .Dony^o ,nnnam .nynS D"n D'nSs nsi issn ntrx D^c:sn ,p3nsn 
onn' vjtrstr .nnmsi ias ,nnvii .n»n»n p nmn ps ;naisn r nmna nsa» .D>aan nnsSn 
isnp' na ,d3i*vj ua pnpoi ,vn nwaan D^siyo ,sTina »aa .nsnya n"a nnnn» f Si3ta 
,trai3 .[(naoin) rnnns yanu 'sa xrrsna vSy nnria ns pv ninya ,nn'nj?2] .nnS 
liB-xn n'aya .py S» nuixa qa n»asa ,nb>i: .nisnyn nx pjrnaoi mar bw n^rxan qa nx 
,pna: «'« lasy pyi .man x>n ^ai iaaiti*i in»ayo =pS onnS n'xsn D*3W»*>a» py ,ptwn 
pnpna is*x» ,vnna f?y n»ayon .in'nna aarinss py x^nn nna many «an xd'x '«■» 
inns .pnnx npnpna pnn ma px rvy^a Sd ^y iS p'syta .mix mysoS ma nnaS 
,mn >an .xnnnj ,r,2n'x .panan ?n»nnn m»s xm na ni^ ms iS won ,xmm n'S 
lpnpnn x? ,n»nna laipn xS .vnna by nnsyo irx ,n^nsa ''pin xS .«Sy n^spa nn'a 
nsn naina ts« Snx ,jxa tr painsn n^n nai'ra ,na pi pi .jxa »» n:>atr ,n^x .mnx 
p'jia' ^laaSi .nmcn ]a d^ssS o:a: ,n<an .nax tsstfpa ,pns .SaS nic w»xr nt?p 

.xnaran ^22 nrn naxan Sc jwvb Sy mxn p»y (* 



jWJs i p IS FIJ w' M &$S I U JB - ^ . i 1^— Ifs - 1 - ' 

:n"apnnDX ,xin p^xn niTS jet nnvye ^ao ''nnvya anbn 'ne ix s an min 
max nro ^ani .pvxn nvrs Bab lanan'e na ,n-isya anbn Tie 'jab wan 
Wj Bab marre na ,jna d'o *2*b ibbj :n"apn i»k ?:na d»d laBj ,rmn 
jaa'by ^aniane na ffirabo ;nnaitj>i nunar ,nvabc •. n"na 'jab now ,nje 
pypin nob f inas Y'k .navea ? n»ai ,nainb ^sb aa'onar npye na r ni3YOT 
nrpy asb Torxe na ,b"x bcf naiea 'jab lypn : n"apn nox ? b'X be naiea 
px ,pnv n"x (:Tl3J .'jab aaravy nmpy ib-'xa aa'by "ox nbyibi ,amax p pnv 
bx a^nbx y»e , a„ C« 3 minn] naxje nye nnix be veyn *ab sbx anxn nx pjn 
,}n ibx ,anx be vnuiy pram anan 'J ,pn^ n"xi ;"ne xm nexa nyjn bip 
xin wan by p nDion ba pax n"xn ,wan by pi naici ,nbsn jvyi ,mbj Tp 
(jo nc) aYiai ,""pby ""Don max bx ne noxni,, O n») noxje ,nb'nn ejyj 
Vki ;tO p"na) xynxa x:n nn rrxn o'!m] nniaabi meb nsab amax k »a'i 
•'ire, rBen^ire ,npys ,npnv :fmbx ,anxbe i:h in py-ipo anm n ,pn^ 
^pjwi/i Op cSnn) a'nai ,npys /'nine b^n npnsi,, ^»o) a'nan ,npns ;nept? 
n,nex ne„ O nnwn) a'nan ,aen 'ire ,"ax"w arrnipivooi anb "»va 'n bx 
n,b nj»s 'nnj dji nnix 'nanai,, ,a"nai ,"n»e me "a ne nne nx xipn xb 
anri,, C°») -a'DDi ^'arc^'yo nx a'nbxn x-i^,, (j nai*) 3>nan ,nvyv ^ire ,"p 
a^nan ,aipiD "'ire ix x" ,, i ,"ney xbi anb nieyb nan nex ny-in by DTibxn 
-i"x ."bin: ^jb ieysv, mm "tivixd ib ~|b aiax bx 'n "iox 1 "!,, (>* n'trxi^ 
be nnxi ,;moj a'yei be nnx :n"ia pnnaj anaa 'a ,;nr t'x 'xnsana 
,a M nb tnbxb ponnsi panaa pnioa a'pnv ; a^Jira be nnxi f pTiDa a^pnv 
p"rr nyi n*no pn»iyi p'lbn a^ira ,nn^ob inbxb piannai pariDJ p-iina a-'yen 
inov, Coo cSnh) ? xnp "xd ,pax t'x .nn^b pana: ,iar xb ,a«nb panaj oar 
nnx :pnn avb }n mna '3 anoix e"a X'jn ."lana 1 ' bx a^pnv ayi a^n hbdo 
pmoa B'pnv iB^jira be nnxi ,p-iirDJ a^yen be nnxi ,ptidj a'pnv be 
,a:n'jb nnbxb ponnai panaa ptioj a'yei ,abiy v nb inbxb .ponmi pana: 
nimnb nbxi a ; iy ^nb nbx ivp" 1 "iay noix ^e'la caniw 1 fan) "iox:e 
(r nnat] inxae ,pbiyi a^axaxDi (.T\i Djn^b pmv a^^ra /'abiy px-nb 
anrn nx pnaa a-nanai naan nx pjrxa DTianxi exa n^-'ben nx , nxam, / 
riTiDi n^o 'n„ C= « bsicc) njn mrox an'byi ,"inix ruya •'jxi ^ea xip 11 xin 
Op c^.-i nn niax annyi ,nan "aba noo ,"nan am,, x"na ."byi bixe nmo 

" " e "i 
iu ''-s ,;•- nVnnx .cpia nyan« ,jVTina *anp »ai .iox 3"n»a rnin< mi ni: '»3no 
San jn'a am iont ,'dv 'ana .na >tswn ;n-r n"n ,^-o .D'Sin ,n»sp ,a"n»a qint jh 
,cnSn wv .".a nsn'a nximnc* tot ,n\t nsian jo: n^sntf -rnaT 1 ? mix mvv SSsn'i m> 
)?«»inS nviy mn *,'":xt r ny» nnix Str .oniaa »»anS jn^nra jntf jWn mi's Sj? isi» 
vnnn laiyi ,'vj: Tp ,in-;»a nSx c^iyn nx p i: i x ,dc* xin -itrxa ■'f3s:u , .jot inxS 
-sin ,nSsn jvyi .pna: xin ^a ^n»i ?^3 iS m»y»S nr >i»*i DiSa imK» ,iviwijj "rarci 
□i^a 'now ,1'3'ai ':•: 'n tsisB" iraa ,jh inra .irS piaS j>o«noi nyo»a xnnc inhsn hy 
.inpo at? r n»j?o 'ire -nnix nap xin ,'i^i cnirx xa'i ?it Sy n»an vsy>& xin >w*i 
,ovion rn^ra f ;nn mn .mnan nc;o Sr piar »ibd ,pnnc: onso nB^» 
p"iV3' lino noiai D'pyii (Cevevo .nsno Sy nvno ,n":i;'a .many nan r omoJi c»;vr\ 
-mar nsS ynann nx noo en nsno by nsnoi Sr«in ,ian »bS? nsa .\fnyt nnx n^c* 



"•nt? ntsnyt? i^xa aniBK nnan naa -.n^n: 'n ids .nxan r\ycb ntrynB 
j^k ?ax ^mana Titr pya xb*x x?x ? n"D niana tic ; njtra nana 
amp jnmiTa awn* <b by ejk rpainni dtwi anpn paa ,nnx nana n&snyn 
,rpBn: »ana pinna ayn ijnj ,pnv n"x .nxan n:t:n pntyynB ,DaB>3 i"b 
vhvh nnnytr ^bb ,ri«aB> \nbv nyntr me> mn : unv nn? K»pb &>n rraWK 
,nxiann by noaa :pi»j ai?iyn B'pna nyanxa "•JTlO (-TIM .p"WR ?D^e>n 
i.r rrtn) nB&w ,pna "oaa nanpnaiy abiy *xa ba nna ,p;"xn nwa ?y nnvya 
,nxian s n '02 .amn i?y pJiTJ jnai ,"an>ryo n nx paan aaS nn^ ^th„ 
nxian xnx ? pnrpN nwx nbv nyn 'pnann ^n ba ? K»"pn nxnn xn kb^k 
djix ix np na yvx::' nxnn : '"mm V xnnB xrn nnn sno^b ,nynnrBn 
ix np ia yrxL" anx ,xann mm naan nnxS my&b mm ,naan Drip 
•on nn B"t? ,xan nax ! xanS pr: a"rp mmb ,-\2y'C'b pTJ an- 1 amp ,djik 
,xa-in mtni Dnpn ,x?ax xynr n?XBn twx nn n naSn ,"ax nnx ,x:nnB 
odv '1 xbi ^mm 'n xSi ,B"n x^ 1 ? '"•jno "ob .pna anp ,rrmBb 'bbi nyn 
; b"i nan o".T3 anm anSc pn nm ,n"na mm San •. x^nn jjna nn xh 
: UBTa nnxi nnx na anm annt" pi nui ,n"nn pjm ban nBiK nniiT nn 
,n"nn pTj anxi ,ann Sy pjm :na ,^\xn nn-a ^y nnvya ,nxiann by nDaa 
(? avx) nBXJtr ,av Saa pn-j anx ,-ibix 'dv m ; a".Ta annj nc pn im 
a'ynS, (an -iBxrc ,nyL" bn prj anx ,ibix jnj "-a-i "nnpab unpani// 
K^p ^an \s* ,pn inx 'vna 'jnp m ,xn min" 1 m abiyb xbt ni "ijjnan 
nya-xa : i5xyBr" 1 nn nn x^nn ,x\n bKyBC 1 'n nn x^n "'xn ,xai ibx ? anx 
by pjn'j im ,}ysr\ nnn Sy mvya ,nxnnn by naaa j'pn^ aSiyn nn^a 
.\"i n^nnx ,'^nB ^np m ,a"nn ann: ibv fi'in ,n"ia pn^anxn ,Dvrn by 
•xn XB'?yn 'jvy nrna ?;njmanBx x^ b"b nv nm -.xncn ai nax 
xanB nv nnn nn^yo xnon ai nax x!?x ? x\n xB?ya xjry ■•bj nnna 
piar n"x .'"iBva ar nan ^xil*" iBy us'ciz) nay Bai-B niL"y?„ (n n d^d'jo) 
■•jbb ,y"n an*B nnin" 1 -i"x x^n .nv nna '^ynrrxi n^-px xn-'xn p^SB jXBa 
,nnpn nBX : xin nxnn pi naanL" »3Bd ?nDaa nBiy ixnn nnin nnBN ib 
niBX n»o '13B1 ; nn^aL" nxnn aa? n,-iannL M na ,noaa nBiy ^sb ixnn 



»2J ;iosi3 D»3«n jwa 'xa }nDJ3 vnn's ps» f nian2 »n» pya .n:ic,s-i nanrn nnso 
miz .in: p^ts nta'pS -na ,-nxo i^p 1 ?: vmiw ,1^ Sax .pais ptri'tr -jino nv:op 
rpw n:c: nania pSw n-^sw ,n":tr ;nS^' jvj?»a» .xnirn »a>«n ry naoaa B»isia ,rnty 
n"jtt* natr iy jnma i^x n'yawa na D'oainn nn»a ,D'2tt' B ,c ?rS mciyti* »3B6 .n^ou' S» 
,'pnEin .nainoa xnB'n ,x?2"pT nxian 'B3 .n;tra ,D'p-ia nya*i«a "'jnB .ntsoB* £ te* 
nya ,xih nm .Man psmoa ynt 1 ? T»ny» ,nymTian .n ,£ ?y mayc* ,nSy-n;n .nixi-ra 
ran^ .n-ncx bw n^2 « % *m n-;" 1 -:"' nnip ,navc*S n'iinu .pant? ix ma pj-o mp .nrx 
najr» a"n'a ,s'anS .vSy nw: npntrx 're a",n'ai ,nayts^ pn»a .nnynr inxr nasn /xrnS 
x;m nSson t:''i'x nn o .Ysp 1 ? -jira^i nnyn: mip ^ann'a *an nn .anpa way 
miycn ,xsnn ynt^i anp>S .Sa-annS pnnoo pxr pemoa pyntaty noaiai nun ,nSsx 
naea ]w: naiaS na^a ya» nSvra xSssn pon ,mxi taaca nms rpm StpannS nnnco 
mai ,p'Sa nnp .xan nasa ,n'a'H-raS »taan nm .n^aa* nynra ymtS nno< ^zb ,nay» 
»ann .nnx x'cp .pn ntax n^pna nyanti /'ana 'anp »ai .^pSpnnS aic nnaa ia»xi nsp 



biDi ponon 0*6*3 max n"x ? m^ra <xo .nxan njrn pipjmDi o*o ^a by 
dv d'bw ono po yaot" n*»n biai ponon onva ,pm :in*ra xa"x n»n 
royaBa piDX "ixb oxi ,rojr3B»3 prooi naycrb pnE'yno ,naB»n B>xn 'asb 
m*jvw n"x nrybx n"« ?h*d -tSA n"n taaB>3 nnxa nxan mvb pnB>yrrcn 
xany 'ana ncyo ,n"n .pnara nsipn anw B"yx .rtiE> *»B>a an ijopi bmn 
,'k»b' nn nana nnx (:T) :pniB»y w 13 anai ,D2t:*n nnxa annx bp^b* 
ana bbn nm *k»e> roa anao xb ims rrnrr na w 'an -bbn roa nana nnxi 
anj ■•ksdb' roaa B3B*3 nnx3 .na ana nrynx 'm bxn»a pn ana» xbx ,na 
onip rrnwD iDanB 1 annua xan srajn 'an xdwxi xa'an 'n ion ?na 
n ( nL" npyoi ,pb omp n'sx xin pnai ,jamDy catr ejTin nB»y nE>on 
f n"n 03Ba va xbx ,roii DaB*a nnx xb :»am ina nox xann .ron na 
.na ana nryn-x am bxnoa pi anara xbx na ana bbn nai *kdb> na anjo xbi 
,pnn ntrpb nnx annx bx^iaa pn noxn aa by six twin na na-i nox C-1t3D 
#wW» nDaaa n"jtr wi'n ok ^anpn ann xatr »kd .B3B> lbs* naB»n B*xn 
nmnax aax xnSna ? royanb nDaaa jvb^ nron ox : \inpn xan x:b* 'xtai 
n:yo vh ,royaB»3 xoby nn na *B*»B>Don 'T-xi r m' nn xa*p annxn ,b"»p 
Fiwk nB> nacn B>xn annx : 'xa* 1 ania pnv an roana xya .pas' nbn iy n"s 
roa'ia sya .o^nnn : b"s ? naipnn taaB 1 ix rD^nnn D3B* .nacr : n^ n»« 
,^"s ?"inn nn'aiy» n:c nn"n :'xr *ano janv "an nS nraxi ,jona aiD xa~i 
annx :innnn n»x B ,, pb cm pnv »3n non^x (:Tl2) .d , jc» an nnx n^n 
na annx :pnv n"x pan xnx "a ,rrow nfcya rn ,, y , 3B'b noaaaB» roB>B» na 
•I^x ,n"n -bata oiBno nny pa«n naa n'B»yai rtna '^x n*jr»ae6 nDjaai" nw 
B3B>3 "iB'y neon nnx ,n-iayc naB? nrynn ,oaL"a vo Dnip wtitb ita:nc 

.in"3'3 NS'N .nrrn ins x^s n laSn nSi mn n'3t3p j?itS lyn '«t f pi^ i;nTtr nvan 
jvk 'S'San »m» h ; o ,;:m .nn inx jispSi n"-i »as^ dv 'S ipirn sSi D'o nna yaot? ]U3 
yiSi ,rnay» natr "a Sv j^hj ix"o: nn ':sS dv d^c* cm yam ivan /wsno xn n'S 
pw mi»sn p"nn p«i ,fyxb nn oawn nnx; .xznS pwj»noi D'o Sa 'jy d'Shj nn 
,n;r 'dw :n ws'i Sxin -1x20 nixS ltsant? p'xi niTs Sy pS amp vnn«a «san» 
".nnyn jiaain mi'sn ixsoai ma^xa qicn nSyi ny»a*i ;qt xins> D'acan ma» an lay last? 
n.-tr2 'ay«ots»yai n^ac na»a 'a» *i»yn ,oni»<s 'air .annx p'x nn»a ,annx ap^Bf 
nraaa naa nac* cinna nox» ,e»'a nana nnx .rw^ naaaa n^ac' nn^nw ,n»»»S» 
an:ra xS .ia ntr^ n»on ny nati' ntsnnna xn jniaixn r n"a nana nnxi .na'twiro n't!• ,t ?t^ , 
,a-n3 n:Sn p2^ uicn xSx ,n"23 paa B»"aa pn^ m»o isS n= anatr pite»y »a» ,'ia tr"r 
r]T»n .niaS'x nsca ia iaSn naan nnx nraxn una xrar ix ,pn<a na»p^ nnx annx naxn 
nxsoa ^'c^c nxs» xS pyi n»»>Vw na» nraaa npncxn u:cd v*aai npncxn ,^-- 
,1'ni"; 'aa* nn ama mn »oa jaS amp napS nxn ,xin jnai jvvrhvn nupnai n M aea naanty 
»3V nn nan nx Sisa ,»ani ina .rrn a:tra nnx; r mnw ntryo x^x .x"m an an:o nitre 
d: - :* .iz nicrarrata d't annxn ryn nrp ,xn' nn x<a*p annx .mpnno »n» n2 nao* 
nnn .nan bv? D2C oaaa n2*L: naipn Sr D'ts^tr ^zh r naipm aat? ix ,naa^ hv ,D'B*nnn 
nnx ? U2C* m-ran Mints' prxnn nnx ix ,n2taS Tioan aatf ? nn ma'x ,ina maiya natr 
iS'2X ,nna i^ax .niyan ;a nniasi ntryaa na^n ^n'trc ahv;b .aatp latrtr 'a piv an 
nnai S20 miya n2"n ,nas n'tpyaty ny n'y'atpa n^na n2im aya x^x n»twa n^na nS 
■piw niTa npi c n :;:nna r niaiya xSx S21: nr \mh px ,n"o mans nt? .]a'Srx naan 



? \\mr\ pns Hj^H WHO dw "wi n^nn« u 

•ruswi HKY3 nb np Kpi ,n"i ■oab e»btr ntranp yrrn ,jna mvpjp n«un bsi 
iv ciai) a*nam ,xin TXp spos ^m m»x n^o 'di ,Nran ^ nb *ppn» 

Ki1 KTT "1*K ? 1310 Tiron 3p»1 plJ nblDQ3 "10 IDKl r**p|TOl "P*U» 1QDN3,, 

jajruv m ,K^ma ? pJ» /xbx ,k:po rra soisn wan 'i xnxi r ptt wn xnbva 
xbx ,trbtrb : xipn bx'(: ..' , ; /'nwn pbsyb nsiann nx ntJ>yi„ (na xnp<i) ioik ejDv 
natrn nx Dnimu (na xnp'i] wins Nip 3td ?rpaij6 np »jon3 xni xrhvh 
p-nam tnnm nwn ,ann pn ."n^vnn rusyn iy |b* nsiann jo anbaxi H'hjw 
jniDK ixb dxi ,n , y , 3c , 3 pimiLi iay&?b pie>ynD ,n"i 'jab lcncnc iwdibw 
nxian ,nt3an ina p"X :pai nox ,nai idk .nx3n rotrb ppynoi rrjpatya 
ipno ,nm lox'nn ?pai lnric ;xco »jn ,nt3*pb -inn pi 1 ,b>pk> -ina own 
ioix »Wun *dv 'ai x^n CT) .nencrn im pan *?t« pais paia piryp 
mays? nji*» *» by pbnjp pmvo apn pu no "spptt -pun ^aDX3„ O onai) 
,nnayp nae>? pewo ,mayir rw »o by pbnatr ba =ix ;maysy njcrb pewnw 
"ioik X3py m .nx3n rwb pi^yntoi ,nx3n n:sj> *» by pbnjt" nipT ix^r 
njtrb pityynoi w an by pbna^ pinvo 3p'i pa no "lap^oi *piao ^ddn3„ 
fbniv nip* wsp ,ni3yE> nacb picyno ,onD an by pbnat? ba p|K ,mayB> 

ia'« 12 nxip nnx nex rpox ,m»n jo tb>j?b nx -|EDxa xin i»« am ym ,n»sp r]>cx 
inS Q'pi ,may» n:» nns iSin jnn Tspa' ]nd inoSi ,n»svn nawo aha ,no:3jn ruco 
.n"i ^s'? vrhv ns>:nc yn»a jh: ms-jc* nsian San ^^tb nnx nttiann noM» paiS 
r TSp q'DK 'Mm .tr'^tr nnx nN«n xa^x ,n«svn nam «>n» ,nau»n nssa n'S np spi 
.lap'Di iaiaa iedn: unSya ,a»na «m .sin TSp pa^ n'cm'o'? ijiw ^'dn »»m nioxpn 
yxv *iai f nni»Ti i'cp jwa ap'i pia n ; iDEa naia Str -an mcyS ainan tidSb* ,io ioni 
nsiannc isan maSar piao ia«n ,p'a mn xnSva sn .pxn p iSnui ,-inoiq Sapo 
sipn xac ,,( ?3 jrontpo i^ec s\'dk '«m iraiS ,«aia n»a snc xa^an »ai xnsi .c"Sb» inx 
M'ntra nncyr ,B"St: ,t ? nSn trntr'? npn Sn D»a»n cScS nwiann n« ncj?i -«»rt «Tn» ixSi 
.p n^aop i a'D ,'ia jnnm msn .n'yarn naca Saxa no h? nairn r n»ei^ .nSit^a E»Str2 
pnmi .'ay iB»yo n»B»^» cni kv ntrvo n^ac' ns ,rnaj?tt» nac niwyaa paj"^ pityyna 
inb»I3 nx jno'pS nats»a ,nsan natrS ont^ynoi ,n"a ^ae 1 ? n»yc» aiy itrncn dx ,n»j?»aB»a 
mip vni-vs luanc px ppi'sa nS xan jrap? ,ntsan ina .n^^ar nawB* ,xm j?i2B> 'ats> 
^"S poxia /la'pS ina p*v -niayty nac'- i»j?no ,'ia^x 1 ? n"i xintr ,aaca -icy ntt-ran 
pn^yty lino .ntMtt'n inx ;na lannc ,ina^i» ;xoa nvaop ,'M .la n"i any p*v up'S 
r tayo paism pta-iS cvn x^x pnsa ptap^a pstp ,t3ya ayo 'icy piiac iina ,pais pais 
ex ,n"-i nnxS pa-iEan nj? nn 'asS paisan pn' panya j»i tr-in lxsaai oj?a inoh 
|B"n Sj? ttnnn pa iirya V'n ,vniitpya B«i2a xn^ca pi' ixtra na^pS inx pa pSin 
nnx naa nna> ,niB»n Sa n»iiya nnx naB'ac ,nBn»n nna ma 'Stx ,tnnn hy jr»n pi 
'sS p? j?iap^ n^aann Ta n^ia^i ,p pane pn nvaapi pxn m-ps iB>j % ai nnix pj,n« 
onnan pi' npya pi yiapS n^raan la-an ;xaa pap'ai naiaa isasa .nnxi nnx SaS cryn 
mx nun pa naS'ntr ,ap'i pia nrainna xn> ina* b|'2« na ,xranya xnaraaxn nta^pS -nx 
,pSna xm \rbv wh& nxana* p'B'aa innac nac n~x pa naSmc* 'in ,B"nc nx^anc ,n:t? 
rnii'S] nnna nac psan nn« p'«a lann n,aS ,'ia na qx .pnna -)^b n'ls-n nyts» nmxa» 
nac wni pxan nac Sy i^nac mpi' ixi' 1 .sin nsan usn p'xn cine nxnyna' »*y 
?j? D'S'ia n'pt an» ,catfa «a en -p'a am .nSnai mwn x'ni nmx ptna nn» ,pa»pS 
pa n,San: n»pt8»ni laxatr psya p'an ]ms ppanai pSns» paixtr by s\n ,n'a Sa ?y ,dt 
nisi .D'Ssa nxca pnna pts>j?a pxc ,D'D'ian O'^sa .nx-cna iann pn'n p ddd ,pi>n 



pn xjni .nsnpx rrb xa'ann H"x ? xtrna xnmxn yn^i .xnmxn 'jnpn 
op6i nrm rpBfji xan xbfc? ny n"n my pv op*b n"ri .xnmxn e>"ai pan xjn 
pntryoi ponin piw »«A ,nr by nro pntrym pDnin px ,^DB»n xantj>» W) 
riva^r? na:sa n«jp nrwi dx .cnnn ^y pvi jd nSi |&»n ^y tnnn p x$> 
nox ?o"njo ,^y npyoi pspxi ncryo rwV:? ww nspyiai pfc>xn ncyo n«jss> 
nw rrwb&n njca rjnxian npyo ba nx na>yb nban "a,, (n nnai) ^an 
,<jy iwtDi pt?xn npyo ? "W3 xn ,nnx news xbx na pxe> rue /'n-yon 
bxi (m iaiaa) b"n ? boa* 1 , dj nexi neyio si,x xSx irx ix ;^t y» neyoi 
aaS Tinj nex neyan nx ^iK" -ja nxo inpn 'a an^x mow imn a^n 
pe.o neya *ix ,paan nb px nSn: na ,nbn:b ainsn ltrpn "aanSma onx© 
tnm ney Due njia ,njc6 rrano nx:m niian ,n"n ."lai omabi -pDsn "6 px 
jva ,m^xa nyeni aneya xbx noy xb i^qx ,it noeb nox axi ,nvb avo 
.rvb nyovx xm rrby b'ap .Tea: myxb ,nm •b nnSy ,nena nnx av y^ne 
nxnnn ,n»*neia jnbnn ,ann pn .anx ua peb -inx n,i?n annua ? jdu xtw 
DWtni nxiann .D^ynr^ noxneo ? npxneia <xa ,e^B> ix^eo D'nnm 
, Dr *am n^DS^o na iudi pnv n"x ?dx ai max ? D y/ n^ ,&ne ix^a^o 
"maiDn :na nDDtrn n^c nyiDa WW yac ppo„ (sS onan] xnp nox ,^pan 
nxnh Sa *\? iiy\b xSx ? x^n n , J , 0B' ,maian jna n^m'ay ^xo nt:oL"n nj^ 
n'no: .n^raaa n^ac jhjd 13 amj nnx n"-i -jsS n'ya^a bp^ nx'an^ 
jn ny ^rni ddbti xjdh-i iDxpi ^>a b"y x? x»bm (..?) •"'ax an xn 'an 
? epox "xd "nJB'n nxva ^dxh jni„ (n mo») a'nan ,T y a xS ? niaian 
,panp inb a^pi f TSp ,q<D« 'xo x^x ,"-|aaxa„ a s nan ^na'DX ;cra xan :r\ xn^x 

up'S .Nn'nim »"3 iS j?«p mn p'ya^Ki ,J33^ x;n .nncvoS s:n ttbi nip^ 1 ? x:m 
o»3ts> 'ncn upS: dx ,'x n ir= 'rtiv B"ysi ,itr^o paj,^ Stx na'p nns pin p'yiatrx ,pi> 
natM upSatr no ,n"ac .naB> n:c a'nan ,; - j"n ^y trinn jo renin ptt» ,jb»i enn 'in 
i»ya n'cSr natra upSac noi f o^»n»a »a» ia»yoi nSS pcxi ie»yq nts'DB' ^» n^aw 
na ama p«» na» .'a-a* -itryra na anis ws n'-Lr' L "2 , ^T ,'^n un xara /aj? -itryoi iia-xn 
ny jnaa* -pna ;n' ,iiB>*n icya tso xn .n , asf?B' D'a-a* 'nra ian:c nn»yon ja ,nnx xnx 
s\x ix .'ay wya Kim (.naansSi mn'S ia-> a'naia ♦a»_i»ya oipaai ^ai» ,»ay i»yai .n:n 
Kim ,naa^xSi oin^ laS 'iSS S'txi cieran x\nn r naKp nn icyran na»i ^ar jva'xi ti-ya 
'iai x:c5 ;ar Sa p - a*XT "i3>yaS ,'iSn xai .pixai pSi iS rxr 'a^ V-d: >iS qxta* »ay irya 
•ma mx pxc ,mx 'a a p»S .'mi »i^n xai laiai D'atf cSr nsprS :a»na n'r^c* napa xm 
,no»*nca .p^an pa ,in^nn ,nn n»n nn-S dix >aa -p-n ,nanS S'ai xinc pcS ^y x ; x 
.iaina nais prna* ,a';ntS nasntpa .i.Tj'p 1 ? na» "nx xSi *i»yna Kin inn'ai' na» in^: 
iK , a'»a ins' jD'nnm ,ap' nxianai \in nxiana a'nan ,-ixian flip irimni ]i~t ,nxrnn 
,'S'a 'an xaa .wwhv nx n":c ex aSra-'a »>Sts»S ia i;"an» ft:v inx pitryna c ,,: 7tr 
nnpS ,n»m»ay »xa ? ,£ ?tx tr^a* man faai ,xn'mxT imn nwyai »xp n'n'rxi noanx 
.nwaw naaaa naai n"ia navarnnxi" n:a nn ,nu'at?n natr car ya» qiaar niai^n an 
nxian it it'xi myatra i^x xm n'a'aa* Sa' xinr iai i 1 ? c xip p"m ,'ia iS laiS x-'X 
ni^a xaanTiaKp n';"aca Sa>:nnS iS'nnn xS iraxi ,SSa S"y xS Ka'rii .&bv n?'an» 
ix'anra xSx Kip ^;rwbi f TO xS .nsp^i emn^a niaian an iy nna\x -jra'S n'ya» 
na'ax jara xai mts>3i mm na* Kinm xa^'x ,epax;i ai 'xa .xannx xip nairai a ,,! -c 
♦kb xSx .mtrya nx icaxa n^sia xip x\ina a*na xn 2»aa^ nn xip ina a^nai 'i na^ 



I ii^Js i p Isj | |J£ 7 |( ^^ ! u JS l^ is i i IJ/J l«X 1,a 

'Km vo-'.o 'X'D .Dlny ^n^x n vibus? nT 1 "jna nun-xn n-vn bx-w t^x ba 
na'o) noisi ^awo jnW (na inaa) 3'n3i3 ? x-n '&vr\-\ wL M, b pn"x 
•nbu|D , j3e>pjD„ -idix y^in^ -m ."p-ix ^dio D^n'xni 'n an nx onn iy»'{p» 
bx-ic" 1 "on nx»*b nrc mxro y3^xi rut? dwdm wi„ « d»3*?d3 -i»&«tr ? maw 
jDua T'» .Dbiy ^nrr n nbuB> nvi "vr B**m3 rrjpsin njE>3 onvo pixD 
Dn"bx nowi,, (xS ona-o n»xrc> ,inD n»na ,n^J niwia T'ia ;inio joua ,nbw 
'ec ltfbo orn ? Dvn b"n rrai ,Dvn b"n px:r "nvn »3jk rutr ontryi nxo p 
,crir6 Bnn»i avb dvo wpns bw nwrmv xbiDDi 3i M v n"apntr ^ ,Tfun 
3"n3i3 ? jbio ,pnr ibu naa3 ."xbox "pa 1 ibod n*» (- 13 niac ') "iston? 
,n~ixy3 n^b -ioxpi ,naDa K&'b'M ? \xp n>rx "*pbx aicrx wob,, (n nns»to2) 
n{?Dn3 Ti3X ,nt?n3 n-b noxpi mvya i xpn xbx ? mb* xp 'o pov ppona 
xp »d Trv xn^'3 Ti3x ,}D'23 n^b iBKpi an3 'xpn x^x ? nib' xp *o trri' 
nyz>nb mbv Y'ob '"ax ,N"i3it -is toxi ,nrvn maiyo n:e> nnix Kin ? mV 
vpi„ c<« b*iaaO "ipxrj> pyuipob mbi 1 nya*c*b mbv ,pyiaip»b mbv nrx 
bnn ,m&? mpa: n"-o .Drjz> d^" myni dtis? maipn niyva "d"dm naipnb 
L m2 3713 ,nv3T nv3t xtix ,nrpa nTpa xtis ,-nySx n"x ?}i>iio ,mm 
x'nxi '"n man* « ^ocj njnn a»nai /' ,L, n-i nx d^Sx -n3T v „ (S n^nia) 
3'na fHTpa m»pa ; a nynn pnar pn3t; , „ 02 nip'O a'nan ,n /; no m^r nrar 
nx nps 'ni„ On nWia) m»a avoi "nin nx 'n npa »3„ (n n Sniok*) njn3 
L'nna iypn„ (»a n^'-nn ) a'nan ? p;j£> fpiiDKn n^n cidv xv n"i3 ,"mc 
mxva io^ p]Din^3 nny„ (:SM "-iidtji win bxn^b pn ^ irjn nvb nD33 new 
'nxsim,, (i mar) xan 3 s na ronvoa irnnxo mny nba3 mirn l m xi3 ."nowi 
ID^a /'1D3B' ^3DD , mTDn (s2 c^nn) onn 3'nsi "anvn nibaD nnn» nanx 
B>nin3 iypn„ xan 3 s na naiK' new x^nx :^xrb p\iy , iL ,, n3 /xn'xna ,iSxj: 
tD^3 inix ycnn 1 ' m ."bnj -i3vj'3 ypn s xinn dv3» (*a '»yt^) nnn 3TD1 "idil" 
"lorj'on b^ "DmoL" j-b^ O mow) x~ip idx ? |bj» ,bxrb pT'ny p'j3 ,1>W3 
naipnbi ,iTy s bx 'ns^nob pjio bx")^ ^osn n"n (•I' 1 ) •n , L ,, x-i3 'c nt'r-o xai 
mpn s b x^n .nipi^i .yc»^n , '-in bnob nx pjid abiyn niEix ^an jy^i.T "3na 
,p3-n x:n ! nnwo irvn ? pv i^yo ,inrj ; ko mpi^ ,Dn-ubi nn^yobi 

"'tr n 
|3':~ pan J"x ,p'32 laa nSi: i"x cinnitr'a ,nSiy ^nm 13 nSuc .Kin i«« ,vt trninn 
ivrxi Nnn D'^S ,-i'Sn 2i»x Tjmb .rnsnS ,mx:nnS .n:nS ^ i"« iinn -jtyaa nsipm 
,m» d^Sp ^ty '♦»S» D'annVx^x ,pytsipaS mSr nrs ,m: n3D02 ,t'bS i^sn ,p 'i^Si 
a'na qova ,ia:c S:do 'nn^n .^ntt»'S pn »ai avo Nip xnm nnnn ,iatf S]3in»a nny 
m:r paia ,"itv ,L, « '3"i2 SnaS paia Ssic 'aan ,nSix:S ,x:i lai^an .qoln'a nny inn 
^Siyn n-i:: nB'nn inS '-wan niB*a sS ,a^tr,n n^nn nrno nnnn n«ts»i oSiy nN'i.i na 
pan naa^m nrann nsipn pjinE»a ,yiwn' '21a nsipnVi ;D'a»f? niton cxn >i»m xSx 
n ; sia id': nnpn px id^S ,p'aa nan ntrat? »j?'an SS n'j'nnai ,1x12a p'aotp irai 1 ? ,p»aa 
T'x; ^aai rnwa 1 ? p'ao p^»nna nnnn matr paaS nrann ^lra? qx .uvn »yai '12 xSx 
^aan in tsspa nnc xin p»a ,o'an nontr pcxna nixo tt'ti'i nnx2 noxnco yy ,tt 
Sjr n"n any tap^an p^a paiin pxc ,pyn ctt payS pT "wy'o ,nipT^»i .cnn ib'j; o'ac 
B»in pay 1 ? yiap n"i cr lyacn ,13m xan .»13B pa-S ,nma^ .natr'n rx-i nnx op^an 
,pn xani .ne* ]tt"i tnn'j yiap uv n qxr j.n itryo xan nm ,ja2nn pi' ntpyoa i»m 



pn n^ab miDO it ,nbe>» xbn abiyn ep.oa nn Ka^bn npas •'x ,k»ti 'ai ? nnx 
'it n-nrr "i nan it prm -vx xax ia x^n "an idx .p rrab n-iiDD ro x in 
^abi roab L"in: x-tpo ,naDpi ria niaayo pi'^tr Dnow D'ozn bax ,*dv 
,Kinn "pxa,, a'noni f p«b nvina lb'asn xinn "bar,, aviam .vnnsbi r:a 
nsina anu w» fp«a anu irxL" pra ,pixb nvma ama ,p-ixa im anus? pra 
narai,, (ntsO atrial "D'b-iy cue trbtr,, (a* sip] aTian |bao .nytaain ,pxb 
in« r~i"n .-"nasrn jtbwio,; («• onan) zrnan np-no nap roc epbn "rpyann 
,n:L"n cx-i uab dv D^bs? ,n" , y , ac aiy a^anon nnsi ?pna»n nnxi yown 
nnby xb f n3BTi "j'xi 'jab dv 'bo nina ,n , y , ae>a {©"p^b nnvai , natr ib nnby 
,02L'*a V'd ny p-nox ,it nyoa nwai (A) ."yatra p^pb niDKi ,nap lb 
io»i pnv '-i "iox xax na x^n n"x ? D"nc /yai 'yanb dxi ,nbny nbiyb ax 
"rr-j'ronn natrai rvyann naB>ai„ (o 1 > S ">"" 1 J 'Xip idx ,'xv 'nn h'cl-d na 
DiK'io miDK pnyi n^ona 1 :* D'oysi ,nbny DiB»ra miDX pnyi rvyanasy ooya 
ino ntwia ,niax nbu npria Dbiyn xnaa ntj>na noix x"-i rN'on (-A) .*yan 
rrao spv xv nacrn rxia ,nam bm nnt? nnpaa n"na ,pmr nbia nDaa -niax 
pnviy nspna ribsaa p*aa ,Dnxoa irniaxo may nboa n"na (.N* 1 ) ,pniD«n 
-max mo pua ,niax inbia p^a ,obiyn xiaa p\aa ioix ynrv »an .bwb 
,piaxn n^ao spv xv n"na imm bm m^ mpaa n //_ ia ,pnv nbi: nosa 
"a -i x^n .bxrb p'ny pvn ,ibx:: jD^a ,onvoa irnuxa n^ny nbtoa n"ia 
XL*nn D'.nbx _ iox v i,/ (> n'»Hi] 'rj' ? abiyn xna: n^naB' p^o zioix trybx 
xbo jb\xi a^xc'i nx'vic piKHB' Knn inrs "na py y^T ynrn ai M y kbh *,'"ixn 
inD¥i D'DB'j iiti rnn^n ny'ai pr pian inixi , ntsri nr nmx nn firn-a 
? abiyn x-ia: p^ac p^o noix y;rirr 'i ."p-ixn p nby 1 nxi„ (a cc) idxje 
rnn inrx "na nL M iy pyi yiT ynro a^y kbh pnxn xvini,, (x d») -idxj^' 
jot pian imsi ;py nr nmx nn ,nrre x^ia jb^i D'XB'n ns'bo pnxnL- 
/niaiji ;xvn ana iBob« (na n^n) ,-lDXJi: , .nr bss ni pa^nroc ^lyi n'm nona 
n»bB> nbDn bx ibnpn,, (n h»q) icxjc ? niax nbi: ntrnatr p^o idix x"n 

lain n^x n^n nS ainan nSnca -ioiS i:S c ia'sS n^v- ,1i,r 2 isitf x.t nSc ,*its»a« 'xi 
niiDO onay rn^tfi ^'ipnS nniSc ,! ? nnsS ,T'aS niian isw n;"pn x"i ■n^iy'? »isan 
nnna a'rsn niypip r.u^c f inn«^i ,ia airan is^n x' 1 la^n Savn ^tsa' J«0' axi Dnvrt 
nSc fT'in ,]";» nj?»tsa^i .co Sav yatroa mnS r Sav a'nani .innnN Sx tr\x DnaK*i 
qii j?un» )va ,n:» iS nnSy .i^ana j^m ,aoia .pxa miptn n« qsia ,-paa ? ncn 
n'j'n tj? f n:» iS nnSy xS dv a'tr* ; ro mna .n^ni' »3W ;';a L ' n:tr iS nnSy ncna nns 
ps'Dio» n'j?'aB> naain mtfa id»p £ j tok s'n rnj?'a» an;* dxi ,n»j?'a» aiy naw d« f xan 
Sc n"-i inxS niTa ra itwn ex n;ti' iS nnSy i:nr:xtr B"yxi ','ia nmax .c-np by ^ina 
f nynw^ n»n nrcn.cxi^ '3 by f\»v frbiy mva jvbSiy ;n piva« pny Ta rwrhv n;tr 
tj? nSiy »t» nxvS mnra -n:E? px -a'rS ,fo» n'»yj laa m ;jS'«S n*i uaca vta 
tiaca va 'nip counn nn»a nnxS patina »yam nSiy niatrw , ,L,, a »an x:a .aaca vta 
.\x;' 'ti n>n»o maixS n 'yintpa pynam pap e« ,na laai ?nSny w nti'Sa* iSaa* insS 
jwa ,n'»ana» d'bj?s .aa» 'js 1 ? n»j?»aia aunS vmi's i.tb as pa ,n»yana» D'aya 
nanpT xa ,mtr ^ipzi .apyi oniax ,max nVia .SiSn paiya •::? mip na ia:ntr m*>»a 
.mayen p^s cnSixa 'aeS cenn nrc* f wma«a miaj? nSaa .pnn n^y itaai naiaS 
.jD^aa c'Sn'tt' lyyi-in^' ;ara ,cna wsb .iiaa na ^j? xh na nciy pyi .ins laaat? ,na py 



'nbxb oac'D,, b"n ?p'JD jfmKb btotyb xbx "b px ,Kin bsntyb pn "a ,!prK x^n 
ama .pp n^nn pwaj bant^s? ,n»}» fl ?bKnB>*b pn '3» b"n n?a d"x "npy' 
nay dbbpo* (n x mate) toxjct -pnb nbTin d:3j n,bio ma^i ibo ,nnxn xicn 
r"s-)3x xabo Dp'ob xynx mix ixb ,xrrx n'ya *x ? xoyta , x» "ivy oifO'i 
njtsai* (na iriprQ n"ri3n ?tb:» .ponspbi .cjx pin bhb^i nspo x^x n"ya "xi 
O* nnan) :rn:n ,ncTiD nj&5> ,n:e> -inji "pnxb irrp pnaB> nat? n'yatyn 
(rDtnp»i)3 , ri3T ?Kin ntwia '"a ptyna nnxa mbav .robavbi ."n:cn n^-xTO,, 
,wn npm p pnv 'an b» lia bxy»B" "on ,*jd xn "naip n'ayn a^Ta,, 
' ; a".rpa„ noxjtr *ab ?b"n no ,"njsj' ci'TOnn n^tr nx Dntnpi,, (nc) «ym 
nobs D^onn rue nx Dnanpi b"n ribw d'Tvd xbx nenwio xnn xb bir)'> 
:xpn3 p pnv "i bcr m bxy»B» i"x jnso f nrtb»nno nabini ncnpnoL" 
xbx ,Dn"jnxb pnayntro xbi ijfrnab pneaj anay vn xb a"rp ny nine 
,-i2iL M 3 n"a iypn ,a"n' pinga jva jjn^xna jn^m-ioyi prism prnen p?aiK 
s ab "?b"n na, kti bav ,n,rx iwri .trpbyab nnnn nnen ,Drrna5 anay now 
7]3> ^nnb^nno nabim nisnpnDP Dt?a bis 1 »*WDnn n:c nx ancnpi,, 'x:k> 
baiv (ntr) b"n ?snpby bins pa^ais nrw ,nsnn bxi ;naiaa nabim n*jnpns 
.nnxi a't^snn mw &nps nnx »ki enps nnx B'B'snn njtr /'anwDnn njtr xti 
^piaxb .nnxi a^sn n:i" ruis nnx "•xi ,nr»s nnx B'Kfsn nw ,pam C.tD) 
un C:l3) -xbn ,|b yoL"D xp ,|x:6i jxab nbiy D^TOn nrj» pnxi ^"Tin' 1 hno 
xbt^ a"yx bia* 1 .iypn xk" »a by *ix ido^ xbi*' a"yx // x , n bav„ (na tn'pn) pan 
xb^ a"yK"X' , n bar,, pdi« s dv '■an inmn" •'an nan ijrn ,n»ib mobn ? inbi" 
xnpoc nnxo *y\ ! x s n b"n ? iypn xb:r *a by ^x bn" rinba* xb^ a"yx ,ibd8> 
pxi inbc» xbt** a"yx xin bav n»ix ••jx nn 'jso cyoo nnx xnpni nai?o nnx 
xp3 abiyb nr'ax s xi ,nnay nfrv xba nbiy^ nr'sx^ *sb V iypn a"x xbx bav 
121 \sd .pn n'ab miDo nrx in ,pn n^ab nnmo it ,nnx nan .naity nypn 

»*w n 
hd^» ,naj? astro .nS'nn D333 iSo nrnx p iropnaa f iia'si nSo .rr'zpnS ustt'o «n< 
11^X1 r/nn nciipo no»»B» n:ctr' ,|Sara .iia's many ^a»a ,=i« pin tris'Si .n'S iraxp 
maym nw nmaa» yaw i»kb> jvao ,V-n no n'conn nac nnmpi ? ypipn nuaya 
,no3a: Sav naa'tra ,»ipo nnx n>au» . y *»Dnn nac «»nts» ':n ynv ^yacn ttnna isic 
pa iopS loxn ens x"id ,B'in Die* cipo nnx 'ni .na»n ntrnpo ioiS i"a Sj? niso 
jD'conn n2B» nx nntsnpi loxatr »bS .mix panpn ps i:otd nxm xhw pa i:ot^ nxi;tr 
? a"n' ij? nw'oni n"i inx .nsioa nanpno ia Sia' .nnS'nno ncipnoc fra'o p^Sn 
pnoxia ,trmp Sj? ^mo pa'Dio nn» .nnnxSr nac iina nmx jnoti-o ex ,-onn '•xi 
-jnta^x xS nnS'nno tripnntr ontripio »e^> xSi ,paii .x\n «tsiya ,xm 'rav V'n .pp'? 
nac Savn nac naio nnx <xi naio nnx n^ronn n:tr pan n'S »Em n:i: 'tsiyo^ x»n 
n;c*o x^x x=n S:vn nac n;io nnx \xi ,xan bzv pao^ nnxi layts ^av qiaS D^-on 
natr mX^Si jxaS r6iy D'tfon n:c* nma naaoa ioxi ,mm» 'no 'pirxSi 3avn inx^ty 
->na n'a'b ^y^ ,'ia vjob* x'-c a"j*N Sav x<n hzv .nx:n naoa'S n:m\si n;tri Savn 
□aS n^nn x»n bzv> a^na nm im cnxipi na» D^tyonn naa* nx nnanpi intr maym 
onai ia la-ya xS iS'esi mpo Sao aaS x<n Sav n:cnn 'am seniS xin xi'n' xipi 
.ni'spi m'sai nynta nax nvnS vSy nvn db* p s"yx ,niinx Sx ait^i isib» mayn nSSn 
isS dxi r Sav x^n PSn o-iai ri'»y nx ,x'n S"n ?Sav xn 1 ,nnay ,mSty xSc b"j?n Sia' 
•niS'K' pj?B»» Sxica nay lay pxty n'oya ,ana'y ni^e* xSa nSiyS m'axc ,Sav ia'x 



,rn &uni ^xjvnxi nop xjm ; njx D'opw nic inSia? ,xrva c^rx -on 
?»33 ."nona njpjjob rwtpn trxn ,S6xa nnxa,, :ntD , p irai? nas^o »pj jDoa 
r pyetj> ma n^> iaD o-bna : »kjtti xa^x n^ a^n son "an ,s\ov an nox 
nyanx xai nox ? iin ntron ,nyanx "an \s* .tko ma nS nao nona nsyycai 
.nona ntryo Ti ,nyanx pyot" *ani> rD"6n Sn ,nyanx vsa "an^ ! San nanb 
nrybx s an„ (.pi) ■d , jb> 'Bun noa jnai .a^nn nyanx hon pmr na pro an 
noxjL" ,vjnn nnx xnpo Dmc'i ,pnv vx ."ne>na nnxa ano"ix piotr "am 
'no's ,-iao o"n "itb" ?|X lyyin^ na isay a\novi jsren ana ltraS, (na nn\nn"j 
: nnxo ,na iaoy a"poy *no*«i ; ia isoy a'poycr jora ,t,xvn ana icraS 
"now anoix cr"ni nryxx <an Sba ;nx" n"n ,axa rowi ,nnxa nnayno 
;jaoa ?nT!J' mnoix a*?atr tid^n riTcy *ix lyyi-irvt" jora ?jxsn ana ltrnS 
jxsn ana \&ib ,y"an nox xan /nan ;nStr n"n. ,?i?xa nr6ri jd^3 nnayno 
"ntryn nc*y„ (t nnai) 'jbarap xip 'xna xam ,mxa na laoy a'poya' jota 
s^po ,naa o"n ;jn nryo nnxi ,nona ncpyo nnx : nano ainan nne>y» ocra 
n,ioa nona ntryo *ix nTjyy noab ^od pn niryo no ,pn niryo? nona ntryo 
n"n pn natyo no ,pn ntryoS nona nryo B»po ,naa e>"m x"-ii .nrp nojb 
woS :"aoL"S n"n nKTia nnxa,, .ns?ri iSr* n"t ,nona ntyyo fix ,nc'n ii>e> 
|onj a~i .abiyn snaj n^na idxt -X'n x"ii .naipnS xtt "ai tox ? xna!?n 
rrirxno "njc nnnx "tyi n^»n rrirxncu («' nnr ) a'nai ,p~6 pox pn^' na 
B>rna iypn„ (wa n' ; nn) a^nan v xin nL'Tn woo .naiDa xn' no jno nrcn 
, n"i nr noix "in ?n noann KHinnGS> (:H) Jn inr \x r "wyn nvb naaa ns s ^' 
.'6x1^? pn •'a,, "i"h ."apy mSxS oaco ,xm bxw*? pn "2„(x2 c'rnn) a-'nai 
.Knnn nx noo ^ n"a wrp a"xx ,pnb pDJa: n^yo b& n"a pxB> ,no^o 

.pov pnSna n^iS »n»2 i^'oS tr;'x nia x^t r «ia« snc sm-n xnynxt -!•: , ^ :, n^'Si 
?n:c l' 1 nnSy n»n yunc p»3 hibxi '«a x^x noj? xS dx ,d\-i: nnoc*S n"i ,nrn xsw 
~iox x?i ,xn"i2T p"m ,-ux d'ompi 'O' ir.Si^S ntrn 1 " -pao xn'2 c;^ i^x '3 »3t?ai 
max xin ,x^n *3i .onawn niao nm imv D'ac^i pitrpna p'ay ,^'^p .dti: nnoc-S 
2»D5i pnanaS max xi3J im ,on »x .xan ina xim ,x;n ina xnn xnS'a 3'aai ,'una^ 
^iVtta inxi , p'33 Try ntrani ,p':: inx -. mr: n'jcn »»xi ncan ,x:n in: x~n n»nS»a 
nnn^T ,Tsty ,pyo» 'ma xrnS nS na-ia 'x xna xn \U2V2 n^y n»am ,ntrn2 inxi 
'3*i nSiyS ,x3i Tax ! x^rp inanax x:n in 'x x^x ,SiSx2 -rnx n^ nbi ,inia nyais 
n»S n'Xi ,Txa mS .ny:nx: »^ oma ^an in'ai , ,c ? xtsd n»an xax :ir2>tp o~.i ,x'n 
pyar '"i'ji .S'ySi xn«iaa x';m: ,T-xn Saa laiy nnx ^na nnnVi ,wh^ hi , t ?i c ?x2 inx 
'c*xi naa jnai .xin nawn rxi »aa "iB>ya ixS^i ,'Trna nnxa xSx ht a i r nona n»ya St 
■nnayna» D^aan mciSna ,jxsn nna ic; 1 ? ,n ,; r'rnp in ,nn .T3 n'xn pa -aS'n ,d';c 
nxianm T»pn jar ywtra p»32 ,itc qx »yynn' .ns 1 maai nnaiv nynrntr ,tj isay 
nana nia»y ;ar .njTnanaa mxn:i Sipn yaw ,n Sy it miopia pi n3tr , :r^ nnm rhv ''cpa 
jars .n;tyn tyiT.m pStr jam nn jat naaS -pa:n ^iSx pSs* n"i .a'cnn nt?an npT 
,japS n'S an 'am nan niwyaS n"i ,i-na"y naaS iiaa pi icya .n^n'twi ,iyynn'» 
paiaa* laiS ,-i2ipnS .nn»2ty mii^3 a*3 ,: ? 'vnaa nann nia 1 Ssi ,x»n na^S -i^a nam 
Sa nx na*na p n'spna* ,pii .nana nizhr, nnSiai nann nisipn Sa* }3iS'm jn'naS 
»sS n-iro '33 1 ? n'3iyi aiya »aaS nnna* pja apimS ,13 naana annna- .nSiyn 'xs 
irnnn pn nx Sxia" iyap ax p"m ,'ia »inn wnp p nx xSx .rmnvh iiaa xm nj-jpa* 



i pawn p-ie rwn CK1 dw "Wi njn-ifc * 

ib p:io wkd ,1133 ',wb irjaw ! nnotya nrvx um ,rnb pw«m ,*3K b"x 
; nxvmb nxiJK' rw» ids* 3py na xnx an nb*2& r\wo nox "ax ? ri:t? 
rrb Dpn ? rrb ^ax 'tfe *» di» by3 .Dio by33 xn (.T) ,Dna xn ,Tba xbi 
.tvbpv ncnnbi rpwjfo .D'tnnb n"i ,p"j3 nnxa n"n .venn 1? tat? ira 
n.rn t:nnn„ (=' matr) aTian ? jbjn D^nnb .dvd niTatrb *ix ,Dnoix i m, i 
tnnnx mot?,, 0' nna-o a^nai ,"ruB>n itnr6 Dab sin ptrxn own trxn Dab 
xcbi .ptrxn rrb npi ,jd^ nr niaix 'in ? a^as 13 b^b» Knn inrx "svaxn 

:X3n£ XlDn 31 IDS xbx ? 3TI3 X3X 3TI H*0 .N3^1 ,3»3K 311 X^J?3 ? T1X 

inrx "p-ixn nxnn nx ddqdx3 *]P3bh ennb dv npy ntPtro *t,x„ (aa mpn) 
? bibx xo'xi -Tar rrb *np xpi ,^#n nr ,*Toik *in ?na , DX 13 crtr trm 

xbx ? 3*113 epDK 31"l "'TI3 .X3"h ,«pDX 311 K3'JQ ? ~nxb »JT3B> Wat? »KD1 

(j -max) ,vncb nbspnano ,irr»b xb ira-i nsj>» mine nr 131 ,xr3i nrax 
px x^nm ?j;*jid pyo pnuyb .piwybi ."id\3 enn xin p^xin BHro» 
xjm .pp^ nposn ? piwy 'K'n ,pmr 13 ;om 3i idx i nx xbx pnsyo 
rvcsw T'x ? pjo .D^bps? nonnbi .vvDp xb npaan3 *i«Dp nbnnna ,pn 
,vnn min mox ,"naB>n vtnb vj'-ina enn nbiy nxr„ (na ninoa) xnp inx 
xin ptrxn,, (31 ftinv) 3^31 ,;d"jd njy n:B> naji ; nenn nonno p"ip X3ni 
,p ,, j3 nnx3 px3n mv niJ3ip ,Ssi»^ tnx nTin' 3i idx ."nats'n ^nnb D3^ 
3njnnc;'i ,, n''i ,nwo no^nt? xSx x^ p f, n p x s 3n nxi ; tjnnn p K»anb rowa 
xb (;T) xo^ wn^b ^Kirm ino ! xa^a .invS n-i3n ,, tr 13^31 ,pnwa ibco 
xb ,&np xnn ox ^hdi jva ,pn x:m .|b yo^D xp ,n& ns" nn^b cnDn'- 
i"i"3nb rva rae^on »pan i:n ."n ,, ri3 nn^fb «ix onois b> , i„ .n"b xp"DB 
xbx noy xb l^ax ,\i r\y; ,! ? ids* dxi ,nvb dvo envi icy D" 1 ^ njira ,mvh 
'2 ddd ? "-iL v n x^xi .ru» ib nnby p"J3 inx dv y-jnt" p^a mx3 nnx3 

.-jjiru nnaci a^nan ,nnoc* owo pow na^n^o «»Sh ix ,inxn bzb wb:n jot na -i«w ttb 
uvd ,pin3 un^'S naiyi lainn iVias' ,~n S^-3 .nsi-inS ntnapa nysin 1 ? 'xpn ,nri2 xn 
pKi mn S:: koVh nSi:r ova ,n^ ^3.< »sa 'a .ibwn ib paiai naS 'ixi xin nSi:r 
xpSs xp ,pn2 , y t ? ,na»n »bhr pao^ ^'trinS ?o^a 1 n:ia-r nntre' ny imn^a na^nc 
pesn anpnS ,a'Spt? nannSi .laynn 1 ? nans nxan nam ax ,p^*Si p n ( a ntt" 1 ? irnyn 
nnrA no "varan f o'na nwsvb ^ .it n:c ^pB* Sc nisip nanna nvnpSn niaaip 
,naS nrn B>i-in ,nx cm xSx n n xS '»axi ,p*33 nnxa mar nnSa ,n njcS laxi 
12 «?<» ,-^xn cinz nasny xr-inx xnp a^nai ^^sS n» nnS inp'i avian ? p'jn j^aai 
,p':a maaa 1335? ,xa^i a»3X xa'ys .nSira i:;aa n^na nvnS u rrvaa nxianntr ,:^s % 
.inxa laanan xs-in x;n; xa^xn ,tjx xa*.<i 3 ( rx xSx ,i , 33 nr px nS'sx xyni X3>x w 
':sa n'nS nn-s 12 pa»33a» ,naoN 12 b>^ ,ia niiaana nixi^n an i,tb> ,a'ax 311 
nSnS ynnS iia'S 'aiia pa»ya px ,p*nya px .^a"S pyna mi»^ p p'pn Sai ,n'atwn 
ps'aio P« /"nx xSs piaya px ,X3n ttn ny lain nana" x^» ,na2'n nx -ra na'y» 
.iaaTa anx xi3»a» paj? -]iaan »nn ,3'axn tyin nx'-nac* a'nan ,mx xSx nam b'j vrnn 
iyj niaiya nvnSa mayp nats> npac p»a nc? E>nnn rx icnpti' p.»a» rPma^y npasn 
,n«a xp xS np^an3 ,"na*y pay 1 ? m~.x naa* n^:aa i:a^ ,-nx p'a nitr;S pxen pxts> 
aSa ,na' ns' .x:mS xrn« 'cin ^ann? itrnia ^in .n»a xp xS npaam n'a» 'cxis 
natrn'Sn xn^a n>S xpos xS X'^ x'an nx 'anpn ]va .''anaa n^an xSn ,pn xani ,nb& 
r na»bty na» na vn nar iS nn^y janas xS 'ana T^aa Sax nnxa inxa xSx .D»a» »»xna 



(db>) nxai nnatr npb nr , "^oyo« (nw) .maai nintryoi nipnv iSn /mnbx 'n* 
rnxo it "TriEL" KXio» (aa nnan) .tti (.1) . xon n,janpa x?i "xon *q n\nv 
nr ,"rmj ntrxa,, •m:: , y''C'n /> abnnnTx"n''t: , yi„ .nt?yn xb nix»iT""tt»B>n» .ntry 
„rrm"is?K» ^y»^»3' / nnj„.n , »^K'iriibiy ,nioB>x , unxornbx "Tpnbx'nb,, .-nj 
,-inbxb nby a^mo npmn ,xan nox jnpnx it "Tsa„ .man pna 'trip lbx 
ny ,xTri3 nuanpn xrjyan jra xo"m ino ! xo^a .D"jy , D v, p xnn ? o"o 
xan bax ,D^na xjom inabm xm ann ,b"op ,nuanpa d^j-i '3 mby nayn 
naiy dvi dv baa ,o^n y a vby naya* jva ,xan to.ni ,0) .a^jy '•mat? xm ,xb 
xba njB> omby nayc? jva ,D - mpn Sd nnxi maa nnx ^aTpo .inxn ^aa 
,x:hd an nnx ? mnavn 'xo , xm ! inxn baa naiy ,njB> xba wbm ^bri 
D"" 1 baa , jn , '5 ,-nno xp nxbx xjn nao : aviio xp ybk> ,a*mo xpn jxo 
xp xb nTP s ixba ,mma xp lxba myapo L xjd ,nrxi ? inxn baa naiy dvi 
nnaara ^n ,wby\ xba njB> xbx .nb nna^o njtr xba Dp:n xobcjQ .in no 
pnaa mb mbi jxob xbx ,nb nnaa>o ,pnaa mb mxn jxob xrvjn ? nt> 
nna hl'hpxt ,maiyo njtra nb nnaco "am xobtra ? nb nnatro 'a'n 
panb xbx ,ibo xb aP;~i ,xbo njL" ,nxnn:i -nx mb^' xco 'an ; nivon jn 
D'oya ,nz»B> D'oya neon a^oya r nn¥y :myoa> an ^nna ? nb nnai M o ^^ 
nnxi xbo nnx .nyaa> ; pon jn-jK* -n-j'on ,p«bo fn^B> ?-iva xn ,nyac 
nox "-\i: inn 'a,, (."a onan) ? inxn ^aa ino L'nv A'-in 'i ^ya -nc'L** ,ian 
! a^n'o xm "noB' anxajii no^ nxai,, {v ay) xoSh ix ,tij xb xm xjom 
m ,n^ ,, ya , o "ioyo„ \xm ,Envb ona ,"~ioyo„ (.^ n-j x v n »an ^nn ,r"n 
xm no nt: ; x ,xnv ^i 'ya -noyo n^a npi r ";oy nn np ? nxai nnaL" opb 
? nmrj'a nn'x xn xobn ix ,mxna na^mo xb xn ,}jnox 'o ? nnxn baa 

, « L .. -, 

v&b npna nsnn i^i :nt cc* jna trots' nnB'iroi nip~.s "irsS n^ viim ,sn-r:: n ; v'- ; 
^:y L c lp'n ptr .n«3i m:t" BpS nr -jaya .-;:;-; ntp;'a -j'nSx 'n ubS nS^xi -'n^x -n 
msa it TnBB> x^io .nan h^zi ;:ipn p« ,«tsn -^-"17- nSi -lay 'ayn ns n ( : r\-:i 
,nnsn xSr r ncyn sS nisa it iioton ,Q"p Tns» >«ia : sip tax on sanran ,nc'y 
jtoa ,in-!D S;* ,n»:ryi .'is 'rsi p larn "iaxjts» mpa Sa 'x^rs i"» p:s '-ns 
,npns it i'3= ,nmn:r lan nnn^ ,Ntym^ sin tnw xnp ,i»ni« 'nS . c^dS v'zh mnt» 
,0^1 s^n n:e> .wanp' n»cn2 3>na «m ,kw K*rn' snp ,im« anp' .cm ktm' Nip 
mx^s .latyMnxn Sa nSnnn jaT n»s Sa lymnS ,nna sp i«Sa n^yapa^ -enra n»apS 
niayi ,r^ nnara p-na »yai jsai wan .iac* D'ain pwS iymnS ,-nra x 1 ? nvr 
,a",i ,]-naa d ,£ ?.'!-i nay vhw s"yx '/na» niayi jvai iiaSi ,jnaa b'Sai nay x^i nit," 
nirn ja w« na^yn m t:xt ^aiS xa^ca .xnnn n^y .vS:i xina tr-ia nS ia>ji 
,nisan .in ina .maiya natpa nS nnaca ,naa^n Sy xn'n* nan na»» dv x'o pn 
•nx xi^a' inx'? x?x f np-n ixS xina nx 'nSir-i Snn inxS naxi n ( xi ,?.nn "ina 
D'tt>ann cv poa na'tf xmc ,nc*tt* "ays .D'a* ntram nwun mxa 'a ,sSa nat? ,iaxp 
nrana n'tran mS x ; ra *nxi S paa D'a' 1 a nn ,i"si p»a ,d>x^>b crr;c' ,iaiyS 
'na m - *y yv«i ,n>*bv D.Taty paa ,a^.n xSa n:c nS nnacai ,'ia xia in.< .jvsa 
,;vaa 'ta msy yvxi r on3n jn'ac vn nxan nas^i ,;vca 'n mnoS ntrnprn ,;vra 
'jy pnxn S;a ina triv .i^y msy nay x 1 ? pnyi /trnpn-^a poa '1 nva '.sna rami 
Knw '»i >ay bv ipSn n>S ya»o n,ayn :"-nnn na enn r n,oyai n,»y nra '"\p .vas nna 
pa^aS na^n»a xH jvai ,imaT na a^nan ,n\sna na^n'a xn xn ;anax 'a .vnv »oiyaS 



d^jvj ncxn ,jpn pj»B> mi pnxn baa n ,L >y Dp^ob ,*nwb ,flr» xpsj .D^nb 
nintsw niRonnwnpnmpDnnm panympmn »a w n.n"n .n^nnnumn jmj-nca 

]vd ,hxdi nrw npb (:*"!) ,noai newsi 1132 ,nnB>yDi mpnv »Dvben nibiy 
;m ,pnD3 D^n ni"Sc idin wn nnxn S33 -my ,d"Sj"i nek" jrnby mye> 
nry^x l -i .insn S33 -oiy nnx ban jrrby n3yt" }V3 pmx on .nb^nn msDn 
,noix c»"-i3 K'H .nnxn S33 i3iy ,D'ba-i »jb> jrrby maw }V3 ,tbw 3py s p 
'H3D ? rdp Kjm D"o .nnxn ?33 jn^y -i3iy ni3iDn an jrpby n3yB> }V3 
jri3i rnynen an3i nivon an3„ (to onan) 3n3 , oi nnnsb 'b nob i^bo irp*rD 
13*w m ,ni3iD.n ira noib :pnx ia\x nmx wnti .nnxn ?3b -nro pop "?ni3iDn 
not." DX31,, (=' ctr) 3Ti3n ?tD"» cm .pnnx nit" nop new n?:b ,3in3n -an 
liryn rb&» (m lains) 3-n3n ? xoyo "»kd 3py p nrybx 'm ."nor nnxzni 
irna xn x-ann ? o"o (pna nry?x *ii .dw nnyio mrto "Danyioa 'nb 
ami -Dma nri" noib Vnoxa no!? ,3in3n nan 13l*» noiDn an nox' xb :noix 
?n , 3 ltrnn "xo "ntaiDH an3i niyasrn an3i rvracn ;n3„ "sn ,3py p nTy L x -31-11 
rmyb pijo :kwik i"x X"n noxn ,kwin 'n nox -tybx 'amab inb ^no 
trpo "nisiDn an3i niynrn an2i mvon am* b"n ? ny3tr S3 poibi'n nb trc? 
rnyntrn an p)X ,ny3t" S3 poib^n iS k" 1 nivcn jn no ,mvnn jnS mjnajwi :n 
n v L"ipxS ? nisiDn jnS warn n , 3ri3 xns^n \xob .nyatj' S3 poSu'ri 1? l*" 1 
?jSj*3 nnm .nrS pyo niaion jn p]x ,nrS pyo nixcn :n no (.,"!) ,niYcn :nS 
p3i ijm ? , b , o , :ny3(:n) ."T'SnwX!? robm "ip33 JT'jai,, fv nnm) 3T13T 

1DX:i mj |X3 -.K5KJ ? P">J» H31J ,"*1J xSx ^ PX ,«T7J inn '3// C« n,>1 -i) 

'nb// ,iDy H3nj |X3 «ix my n3U |SnS no /'rm: ix m: dk« (t «ip'i) |SnS 
"IidSb'? inxn x^« Cm dh:h .nienpnm poinm psnyn ?mn iSx ,""pnb« 
(ncj /D'dSci niSiy ni»B>xi mxan iSx "wit cm "3- (:»•) ,VBi^n x?i xin 

1 L" "1 
i.ina xint:' n: p:yS .nn 'Km ,nro xpej .n^nS n"*i Kin p>:2 nnxn cjdih t?ina 
res xn^c ny laiy i:'«'b> '^na };»yoB>ni d^ji ntyStt' nin'x nron n^m ,i-xn Saa 
,j'0*inni .'Sj? >oi ia« ,pain 'a«n ,*imy ivx pn^a xSc vSy nay nxtr ,)nc , Str'-' pcxi 
nfl8>3 D'nys ty^ty ::inan ioxcd ,p^a :iwa nra .nan: icya ,*iB>yai 1122 .m:.i -ain 
:2<2xn enn nx iiau' pjya nSya' 1 :ma *iaa ,nSiy n'n ana 'ui mvan ana i*nat Sa nxT 
Pnisisn .in 'ansa Twao^i ,*nn , a'' 'h naS .i 1 ? ncyn niaisn .in f "\b ison niyiat? nya» 
,m3ion -ti S"S p« .npn ix:n xh oama dSc* 1 ? v;eS j'x-i: vn ~"m ,i-xn SrS a"V 
2inan ian ia» ,ia poy piyn nnr n^tn 1 ? ins n\n xS -inxn S:S pitin»a p,« 
.1-13 i^xt ^nTii' 1 ? J":a .ntn iizd omx iiayt? ny ,p-ir-x nrc laiS lax: naS 
V't Sd jM.v,n in' ^>0' ma' ny:tr 'n^ an imx nnuma jS xps: mscn anai maion 
,;iaiSB'nS ? 't iax3 naS p dx ; 't Sd 3Jin nnx 'xi f «in nnx mix ,inix S n 
,ipaa n'JEi .a'r*in SS ,na'S pyta .^wa ruanp' ,p»K*i3 in.v.in :n x^ cxb* 
-;:n 'raxi ,fya ':n xsa .mrya nix^ 1 ? iavn» dv xin nnc ,xnp laxp xS ta"'a 
dxi ,1T3 \hrh iax: .it nn ,n:na /Sy nn ,112 ?nnxn ^3 xa^x ^yS '»jnaa x'jm 
jm n';n:S j^xi 'nS ]Si3i n^:n pis 'enp ;n» f 'ia panym pain iSx .'1.11 n^n; ix yu 
pama jnt? ,niatrxi mxun i L x .vsiS'n Sy x?i iaiy nr.x v^y ,vsi*j»n xSi xin .mbp 
,n3in pB' n.v.n 'a^en n^xi mSiy paa p^a^tn mSiyi .-pSy p^oio nn n:in nnty -aa 
-pn'-x 'n .nun pc roei -ic'va^i -nr: 1 ? 'a: n"m ,'3*n3 xipn xena nann -nn iS>xt 
a'H3 'n 1=31 ,iatt»n-:' trm >3 rraaS n»S mm ,xin xi'n" xip xm mncyai mpns iSx 



s> ?onp earn nB>y6 srabn »onp axn nts-yon \scoi -anso nsn*n }xa 
pn'D nin Tax pnsn n^'Bj m *-ai "firpo ns mian nnx„ (osr) a*nan ,n"D 
yDL" ? yoL" nyiDB> no ''nny n>D Myjan seen., (>•= 12*702) ;.;,) ^nan .□• , p 
jjhaann /»n *d .biwa DnSnb mm njn*a ni3D3i 1133 *ojy lpbnDn pns nor 
psspp'OB .pnv nn rrrma s*on .jyaa Kin ,*ny sin ,nn*D xin ,sjn ?pn , D san 
msB yansi njB" dv»b>3 wi,, (1 » n*aSa) /job- ? jd-jd sbs D*-atab Dnb pira 
bs f.nan pns byn„ (A 1210;) ,3^131 "no-m nnxo pso bine* *oa niwfj n:tr 
a*nai "Bnn vj-y -nrya n^ D^yaisa m^., a^nai "-ibui 'n *s py inn -in 
* -4 ui "jyjan ycm,, (xaia-taa) -idiki "now pmo nx inian nns„ (> tnn) 
njB*apB*snn Bnna nn„ q») noun /no-di pns yu "a nnyn ^3 i«nn,, noisi 
(a * ar) noisi "nBUi "JL"n E*nna nwn rupa \n% (0 roar) -idisi "notii nwn 
n"s .'nDUi nuab bnn,, (j 2 n"-i) noisi "noui Psntr \ja nsxb 'B'^B'n mna„ 
•nosae* ,p»» pbtib nnyn niBis nbraP bin ,bvnv '•abbi* sbs i:c* kS ,snon 
(200*) amai "now an try nrr ipD3 enna m^ n*psn ja nnam nan,, (x n*ana) 
rue* n*p nni vpoaa , spno "ibiji snDB*nnis> entry n;tr }D"j trnn3 -nn,, 
Txn saPtra sin'b^isb n"nn SSara ,Dnjry n3B*n^ npi fD^a "spi ,Dntry 
smnx sr:raP ( :j] rKbPn ?snasrnnnsin "s*a*a ,-sn sps ,snDtrnnnspn ansa 
,xnDtrnnnsb ann no ;nie> n-^rab n k -it*y n:*." bnti"y hji- ,scs an iras -'sin 
? DHp |D"jn ntyyD sob'n ,Q % np vSoan nruran \sd»i .snDB*nnnsi" san "-s 
t\bzb nranj pox ,vSaaa n'bnab 'j^n nosB* onan ,s*3m ,*inyn xpi^D xS 
Dn2*y n-tr lSoa rnna 'nn n'ban ja .Ton: nan,, (n rroni) ,-idxjl" ,jD'ja 
no'ji L"xa mvj nnytn ,nci3i *nxra nnx '::n san nvan jBntra 'nni -jxi 
n>on 'jsS aon poui vjdS j« -iSon snDtynnnsb tant'y n^L" jd-j rnna \nn 
'B»s>a c^in? nyinsi nn-."y Dva- (2 «n) ,«idv an a'no -"pr iS n:nxi 'jn^i 
,xn*x nsi "L"nn!? nnsi Dncya "yara- i^) ,a'nai ."Lnmb D*nL" nrca 
"la-D^ nn Tj'a !]*•» cma max 'an -ids ? nn "yanj n'L'*nL" n:tra 'yn^a 
a'nan ! mnx \snp vcp a"xn xnn ^dv ai nb "T'pnra .Sxil*"' 'abraa lb u» 
niaSraS n v L M r,:L" xn n nns mn sn?n nv iv xn xn'a s^trv, (i ni-v) 
,a'nai ,v_.y iniSji baara siry nSy nxan njL"S jot misa ,s^ni 'xaSra t^mn 
n:v fSn^s a si "^SraS n^n^n nae* xm "cyiann cnna D^in 1 ' san/, (1 ccj 
,annSi(."T) -s^p V mm san rsnia ann ,van 'ra ,myi ? n-? "yana n'rra^n 
nrjn rxi uc ,i?ji ,xnan an irax ? sin jD^a vtaa ,sin jD^a nnxa nnn 

v •*« v n 

•n , :t: , n natw rj*nt** ^awon nopn 1 ? ki^h .N"r3 n:» 820*2 n ,! ? nin nn nB*n *xt nn in** 
*ir:!<a ,jn»a nx inirn ms .n**;ani* n:c n^aa vas 4 ?*** niwo ,nnp Q2ts**i n»j*o Nr2 I ?H 
"i22*r N2 Q ,t jB , n'o r'jan N2*i .*■'"** ^"X"; 'Nip ,: ?i2: ,*:nv '1*1 n*n*.i3 n*:n .niin n:e*02 
f B*mts*n« *^^x*: , cim in* ,Kn3tt*nniKi cmcnx % o*-:i i*o>2 cc rm ttnia mo'O n^un *33 l*^* 
-[•jo** n>pc*2n *■*** n-n n'San p n*oro* ,S:2: nxtPJ nrini ,cv-n** n'nc* nac2 n*2n n;::tr 
•3B* p*222 2ina Ni'a: x"** «*ip»3 pi2i ;un mx*2:2 nrrj*** ,o'n» n;B*a 'B'B'a .m*-n 'Bnira 
p*aa dxi ,xin .D'nB* n:c'2 tz amae* *«p lao'n nS;'*2 Str piaaSc* S"* -x n\nrr n:tr2 
:*n2i .icsi noa 1** xn n'y'ac 2"*; ,nx;n n;cn *ar imwa .n-nx *x**p *tr- p*:a 
,n*n n'a'ae* p*sa iS i:a *x* rl~xb n'»*a»n n:» x>n »e**ann *r*rna of-rn' x;* nit*;-; 
Hints' **3i ,d'*?;-iS nn 12B* **^*i .rrn it8*a **Sa tsnia max nx* j;'a*'p trim; ;jx ,iijn 



?ibso mxa .d , ^i?i D'ata? n"i rp'aa mxa : on d^jb* 'trxi njD"lX 
tr:\tbn""\ /vcnn insa ."ibtq mxa ,Dn»iK £>"tin"i ;nnna ipyiob n"i 
rOnow n 3 .l" anmaif^Kbn i ,n3L"3 "jnia .nipTbi njjnwb ni^av^i pt3"DB>?i 
nbe pan uri .nnos^ xiDn 31 irax .sna^n ww ^abob 'DJ .13 iB>yr,B>»na 
my xS dxi ; n;i" lb nnby p^a inx y^nr fva ,n«a rytrni dtpjq ncyts' 
n"i p*n b"Epi (:^) ,inx p»J pre? iy ,n;L" lb p:i» px ,p^3 inxa xSx 
lb p^o px ,p"03 inxa x^x ray sb nxi .natr avirn njt}>3 inx DV1 -D'abDb 
prnn n^b ucj now inra ,nsfi n*-by la^xi a"ysi inx p*a yTtr iy natr 
no ;nrbi nib nap paio ,i"ixa vnnn inx irayi 11x3 na ,i' n b"»P »paB> 
,p^a vnnn inx i»yi 11x3 no ;nrbi nrb nat? pai» ,p»ja vnnn inx ibj,"i p^a 
?p , aja x\x onb pai»pKB> nrabob p'a>a .pm , 'i"x. , ac*Sn , 'a::") ,pE>xib naitrxi paita 
pixo bKiK" 'J3 nxvb nac nixo yaixi nae» d^bbq • , n , i / , (.1 s n^a) ,i»xa:r 
B»pD "bio^ by now ^b»b wn trinn xvi n mnn n^ain natra ta'nso 
.p^ata new niabo *)X rp^» nnvo nx^ no ,onso n&rvb nobs? mabo 
,injn xpba xb ?pvj» news xobn ,p»jd p^oi jbaia nsia dhso nx^i 
D^yaixn naB>3 dit nai 'n »a by inn in bx pan pnx byi/; (^ iai»aj avian 
*m„ (snnaij a^nai "annb in«3 ^onn :rina onvo pix?a bxitr *n nxvb 
npi 3X3 \xpio "iDiai riB>» 131 pnnb inx3 trin iry TiB'ys nr^* D'yn-xa 
•sin nan ixb n"n ^Sdd ,n , <y3ix nat." nS npi 03^3 *spi ,D , y3ix n;L M nS 
x^i onxo nx^'^i ^koo /xn x^x ,Dnv» nx-'vh 5J>is» ^S'n xoScn 
p]x f Dnvo nx'vb jxa no ,mB> mnb D^yaiK djb' D , y3ixnar' ?pBtDnnopnb 



'nrDxnD -Son n: loyty natro iSon mJtt ,! 7 an'nntsty pa; ni:D7 vn n^'Ji ,do ! ?^ 
ttn3 is u:c*3 noj? "ssi ma'wT nSnnS pun nns n'onn iyapi ,msSo niSc Dira puu nr-cn 
onSirn p piipyia p»tr ,10^2 iB'yoS .n^aty nar iS nusS iSnn'i py yuntso inaw nn^o 
.mini p yn;Si cn-S ins nrn Daaa^a ^m^v^i po'oa' 5 ? .wn'ana 'nSun Sy v nava 
Kiayta triEO ln^iaai S^n* rji^S naiB'xin nn;^' nnSs nxs nytaa ''ssi nSiy »3» panS ,nyt3:S 
,psS .n -1 ins Sr S3? n -1 usS DpSan p inrjrai ponn yx? p' icyoS /nipT 1 ? /0.12 
jS'snc* ,u-r -ns^ itaantf by t22» mip iujn» l^sn nil's ptrya p«t?,iB>yo p;; L ' 
Sa byv vm* ?c:Sr:n paoS invo cv j?apm naS iniSa ,^'rl2 L ' , - »soS 'oj .r.tsan ins -Sin 
nT'si mSa 1 ? mpio am ib» nv« yrarb f nnsa^ .12 na-r ova mac ^nnn 1^:1 -So 
ua: ,n^j? wa'Ki .n"a» n;c iS paia nnyai nn:r iS nn 1 ?: naiSa ,n:r iS nn^j? .misa 
am:S nvi cs- /rtm lajr insS -nsa -ac a-.ra 1 ? «an ,ttSi r.xS .ini:aS D^»n r.isji 
na .naj?c a^3 -jSaS niirso niu*2 ania nsi csi ,:m: nats» -\bsh >;iSa n;rz YJtra 
niiaS nsm ,s:n p»a iy» D^nnn S:a nnsn nay as p-n x:ni ,p»aa vnnn inx nayi pua 
n^a 1 ? niv^.sn rutpa ama nsnr.i ,nna p»Kin n;r pza 1 ? ';rn na^ca iana'» nnutrn L r: 
iStr* it njc* pxtr ,nac -SaS n»3B' n;r n;o» vh nt layca nmrS san ,';c*S n":tri .ibj?b' 
,vt trrna . , :c ,t ? naie^i n n«3B' sS 1 f n»:c n: iaj?» nicnr-S ,wS n;irxnn nx n:a' kSi 
iSa 1 ? .c^trinn p':a -n^S n"i pu p-S pnasi urn tfinn win Kip k-isoid i«n sin 
Skw S' naSty i^>»S n^'ai n;»a :sin oniira sipai ,»sp n'jpai n:rs ^s-r 1 Sy na^K* 
snpan nntr onsa ns'i"S cucm pja pay 1 ? r nB^B» niaSa »'pa .urn ennn sin m »nna 
na .rxshv -phnb nyais na»ai ansa ns^S auian msa 'i nat? n n:r n:a nrn 
,'-cna kd'x .p'aa naSc maSa ps ]yia i^v-na nS p:iBB» nutrn r ; a roni'a n«»s» 
rs , -.- ! ? nuaan aa^ ni ncnti* <sS ,n»:» nac* V? isip ntr*n j,"jnB'B paa isi^c r";-s 
ntrnn ^aa .minn ns isa nwa Win nac n^-:is: wi ,onva n«^'S pin sim c-ij? 



— XXVI — 

"tr*o nyn-iN nxxo it ruwv nwj&y nyn (* nabnn jo jnjon nx pna xbi imDa 

aipn S33 nm jnjon nx numb nobni x^n xani .B"L"nn ny:nx3 ,a"W 

&b> did nn^n nB>xa nji-on misn .13 p&?x-ir6 f tsninne avn nx biar. 

,nL"nmns2 ,biSx3-inxa ,;D'3mnx2 :jn D'as? *b>«*i nyaix rmaa nms m 

^dS yim n^L" anjon '2EC ,Bnaa t|-,iv ^3 Dn s n-n xbcr -oa^a nnxai 

-as dji bx-ii ,n »abo my vn xS vd'3B> natron nx -noon *an ^xi ^k-ib" 

DnbcniDi p"on33 my irnc xS b'im D^mnc ^ao ,norinni n^yon ciannj 

B2i nona -itryoS /D'aSoS ,njB»»n mx'aa spDin ,mn rpab mini amis main 

annna nx ncyb my D^mjn omnn nxpnb imv my pxB» &*""ii x"-i njn nx 

nntryn p byi ,nxan n2B»a myn' 1 B2 bx B>B>n px *a bibx BHinaanxun nxi 

frvai B>"a nana spin pi) ;inyn B2 x"n p «a tdiS ,nB>n kvw n^ban naB>a 

(.bbn n-ao n*n mvy xini no2nn mnxnj VD'at? "obo s bix 

nvi njt^on »o^a naaB* ,nxna pna abiyn B^pna nyaixa njB>»n p (3 

d , db>3B> ij nx" 1 a^n nnyir trn naiBnn -ipytr jyi ,naiBn ova nacn c»x~i av 

a , m mj'X3 n\m (Y'a mixi piaa) mr^Da *an X3 ,D , xnnn nrvaa by nbanni 

"•ca bht ,awb abn mayan nbyo s ab3 nibanann pi »a no^b 'lai im nB>» 

a , nna2n aneDnomy nym xb "jx "-a'Pniv nn^Dnov nyn"-ip> xinB> nai^nn 

T"anb xmna '23 1-10x1" i»3 nranb B" "piJ> nbnm ,D*jnnxn lx^ionB* n'na 

Sa by i*3»n D3^ liv m>vn ainan jo n\x-im ,ypn: 3"nxi pn^j (x-1023 ppi?) 

(**.noD^vc , y3L"Q ,, L"yDn l"ill"S nom: n'?yo' i 3toniS:)nDnri"a ,nT>D\snnDn , L"yo 

^"n ,piDtn dv n^3n nx rD^tyn txi p:ia nx ir3i tidl" nnx (4 

va hml" iaiL"3 L"npc3 n^L" an^on nx pi p»: ms'p3 isil" nyo^i nypn 

iDL"i D"2Dnn mnx i3iyn x"3 iaiL" ny'pnS njana -piv dil" rxL M i 3nr naixn 

niiaiL" m:n3T nva^o Sl" apican n-rox jhjd 021 ,main nx nL"y -iaic bip 

••abs ni^3nDn?o nain -ipy nx pS DHpn 133EV nnx,poj mvp3 mypnn ^a!? 

ixc ,n23^n n v xi pjy3 my2i2n nvotran S33 nxo T" 18 '" 1 '^ n mayn nbyn 

ib vn-j* nib3pm f y-\b vnv mb3t:n nms ^^xin ny , v '23 120' n^'nn pjob 

rpnntr ni2pnn nxi ,Dnyn nx ^3p an^a byw ^noxn p3C* , nn -101S3 P vm3XO 

^••x ax D2 i3T ppnnb inn bnab nwm na ^c yotyn nrac* \xdt p pnv "x 

bnan n w 3n m3 ixn ,n'-\2i bv ^om ix ymja nxm a2 axi ,nmna 3in3 

^nao vmc ^x a^ia D^jxbi nnx T'ab xbi D^nm anyion pnb nicin 

pixnnb nbi2 , 23 133 ibnn von '3 ,nxrn nianxn rx nn^n nansB' 'aaia ,ayn 

.n23^n "cin p3L"n '"ay DDVyb anyion pnbi nixT*2n bij? nx an» mDnb ivarri 

"1 ay> D2 , 3in p xon '-1 ay bx^oj "i i2prS mpc? no -iaaS mixn p pyi 

3iL M n xmi iro'^' p nn ntryo xbx 12b pxtJ> noxi lta^nn non a2L" ynn' 

^3 x^n it .n2L" ix nyoL" i?3 pyb nxnatv 'a bv «ix iovy3 iran ntro ntyyoa 

! m»2 bn .anp , o"' nmnD'nb niai mxvn ruooi" ,h?id xnaoon 

N3 l"y ,cnann iSxS n^itrn cn»^j? p»» ninsan nvxin nx _ nyn^ ^snh Sd (* 
miv« :rrn x-" 1 *ij,*» ;r:Tn »3iaa rnioai ;jr^n ,! ?ic'2 uniyna PN^m 20 nva 'Kp-12 wninina 

.ujin ij? nx-ipi "-dShh 

nnsD '^ wvnan p mpo pnnsa nneo n""i:c* ,»"i Dtr: 'KnaDna 'i ^r n»Na f** 

msn»ai D'iEi 17 ns nsi) " / »*i ^c* lcnsa avian n^nn nva n;irn ds 1 bin jnn m»^ a ( nns3 

]Sx: niSnS nr.»n na-n ]a »a tprfcj'K y.nv '-1 oi»a rox itrxi (nrn oipos nutt"n nnbaa 

.SocoS hi ,ia iSn i=Si nxr i^nn pnv 'm ^asn'tr n<n dji^i irx n:n Sna 



— XXV — 

•laa ioi ^'x ana anb trnpi ^nj din by ma xanna i^onE" nobnn niD» 
axtr aa n£ '131 "i3i Dwaani maxn by aai a^an nxc by B'xa «b D , iD3 pi 
'bwi mw 'hyi vn xbn mam ^'x 313 a^an aunnxn omoon vn xb aatsx 
abixi— ^j)o xbi "traxo i3in3 iaaann-|x— -nbxa pbia *ntv ama xbi px in 
aai aminx vne "'Xiud }33in "3 ,ntrya xb ovarii nb^ym xb m»bnn rwnn 
.pn in baa vby iQ'Dini anyiD am anai m»bn3 la^an D'Jiwn 
mibn x'nc* ixm Dyn b3^i natron Bnpnro biann |yobtr ,xioan ••oan 
aa »a ,naitrba 13^ xb ipipi pbi ,na?nb pi na aa'yo ba i»b> ,nK>» nima pi 
nrx »a Dnix-131 awaam ntj>B miri33 pam ptaiyo ano aa itrm mnvnixa 
-il"X3 ,nbyob msxa a'ai a^as^a nnix lvnbi ipm ^mca nsbnn ay nnxnro 
bs? B'om anaaon 'aara nit^yb imam nr bai -\"ir\2 ataman ay a^ann itry p 
ib«B> nr ua»B> ,naman n-nn3 pi mn xbtr rniDen nunn iaa maispn ninan 
131 dx .'xt^tra monn aai ?jbaD ,xipna truan la'xtr 131 ba by xioan "con 
.nation njp»B»n itrxo inx Bnma baiD irx xipcnitaicra 'a ix ,B>nao aim nr 
?''8nabn , K»iJ,,ibxB>,Tnybi mnnb bwnb narxbi ananaynana^tranaibyi 
:H3 a^piay iaxtr nxtt'cianbtr naaini moo 1x3: nnyi piy-pa jrnbifi xa iy 
nx nyib wbib 1 moov bna ipy p'amsm awaan ,n&>ia nuna xin ion 
,iaban i:n" xivob bava xb nyb3»iBr« pusrnpaD xim ,d"om nam abiyn no 
■ anas? pao nx auimpn ia» avi nm nrxa ix ,pn ny nrxo i»xa xbc? 
natrn •'trmb anb xin ptrxi ,ctrin trxi 03b nrn trmnn isjniae ama aarox 
mm pu Bninnty 13b xb 'a :ppm»n mxp itoics poiy ^sbcr (-i ,3"» nice') 
r\a.-\:n u^ab inx 3in3 dj b3x ,njB»n pja b'nnn u»n n: x"3 ,nby»3 p:rxi 
ix3J xb Qxt' Cn3 03 □i") "n:i M n nx^3 bj^dxh am,, xim ,mix mica mixab 
pidix b& :nn ncan poiy ""ay pv "njt:»n -jk>»3„ pioa "njcn nxx3/ ni^?3 
n:i3 by xab iraab x^n nL"p 'a jyi .bibx mn ir^nL" njL M n iroja nxnnn 
nx D^bnn «o p^o '•a ,nxi:i nhinDMno ub yn^n nL"j?:n by |aj ataman 
yu nr noiybi ;nxini noba'c bxit:" ^abo dj x"3 nnvon "obo iab xb ,Dnjc 
xinK' i3t3yoayD ^Tinn onjL" nx tx u» dh^dhi n^ycixn mron *3bo b3 ^ 
130 nx jy^3 px nx antria bxiK" 1 »a unarm n33^x yia xb oaoN dxi .nL"n 
:xin ma n:n ,i?3ipr3 nx fi 1 ' il m x Dyn3 s 3 ix ,iano x^ M il m x Dy.i3 nnaf nx 
nbbi3i anat* nx iao ,u^n n^an 'ou ,nnnx nib?33 ,nonpn natycn pt3 »a 
a , 3b?Dn3 ]o^n Dnac nx iao "yen man ""abo ""a nr ba ay pm ba« ;nB>n» 
jik'xi ,a v L M in b>xi aab„ a'oya ^1" xip?33 baaanb aa urn s bixi) compn 
anac nx B'aion notJ> B*«a anx^' a lan ncyoa iB>yn xbi" i^nrnb "Bab xin 
n-n p il*'X3 amabo na^* nx aa iapa bxic" ua aac nnoswi baai OiK-no 
pra niifytDm monnn .^n nae'n nbnnn xia^x nmn ,a*cyn ba bvx ana»n 
iman ,pjpin bsa iiD^ai aunan nbtroo nnn nmn mmacr aiistr ^acn n^an 
x"3i3iyi mpibnon p pninnb (a^bon na^'b xb n^bban na'acb) nat^n nxv3 
enm iy nnx ib-xn nrra iry^ixi .bibxcmna xim nat"b nar-o mxiann bta> 
ay ir nar mma aiyb xb^* H3 3"a nia^xn be ntaann nnx ^B'n b /; i t33t" 
■ B^ , ^ypa micb B'nbn B"an3nb T nnb xbi ,nxan nae 
nsbnn ;pnbi anaon p ron 131b nan nnm pta* nonpn narcn (2 



— XXIV — 

lann ArhwtSD aipob pin vnc* nu'ri D'enio 'naa annnx tsmm mnb 
inbt:>oo aipoa a: mo: nmi woo jnix imnoni x"pi3 ma be." 'bija-ina vby 
"njtro,, atrn nx ano won »an 'Tobn "ix ,imo nnx pi lODien: ncrx \xtrro 
,3"nx isd'HJK' 5j*tb» ninaam ara paa*! wo nmn nnx nbyoa mats' nnxmnt? 
niuiirnb pi n:3i"nnt" b"-icr ninma bji nmpyn p xbi niaoia pi Hants' »a ix 
d^'3 a: ba« ,nmpybi nvowab xbi nvmvbi tmcn ma 'bma jo pn lats'ats' 
S2-\ bts' mrj'o ?e> mm la'tsnnts' oyo3i abiyn b33 inio nnx to nraa nrn 
^a ,*an bts' mats'© nx pnsn? mbna twtw pnnnb rmobn iBDxn: xb xibi 
my'bao vnc main rmvnai ninsDinn pa noipn nb nmn x 1 ? oyoa nny 
,n-iroai a-iyon man^n bts' fpay b3 mn pbc ,n:a-ip bx nxa n yma xbi nmx 
wats'oa manbi piDyb fjoru^bua pnv "m xr "m 0333 bxiotsn ai bts* jna^a 
h ts>"y aix-iptr mmnai xnaDina ppbin mby i"^' Dipoa nmx pnb *an b^ 
ia*mm naits6 nx urep man D'oyai ;ayn wya nia'an vnc* xyvix hi x"n 
b"~i '"an xo^x,, nox *a ix ,xmnan ppbi ny- na lyaptr toono niDna mby 
xnaDinn ay ix a'xnn ;yo> ,nats>oa n3in3 ibx3 ixnpi njts'03 ainan jo -pa^n 
,-a"i jora ib mn m:'xo mnx mix ^api nants'ats' anaon Dy ix ,nb nnwnon 
iraiss'bai nmwa no'bts' natpo oa la^oin nnnx mna anb mn xbts> aipoai 

.macro -pna nmoi 
isnpa nirvnam nm^-inn iina ix m Sl" inatyo "lira inanL" o^oann ( n 

. professor "no^o w f "rnio» inxninL" "«jn» TH'a /'DW'jn,, n^'a 
DT'obnn v:cn ;nix djl" mxo nuts' its'oa ma^n ^l v dhhio^ (u 
•fcnnwn 'a ,^idi noa atrn jo ,xioj Dts'a ixip: ,t^ t»o a"nx ipnyji ooxyb 
ix nra nabnn nx moab □: an """ayi xn^nam nation nan nx nits>nbi lioab 
ny nainan na^nna lamn 1 ' xSc pnv »an n^nrn r"y "a n^yob xS "a dx) ,nra 
"XTiox,, Trra /D'xmox DL"a D^xnpa xiojn "oani ,(\ewn p c-nso na tdwv 
pn man '•3^1 -inab pao irxtr nnann nx ay^ nxaoi tsnso ,"joj-iino„ xinc 
c"L" x^ dx .xn v nan ix nation jo x:nn Sy pi^nS mm i? px ,"ixaoi Bheo 
Tya n-i^ xmn xann nyn 'a ,noibi wnnb bai 1 txl" mio3 iaion -,nx xjn ib 
»-ixon ,3inan naDoS ,n v J ,, onn nxoa vn» "L-x am xram .nrn xjnn nyno nnr 
ao^n anu nnby «bi xop xmnnoa xno:n nx nnD^ ibnn rD'xmoxnb n^^rn 
i^aSana D'anani aoy bx ibdxj n,a "|ina Sax ,xr:n xmnnoa nmx -nob lamni 
n^xiioxno niinnxn n3 , L" , l m x-i »dv xaan 'ts'^n nxoa apw ny Tb n^o 
w x^:' Dmx ainnSi aonan ba nx pap? nan aab nx ny'i xmnaoiaa 
DUTint?n 3 ix obiy.n pa a^anan nup ja nn am o ,Dnhy cj'oinb d^xl'h 
am x^ xy^cn nma mo'o niaSon ab 'a mynai ,D3ixi3 D3 its'yn an^y la'Dv 
D^anan Sa nx bin: prana pap ,D\smoxnb njnnxn x s n ina^n bvmvr mab 
,nx~in Doipoa xb^nxo D'an onoxo innoj »a dij ntn ptanm .aonnn anno 
a^i anoxo Dai ,niBDini 'ircai pB'b ^yv 'ba man avaya a^ai nnan wws? 
ba nx npab nnxn ny anb nn*rt K9» uao ,vi:joi mobnn naoo aa laaann 
itraan D'an anoxoi nna^^a ^r s:an n,bo fiats' nntyy yac nx -a) ,anoxon 
:xoaon 3::nn pv .B'oyn w'ya my nx n^obnn n3X' jyo^ jnra mobnn 'an« 
■»a poxnb baia xbt5> no mobnn -pna a'oya nt^ya "x^n xnna 'rx 3m xn, f 



.u l£J i uE7i i ukN i US?" 

namb 2iL"pj ,njitrxi aiana n?yn ui nxrn Knaaan by bnun nby ■•a ;y 
rrm — laipaa n'^x 82"' ,-pnxn — bmnan 8mpn asa 1 nc nxp 8iaa nb nnb 
"•a iyT ,uanp icrxa ntyna ~pn nrx nrn xiaaa uann us ,D>Knipn isto* bx 
by ubE" DJD8 axr ,n , m2 , i xba ,aun nvu:nna baian icx ,x s n rronn nin 
a"yi "mp' p„ naxj xb bax umx Bun pi us ;unyn ibap nax: xb n,iaab na 
man vex baa uann nu unan nx uaxs? ana;." anipan ni8inb ns ubnn 

:nax: f nstn njapn nanpnn nnxi ; na ny 
L'-na uiaa npb ^yaitrn us ,nxa n:n manp pna uua:>B> niUB>an (s 
nai nx laan ,rrorp n,ba DBtin.T nia-a my b«nB>ui buwj vntr' ,naanm 
,Biyai"i" ntrba 221-121 nnvp natra ,BiTaa bun anabn nvn? ,aavyb avaann 
niu^an i¥ia avam niaiai nxn ;a efitbi 11^2 pya anny laujin a^ayab n,8 
• anna n\sa &w ny can nynb aisaa nby us ny nbyab 
ayn t*8t bxx on^auj anu n^ntr jnjan rrn mampn mu^an pin 
ni8D a ,tr"pi nban ,nae> mvaa aipab an8 pa a^npjn anana pa ,vrn3»i 
uni ,anayi b-bm una nanb nn8 pair ana~in pai ,mniD'8 mbaxai nnnai 
yap anjan nx nie*y? nna D^picy vn tnnan Tiaac? ,nia«u an dji ninaa 

.D'kxoj bxie" uae> Dipa baa 
cicn 1 nuai inyna trw mutran n8 puiynb lbnns? D*trn niaia C-i 
i ' , a"i„DL"aai~i '"ay xipjn x'tran xiim irai op ,ana iyui anny iBunni aniaxa 
anna nwb Dni8 mm inai ma onai ina^" b8 niacan ba pap^> bnn ,onD 
;nnna rD'L'np r^pv ,d , l ,, j ,nyia ,n^-\] •. nauy 'ab mar nnb nip ii"8 onnva 

.b8it:"' n"ab dl'hpm 
uuabprui insrnx njc vbw nb8 ni8vaj 'an nna il*'8 mu^an pa (t 
mxM fni8 l"vql" nbx dj p^n jn^by pj'Din^ pa pw m n,8 ,nmpn pitrba 
nJDian na8a pya navy nr^an n,ma pjyn n8 anxaa mba nr8 dudhl" b"i 
jnjan njnaa naa va^ac uaa jayai picb ns n3B» il*'8 nbx m jna l*"' ba8 

•nin8 miv bapi 
«bi anD |8JK' ,ns nvia p«a nabnb ibaip 11 U) "ai nsn i*j*8 anann (n 
nbs ui ix ,nabnn n8 ynanb inaa hm 8^l" ana niai by 18 ,aiaixn atr ri'a 
£2 Bw*a 8ipn aiai8 ara Dni8 iid ,aiaixn at" ay aya a-aDiisa naa iw 
annx aca max icx nbx a: p^ bax ,nyian ba xba ,anb an:aan nyn nx 
•B'yiT avayaa aiai8.n bl" anny 8ipb nvi 8b it"8a ,anai8 ^ ix 
vby nyiy B'ai nan8i mjL M a n8 un ma B-aann an naaDna 8b 
inaa un ba8 ,in3ra ay nia\xna vn 8^k» wrna javyb niaca nnDn 
vnjja ba nx nLa f aunn VDaaai ,naia rrunL" mx-'caa ,niL"in bss binan 
prDa n:njn nunna bx1L ,, • , ^a u'yb in:t"a baipnen nu l* ( xi ian> xb"' 
'linn -b8iK' ,, a nipibnan a^yanb D'asy acb m:ia ui 1x1 itrxa annjn m'abni 

.nbapn^ muni iva ipnnn 
Dbnr/nai ,»bia rcrnb inaa n-n xb bax abiyn ;a s ai iya niai mue>a (v 



— XXII — 



Tia'jn iis'p rvrv ns'i aits in ^avyS area 
12 i 112m cnaaa "inv-n D'-ain icx ,nta 
*?a mini n:nan nx nip 1 :,- on nioyia ybaz 
moS ncy ok 0122 ,101m Tina Sicaa 
1x12' icx pnenn '303 '"y 112a 1 ? ^pa nomn 
sp:>3 ix cuoyn 'S1C2 cnx2i nnyn »"yi 12 
nxsin lya pnnS oan p ^j? ib»m .nnscn 
Sa 'as 1 ? cam*? iaiK xin icx ispn iia'tfin 
»na H'aSn »aeSi SS22 pits* nnso »aain 
»aaa c*vcyn ^yi ,taiB3 naiatti m^ cmo 
iy-n ah ex t\tt "\v;b "h nvni nainn uay 
cnS n'm ,min nana pana ia>*ti noSnn nx 
touapiaa poiy n»nts»// jViaT n»ya nsia? 
. w rmna cpmy cm iace 02Ci pro x'saai 
?vm icx ixp naSn »S nnS rfrsm nSy 
■paaa _ .mom cy paa ba pen 1 ? cm 

.?8najyT?ys .3 

irmnn DDTistsn Snjn mn 2n30 
pj-ni m D'joie Tint? a? "131 "iDi idnti 
.x^Syix^an ""■<XTL* ,, mpo„ p"pn 

! aamsani ciyca yuan »:n« 
ins mna 'ax icx C2in miap p"c ova 
-ex n3x K on nip xi .atari ca »««$?» 
^;: > -•:- i, n»a nSy cxi vby r/oo coyn 
*ip' Sna ;oix ,ns' nnicy? ^nnntt* ;bix2 
icx namn ns'pS maaon .Sits' nam iaci 
mnn lniaa ciyca yiia_ex t nnno xx' 
xi:xc ox no 'a I'.nS sii itj?S sS nanoS 
*ana ri iaa Qaai >a^a jxo ) "if?an inx 
imx noxn cSx .coanron cinxi lxiuax' 
vtn naar:a >nnpc csm 'a laensx xSi 
.vnynn laa 1CX3 o'ya ne» nacn 
minn bnim nox i,na i:an-p 'm 
n: cvn mian ,nay csa mxa mnsnii 
Jiioan m&h 03c m S T'aa x"y x'e'thxS's 
.p 2S 'n ; :'i'n pna 

-o"d D\snv3 Tini" T'yvn 
."■xia" nipa ~, ,: zz \"v? 

To Michael L. Rodkinson, D. T. 



m '13 "13 DD-naron ymn yraa 
nyt:\, my? nnn j'Ty^xr "3V nr3?i" 
.p- , x , ijn "D'^L-n 

.-"th n":in nj.tr cbpv 'sb p"try n-a 
n io ito isidi .rsion am np n:n 
xo:,a , - , i:*nit: , v' , iiivn:i' z^xrrpixiM^xa'o 

. jr'h noSnn ns»p , nxS N'SinVi nenn 
»asS nc icx nsD nspa 'nxip ':x dj 
.n: n: icx nSi^an -nn nx ox nacoi 
vniapya -S' tcx nornn c mux iaij? bs 
C'O D'O' t^inai ^xoci pa' ntr Sri nj?a' Sa 
'12 nxi'i Dyon niaaS pc nun bv D'Tj? 
'a nSsn oxi /ia n'l^n D'ai man .nioSn 
n;ion t x •nnStf mnn viyon Sc mnaco 
,n'nm nun bv 'oaax naaS 

.r't'y^sT '3v nD?i" 'ph 

^pix'ij Tj?a "corn lytr-myS jem ai 



nrnS ,Dnc nipo Saa ^aSS ip» muni i:oy 
••osS ,ntn Sorqn iznonS i^am iryS 
nx x'^in 1 ? bzv jyof? ,iptnSi laonS ,vniyiiT 
innna Sxic n'aS naiD nnSi SyieS inrcno 
.hd doiou |*£n nan Sa icx n:cn 
noxn ;yoS 'man icx n^xn nnann vm 
nxoa d.i 'a pinx mi cin mxS ,; ivm 
n'pioo ^«ib" mn ;oix xS n"icyn-y»n 
D'pDiyn n'1213! coan »t 'roinoi St'-n nun 
ToSn iac ,onu:ioi .ninxnii nun SnanS 
o'yoo n'o aixci less xovn icx jun 
"li'pn noinn:/, n xvo' nonpn noann 
inj? 'n Dj.*ia »,ti .nppicn ics: nnS nm 
.ni'nya i'iTi;n vaoin Sa Syi 
.n?XD pis^a 
c^c :mx m;-S nnoi ai 
.pxo'aixr. i'ya 

Dr. Benjamin Szold. 

Dnvtr3 yi):n D3nn rr[-\r] ari3?3 
m ,nySnxp jsro^'ip n"nn nSnnSi DrS 
.pnx""iJ3 bx rva my? 

Ntw York, Feb. 12, 1895. 

Inaaa ;nx 

nynS D'aao osn 'cej ia:i '32S iaa 
nxiuax' oniupiin coaim dux^nS na'snen 
ioix xm icxnoinn nxsin naca ijra»s^ai 
lx'vin: 'a ,o:coS acnx ox ca .cannS 
ia vaotso 1:00c ,ivpn noinn nx nxS 
,snpn nyn l-air' icx cnaaion nnoxon 
Sj; SpnS na pcrnn 00a ia 1x13' icxi 
nioipon by ca xnpn aa-.'n' tx ,]«j?aa 
n:ia xsn nroi ,xco? ny iS vn' xSi ccpn 
pai ,nn: 03 enc pa ,coan 'TO-nS nai 
p'So ni'nS 'sen ;a Sy icx ,nna »aa ca'xc 
'aain miaon' p;oi ,nrn iyson iya aiD 
Daaao line D'uyo ix icx ,rTiayn nnsD 

.nySnxp .p .m • n ~ [ ' 2 

•ixca'pixi .b .0 ix 



?"nn DDiiaon D3nn ynnn nri30 

.?xnojyT?ys .~n .3 



Chicago, Feb. 14, 1895. 

|i:aa pix 
n'naian innua noinn 'a ina' xi ex 
ixo xin Sua ,vnco »"y i;i icoac 10a 
icx Sician poiy '"y 'a nxt nyi ,inioaa 
iav xi F omDn nam nono xciaiym 13 
coan H'nSno pn ,ima iy mix nyiS ex 
cn"n Sa nx lcnp'i co': niS'S ioc icx 
ix .nonpn mi£Dn bv nr paDa mSyi i,x 
i3 ^y S'aa jna icx nn'ixai nixn co'a 
yiap5 lmyS pis nno Sa by\ can Toin 
'xc i-i ,cinx cyioi moanS ca cny 
ix vniny ia nx cipni cixS xin 1C2X 
ne'i am iai ;a by icx ,na^ noinn no 1 ?? 
,13 D'poiyn 311^ m?pn noSnn nxvm n'nn 
enc pa ,inix iiaSS cSnnon on'aSnS 01221 
mix cioiS one t»ai cno »naa mix n'-uiS 



— XXI — 



*3 12 nitt3 oan wyn inasnS pi: '2 ,os 
Tanb pnx l'taya spS yawa pi ;Sav Ssi 
2i ex sin >3 ,no rw issn »3 oS paa 
nainn lanyi ,ya« xf?i s^y" xS itrx nn ,; "y 
pSn nxS X'i'inS it SxS »n« pyoS iS nyS 
sin nx Snpn njn nam i^oS ,xoanS mx 
.xS axi run SyeaS iBOian iaan 
pnnrrS ex >2 ?-.aya hmv ox no nnyi 
x'sinS hsv jfob nrS nmvan niacins it 
xv ntn p^nn nx .person pSnn nx y.xS 
naax '3 rvsv 'tx ,innoana ;pno it nnno 
ntn hmn *mn nx x'sim xin pani 'ixi 
Isaac n. Wise. .mx niSiysb 



D»»tt6ai banana bnjn mn miyn 
"ibd ^>y xSs^n nwaa Dnj«j>3 yron 



Baltimore, Jan. 16, 1895 QCTI DC'3 
c 7N3»02in aann xin laTyS X2 122: mix 
niiBDa mwpai nio^n: yTan jxWjTtxi 3 
12 niT itpy »si ,ntrmni nae»n nnayn 
ctra itrx r *T3D nSoa iT2i ,vansai naSna 
n^Sj? osS Dtf" ;inaa' ispm pen noSnn 
dji ,}naab "niaia,/ xnaaoa C'DSTJ Onnx 
nx Snn osS xon t anas "racv nara 
□X ,p;aS .rnn mpa py onny nitrS os 
waxSa Sy TynS 121X ,pen-iai 11202 xyax 
.Sxw my Snp S3 022 rovSan Syi 
,nrn ]ata nnip'i nax^an -piy SnaS 
naooa nois itry ntrtr Sy »mayi iS >mnya 
nnyn nx o'y iana 121 ,paa p>j?a natr 
ixa tSy oani ;osS d&'B» ,01210 jnaoS 
*n«va naox o ,nax nan ibt anaa TynS 
nxan non >aS npS mvi . >a»B3 nanxtp 02 
nxai ib» |Eixa naa cm nan » meat? 
,in' D'piani n^inx ,nmas Dn-:xan Sa »ai 
»"By panS nnp nam ,]vj->n >tssra '2 Sy 
,Djvana D'aiyai ;mva cc itpx '"tin iriTs 
^nwia-aa lyo'pi i:t vasx ii'-naman »a 
r]X nnna nnny ^Din xS nanan o dx 
.□aitt' 1 ? nx ru'ty xS djsi ,nnx n^a 
naxa a»ya vn n^nn ah wa.-? nxi 
'nayts n;n myja nynS cmn 1 ; icx D"tt*n 
a'y njTxm nxam ennn *nan C2T ^isb 
C2 pT p2Jn xiipnt:' '3an mtaa nnj'B *a 
'B'B i^ ja i^xa vj'ya vti ,nym Satrrn 
pSi .oiipaa lac' ]ai anwyao niaSnn 
,iTn "itf" xats ^ys"? ^n^ax 'tt»23 nsnya 
niantt' ,ijj»3BT3 nt3 12a pina nas ny 
inxaai vtr^EaSa ay on> ami Snan TiB^nn 
aa'aen laaa tsx^i ,na ny asna xintf iB3 
n'lnx'? na^nn *3 ty ,D'aT niaipaa nnrisan 
yna 'traxS taa nnrsxa px ,i^3B« mna 
dtxi ;n'ynai naana -;x nn»B' Sa B'pDiyn 
mntsi niSpcn ntrx ,nrn ispn maSnna 
cnain jai ,r6yin nitt* px^aa ]a'XB' nrn'n 
,ia non' ,n'ays naa lat^a itrx nnx paya 
,nai n;'>a' n2i ivp tara wrk 'aim ^a Sav 
.nyiSi i^anS laS pen' itrx Sa nx 
m'-nSi 'Bipaa nx^S 'aiyan n^xn anain 
maatr lanaix naaa ,nac"n nnscn <amx »aa 



rVinna oonisr^n bnin nnn insrs 
pTisr 1 ' my bnpa vmSysoi vnnmo- 
nnn . , nN-lODN , .m »*j 'STnD T'nn 
• N , DSynNS , D T'yn Di^ ,- tiTn myf> 

Germantown, Oct. 5, 1894. 
!"ip»,- ';-;x 

niSaS aaiyn nx nnpS aan nssn xSa 1 ? 
nx wxT 'nanatr) ispn maSnn o »n;'T 
nSymS Tn< iixS ix'smS nnyiatf ( n2xSfan 
I3*itas» x 1 ? T'^y '2 |y ,a , ra2n , -pB t ?n c ? 121 
nintsni m^ptrn '22a iin2 3'na anS dSsS my 
ipy ^x ni3"c p'x nipm ab cnin itrx 
naSnnnao npnynS yaia2i .12 i2iTtr payn 
dx e)n ,nnaaxn n2ti*i (-jnsxSa 'S3) ispn 
xS S2X xin nSp nsx'ra xS namy aaa.< 
niaSnn oyp pxc na) psap'nyaa ny 1^2' 
n'^S' 2iDn isan '3 inix 01221 ( :yzzh iti-x- 
ixa T133B 'aan ni'a 

M. Jastrow. 

To M. L. Rodkmson. 

Tinbnn nx mien ^i:n ann miyri 

T'nn "niD^nn xn?^„x^s:n innna dl"S 
.nyrvTro m 'y n^'D- 



na^nn bv inx pSna onnx any f nxip 
ir;ix pxaa^pixi mS S.-ona 'n itr« isprt 
.nSnn nisa inssSaS '3 xvaxi ,nxS s^inS 
na3nn Spin n«T3 itrx naSnn nxsm v, y 
»aS nn'nnanS U1221 SS32 TaSrin nana 
Sx i"tr la'xtr .vtri rrtf S3 ltaatra n;raatr 
anana laaia iraxa Sai 12 *iaT itrx payn 
o aa no ,payn naan nx Taa' itrx oms 
anaon >23 nixnpni niSxtr*n paenn odd 
nptn 'nipn .no u nn oosa 1x2' nnaan inn 
ny S22 li'oxn' natr'n laniiso nnix 
jyoS msoi osiaa ntn aannS iryS nimS 
.nrnnSymn-ai Sysonnx rantrn^n' SxS'n*- 

Cincinnati, Nov., 1894. 
Dr. M. Mielziner, 



nyL" ,dl" t'jx Dm DH^n T'oynv 

.D ,, 'n .» pnyV'-in 10B' pr t^o^n xun 

,(i3T' xS latr mx cxS anatr.t 



Cincinnati, Oh., Jan. 14, 1895. 

Iiaaa pix- 
^xaannxi .b .a xin nt »anao xtina 
-12S D'trn '3 -\b imSnS 'n^en itrx yuan 
,iSys mnSi nnn inx 
nxvin ,ia piay .i pixn irx Syean 
trnaay nrtrn inpnym ;pnai naia ,naSn 
ntry na imaa itrx tr'x -xtr ,xin pay Sys 
i« ,nn ivsn nnv nx .Sav by oai ntry>- 
opnaxn nnnn ctrin n«n iSys xnn tx 
.lasixS nsin nai n2 ca 
nnvn :Sxcn Sxityn bsv xib'x nnx 
nayx nx; Syi ?Syi2n ix isen x>sinS nn. 



XX — 



an? px its onai oainai ,a*imsan »sa 
'nyBB* .V't ia % B3nS en ii23S xSi intr 
ia-,S ci'dix nai .21 S:b> xsiaa 'aS na»'i 
•ibiS SsS inaxSaa xvn itrs nSywnSnaSy 
:n3>3 nxip ia*x 1*133 nnS x*iB' '3 nun 
,nisoin Ssa npiaa nspm "ipti naSnn., 
niai-an Saa nnays -icy onain niatrn nnni 
■nsaan nipa ns-a pi p'is' ana o'yaian 
Saa ,iaS '»m ,rwiB**n oanat sa iw spni 
nan S3 SSis 133 ,jnoi yia Sai oj?i dj? 
sSn .13 Knip pi* jyaS lisps s-yaa* nun 
'ia Sipna -pasaa nSs S3 nysn oya 21a: 
nsc*S -jSmi -|na ia ,,, i "pTj?3 'n rrn* i,s • 298 
naS nns'i laac Sy run iasn xtsnan Siy 
,s'ann xSi nasn maa Ss X13S "pa'y ix<i 
s'XinSi naS n-nn pya ipnS sin 121 xSn p 
oy iianrna n-as ns'i ,p" aaa trnn 
nnna ntri t* anS b» ib>n o'pnaia O'aai 
ns msiS oa*yi nynS aS cnS 'n jna n.11 
mnrin S3 Sy mnan nSisi ..(pnanpl cmn 
>3 ibsS n:i wxiB ran aaa min ia-x 
a-in yaaS nxa xS nan ;nnx mynaaa pjpa 
•a onam pmS nxa sS aai naSn pass 
cnsini isDn Sx o'xnpn 2ipS pi oSiyn 
naSna ovn c.i tsas ijtsa^ nan oa D'sDi'an 
liaip ra*Sna na3 xSni .pxip' dpi -pixn 
m'SnnB* 131 nrs pnaS ''aw nnnyns r,T2 
naca px niaipa2i snman niacS is ciaa'S 
va Sy 031a pi "anaia '3n S'; '"an :n3 
nS nsSn naSn natrn 'naiam laSc* D'trs 
'ia niaain nn» las 11T.1 0-121 nas Syi 
Tvyx D-ien at? Sy S2X .nanri ]is.i »xnx 
p'nynSa norwi Ss (n .*Ss an d-Siiji hh* x; 
j?jiat5* na nmsS ispn inaSns '"en '»a 
jMion ns b'bbti n.i ns ,taj?m mSan n:3nS 
sin o (aj*a sim) '"Bi »i2i2 SisSun Sx 
.I'supS oinn is23 naSnn in^i Kmaman 
nipa S33 Bars 3'snSa natyn xS (3 
nsim i,njn *aS n'aoun nnan a-acn iti'x 
nsmn Sai ,-]iis maSn3 caipa '*« jvSiin Sy 
,D2ipS ix^Df.'mS ;n2'i sip*i xi2' nnpS 
S3 -a *3 ,ixnpn n'n* ya x-iia Sa Sy xSi 
sin it?'n jan 131 S3 by B'SnnS Sst mxn 
(.* ?tsnnn ;a ix 
li23ai ii'pia in2iai i,af ■:• ennn i,i2y 
.( Dr. Landau] ?|Sxn 3NT p»*J3 vjwi 
•n:*iani ;yiTyii2 i"3x S"t *"ai?i3 



mi2in2i 3°° Sipn2 dsi: 2naan ^13 (* 
P*in*is3 3°9 Sipns dbi: iS »:» nyi nrn'a 



bas jnu n"inn >nan 3nn anao 

"i"in pi3L" B»"non Iran miio "py 
.''j jxo-ins n^xo 

,p"aS n"ma cn2i "2S 'n 
,|j,''ii ,1885 ,»Sv 16 

n"ia nrnn 3in Sipn ns S'ian H22S 

'a jxrj'pisi 'iS Sx3»a 
•nsip i 2 -yninS a;ni -nS2p i2n3a rs 
nx ,iaay 2112 aSn nassns -pasa nx 
na2 B'atr'.nS xsia nnstr* S23 c'3D« xS >a 
'anna anats-nS an nxn ax pxc* 'nn:ntr 
piB2 iix nSa nx2 n^zc .'121 '121 >naxa 
'anna ai22i payn ipyS en D'3"m xnn« 
Tx S2X ,i'Sy xi-a lats-B* .'131 xibit ia 
xSi nsSnS x"3 12m yx ,-p ix p n\m« 
na'x raan »Sy3 'a ,ti"ayixpx S'i na*;aS 
a*jn naan »Sj?3 c:'x =iD3 'Syai cias % Sy2 
D':i23 n:'2i vaan naan msxv/ :i;2D'-n; 
nan j'2n nan 'Spa -n'xtr '"syxi ,"innan 
'X33 ■'S 'n«sa sS »a »S jaxm ,mnan Sri* 
pS'snn paya -,13a Sy aisa-S nan msSaS nyi 
S2S nanp 'n'a aaS Saixn nSxc naie-n '3 

.maitwin 
f* .ciSts 1 a*'x i-sa 1122am ii'pian 



iDi^on n<rw rruon bnan 3nn 3n3» 
nnnB* D , :3nn Sso i:»T3 bnj nnvn 
n;'3xn T»nnD3 pxoi vL'-isroi Tiisbna 
ciSxii 3xr po , 33 3n nrncm ptyn P"i 



its*" xim n:cS 2s '' '1 nv lyiTyn n-_ 

•p"sS 'i^'n'i'n'i'x 
a- a i23:n ipinm csnn 2in naaS diSc 

."a insra'pixi »iS Ss3a i"ima 
1-M 'ma p3B i2ia Sipn ns 'nyac* 
lanun ii2:S nannS o^Sy 12 nyaa ia*x 
12S ns nna -3 Sxib*' nasn \~\p annSi 
dib'S nsa nnp'ni nSnan nssSan Ss 3ipS 
nnaiar,2 ns Syat? nnnn nx Sxia" »aa »aaS 
na3 ;a?n is-aa n3 i2iynn aia naitrsin 
,a*:isanai D'xiisd naaina ni2-in naai 
I'anS aai ,n3Snn ipya a* in nya »nSaB 
vSx lnsaaa' nnas nasi naa naSnn ;a 



•nsicnny ,29gSi-n2 03i:n;n 2 naan (* 
1121 na* -a-xin • a -a n.i 12 xnpm vSy 
I'be' xS ' 'i3 nyna iciaa -1 axi* S'nnan 
laaayS T'B» sin '3 r Sra mn n'n- pi 
.n»a» lr'rmS cipa ;»a px S2X 



-- XIX — 



mm lecri 'Tn nSyn s6 id virv 'ix nx ,hkt viaxbo by wen Ppab ;e£>3 
miwjx na^'a myn mm nnirx naB>3 nbnn 3nae 'jyan nny -viinn pb rub 
"jd^ myn nx ;nu yarn? .Sxne:pVD .-n -nesn n:pty v»v*n bnjn anno 
nyn dj 'a nxe "ob nesn ,n:c."n trxn /; Dee npy 10 vn vjsb dji mxmpn 
jnx ^n nmnxb ."puo ice* dj wi imenptr meann oy nerioe nrn D3nn 
,Siea Dibsyn bs 'P3 nx? mcyt" tn^eL" *"j »^> nnjxyb 3nn oann pTiyenb rrnn 
;DiB*]?pUD~ita ,n L einbob3 , 'JDbxnp i ?nmmnxnnennx vbv t>3pb U1B3 Win mjn 
.bxrrnxn nx nexne x'n ^ 'mxm i»3 Ty •'net" xb ncrxinpnyn b33 -an pxi 
mrx ^33 lbnntrnL" omin ir>3ip' 1 pwpnini fisxpDxip D'osnn dj 
>n3«be bx ntrjb baix ;yeb cxie epa ieM" ncrx D , einn3 »r nx men? w 
nL M y3j , '3,a:'ix3p3Dn33 p3 »b v-ity vp ns isiem ntrx nbx ?a? nraynie \»m 
,no» nx ;nnx nn -i-in*' own je Stsd mm anace* nxr nab ^ ,nt"yea p3l 
■»jb nxe xvx nT3i .crxan mnsoen "ny&j»3 n^eim onnyb npai nar Dei" vj 
jibv ,n-ueb >i M xn pane ,mnxbn"iiPDB fbtra x"a ,mnne>ni nvpa xb ,xTipn 
.□ btra ley nx i\iy 'm .nmpbi pinnb mbf ,Dibcr neixi ami 
.psb n"nn eatr n"3 3ie »a ia basins? dv pnxu 
•n p n x -i -j 3 b"T TUDsbx 'i TDnn 3iri3 .b -bxa'e 



♦r6nn "aroo 



^nL" ,nvm o^ab n:t" -itry inn 'biu d.tj 'jmst? D'anaen non n?xi 
nay nacrb Tipnyn nrnn msL"3 D'ainan -mina ,Dn3*n3 dv noa ,Dmx jnu 
: xiip ba 33 pm ;yeS vrbnvb DTpnyn i3y nsi"3 o^insm 



3«a b>ji Sd d; i:nm d: *m» DiBT»Q:yiyB 
}'2 dSijo ;nSD nnnw nmSrin naita^ a^wi 
nnriin mpoS nioSnn nx ia»n' ncx n^s 
'Syaa nn nana ,ubxib ij inai *!«» o is 
hy -ib>n ,ns Tintrn man niaepi nn isip 
t "; , i D'nyn nmp by nc*' esc cnS ncn' p 
nnrjD'.nn p i: 1 ? n;«i*n ic\s nw3»an mynn 
Saii ana npioy rnaaiann h 1 by "x ityjj 
.n;3 i=:3 -cnh nsp oatsS 



ni:anni nmavn n^nnn 



:.i d^ixi 



.jnSn'nnSpio »aam ine >*b noti" naxSrsnS 
nan*? n» nn ,L, ^S »b n»p» noa ij? naox 
nnpS /sen ^a ay ,bsMH xb ,T3B a'ectoi nrn 
4 n: ^nntrnS -x ci ix na nas'ja »nsy by 
*nas 'ansa nai nnay ny naiby laat^a 
'^y D'oyn^> raix xSi »xtfo nnn fan >Mn» 
nyni ,na*i nyun Soy nansn ncnn miay 
in-'C inn »oan na'on by nnpS Saix xSk* 
r.'aan n.n tiyn ,£ ? ion> nta avo: .n?a pSn 
,no^» nsi3i: iairx »aS :npo .mb 
naaon 'aan 
.DnxvxS 



L*nno nn3 mien bnin 3in anae 
let" y i3i nSceen ]*yri J.^133 D;ynen 
. ;, J Dinxvxb nee T'nn 3:L"eb jnw 

Berlin, den 20 July, 1885. 

!n:aan 'aix jxaa'pnxn 
vrb t" era -ip^n unaa Sy myab 

:T.inS »33n 
'cx-in naxa nx 'nxip nno»ai nS mB>a 
nnpS n^enn n.nn na Sas* ,298 'u Sipna 
.visin 'naai^nn nnx »aa^ 
iana yaian nrn xtr:n jryin »a 'nnair 
Sa« Sipna S^K* oi»a ams nnrvn cSiy Sc 
o ,;^axnS »a:n» xS »aS icxa n -is 03 
♦3-nya mx nniysS n«sv "jnat^nB nx nxix 
.'n«n n»na 
nrsai nipa ni'xa »a 'aSa pso ^a t»« 
n'sin: nan 'a /?in Bn Sx inan ixs' jar 
pn nm , ; , n ! ? Sam nxrn nax^an S:x ,n»aiS3i 
n'm en ny? ,c^2V2 n-aan »tyyai nsax »"jr 
rnxvinS na'an if?ap' o o^iaa^* na by nnS 
.n>an:i on'try amma nrn Snan i:nn 
.-yna'xnr «n3S n\sn n r "-x ia nSxa bzx 



— XVIII — 

JYD-Q 'DDHTSD (X D'OyO ^tTO DYip nnnb "naL'TI trX1„"D03Tnn3 (t 

b'sn x?3> 'aso *a Cai bpbpna ny3 ny can: nrxi x'nL" 103 p^nyon T3 x'n 
oopytan nx np3b bavL" -ip3on by bpnb nnu npnynn oy nnnb ^nvan n3in 
pinai bna py >3n ,n3bnn nab nxrn xroDon iikt n?in -"trr dj npnynm 
csa b3b niB>n omnyi fan napn eninn L-rrp payai raabni nonn mat? paoa 

.b'lnna p"»yoi npin 
Kim ,D^2CDni Dnoibn bs n3iob nipybi moanb yan nnx my (n 
xnaooa ;nw , >3nKnnDoipobyK"3 xnoaai nvatpoa iKainp onannba moynb 

1X3^ D1p03 b3K .-iy¥0 X1PI1 rD'O^b p "IDIO paya Knipn nxT XV?0"' nxrn 
T3yX ,n3DCH3 "I3HDH payb VKnn D01pO3 xbl" DHp Kioam mobe* nv;co 

xnaooi xnaoo ba nann nsi ,nm pay3 n3im nnpy ncrx x'nn xnaDonb mix 
Knipn xvd" 1 ,xn33?annxr nnx«p'n ysin itrx penpal .msio noe'K'payo pi 
p^anb mpKi |i3jn nnDnb nbma nbyin inn pxtrn by ono pnn nro nbna swn 
>n3Kpo nx n-anb nnnx UK" 1 xb nx *a ,iaoy3 niabaon b3 nxo nt3 pxn 
bsi nnaxm n3bnno "mobnn nivp,, m:n "2 ,mv amo by xbn ,cnpn mobnb 
,Knoa'3 mnpb nsx* 1 mrx }""y? Sd^ nxo bpin '31 pom xb an3 |noi x:ron 

.oinn.n 1333 vasb mn n3 nyc 
D"e>ni3 nioipo nxnon by nnvo 3nsoa tiin myn nya^o .nn a"nnn (u 
"niK nmn„ naon nx vinai ib dj 'nyoL 4 * ;annx onan by myi maiaa ieokw 
p "by inmnx b3po ■'rx bax n,a'-nno xain^ Knpoi x-ipo b3 ^sb loipo by 
n3xbon nx s by 'nnpb xb ,i"3n3'j Dip.3 nx-ionty moipo nrxa mx^D d:dx dx 
nnon Kins' 10a vnmn pbi ,myb3o ^sb n3xbon an "2 vinx p^ybi B'anb 
by ib mio ^am ^b 'nop b":n 33nn ^n^ync onann -\r\" by d;i ,nuL M, n 
□"'jainb nnm ^an p .nnpiai mnin nmpa pya , -iinDD nnK p-tQ xnpb inyr 
TiB'pab nny^» nbxo .3 ,m a"nnm iix-ddx"' ,0 .in a"nnn pKntJ' 1 ^"y D^binan 
^Kntj'' 1 ^3 "ryb nba onn nx mnbi mpa pya TisKbDO dido pbn by iuyb 
t^xn .•'vxon bnan ain nx bx-iL*" 1 n-3 |pi nx 113X pi»y abi anprai ,D ,, ?orni 
American Israelite DL"b yman pnyn nx n,niyi 'DxrDrDa D"a3nb B>mon n'a 
by 'n oyia "n" ;inxoai i^aaa bar n,x il*'x ba3 tik 3 , unb )i" nK rvi" xb irx 
.bKnty n"3 naitDPi nnxsnb Drrrnaen on^ nnxnb obi3 
»a ,ne»axn no b3 nvpb nybnxp p"-m nr^ibon D3nn my "?y2 nip" p 
.traab cae* ncy nt •'ax \nana pi onn^x bn;n miD33 yap" ne»x bsc x^n inyn 
m 11 .'•naxbia 3ion on^ys? caaxn ^bb3 nytaa3 piipb b3ix xb , B'sa jnxnb b3X 
n\n xm vo ,D , nin , m nmn'n b^a^a ibnyi inyj" 1 nuya n,niao nybnxp ann Dty 
D , 33i3 Pnao D'snnb ""aivn idc nx 'b 3nann D'asb n'aL" rbt.'* nr il m x pL"X-n 



pb^* .D3 e'on^nb nt"2X3 px "3 ny D , L , *aiL"o rni" •'asp D^csnan D-mioj no 
mpo nxion "2 ox ,nnno nyvn "bi&n ""-cnz ny nnnb nxrn 'oca Tinna 
b33 p^ban nvnioo inv inpb , "l ,, i3i nip^Dson nnipai nbxrni nxnpn ^od 
ibsa ns aa djox dxi ,l"x-io won xb nL"x nan /D"yan ntfbe' oa "bixi ,moy 
3t DiEm »3 ,nn;nn x'n naita bb33 ?ax f nioinn ninixo oicnn nix' 1 ;^ nrx 
nmsDon nn^a bnncai ,nn"annnaxbovbybapxini viDann niobna 'pai b^s^o 

•b^a nix^L" na'nn xb '3 



_ XVII — 

O.roon pxa nor ,rp^>an amcsi ittabnn ^j?a run i:: n?:nt" anan nyn 
nB>a«a px tayaa »a TvsnK' aipoa a^ban ibxia aa vix^ a<oyaS (i 
anar D"ja nn pin ami? pax pa moo jnwn* :voa ,n*n na^a pviynb nxr 
na naatoa -piavi dSd p*nj>n? nx*a njrp* -ex ;, a:taa &6»n "jaiam* 'xatr 
,ainano nwn oil" pN tx d;i mns nxnn iS b» amaa n^on piDB^awD "mxa,, 
.-mann jopo rpjnn nxi ncxon Tinan p bys? — niapan aa xSon pan "a 
xS vyn bat? .innnx xnn an O^nnono ?ns pno (.sa) nxrn r.aa»a pi 
p-riynS waa nn- 1 xb p-nyoni n^yin Sa la^D lab pxr nrn bvch x^x ntrda 
payna yiaaS *bao Tnann n?S conn ?a .vnvwo spent? nyrn nnx ^x 

.mvy 
natr ax xmpn i?y '^pn 1 ? ,niat''n nniaaae' spn nx nvi nv Saa 'na^x (n 
a Tioy 'a ,'x nicy .a ^"w l=a) C»a) bbian poai nann nx aa xnpS 

.abia pi 
a~i iano *nyna narox axi "pvat? aipna vinan xinL ,, iEa , "t:-i ni^a nx (1 
ey»a 'aiaa npS nt Sa Sy iwwfi nySao xioan nx panS xmpn bavts> aipna 
-irxD nSnno 'name nnn p x? *a nnax xS n?axm ,Tiey Saa pnan n^vno 
oryn b"T xnax? laara Sna nnvn n»non am jy Sax ^at? nnaa xmpn nxm 
n noia "a ax 'nntaan -no'p man ?ipb yintrS "6 Tintaan *axi lanana T"y 
nmmn xS nrx naxSo mva '"enn a^nn? *n"6nn naa niaia 'ana s a ,an pra 

(3-nxrn nanoa nvnixn moo na 



nianaa :n;aai n^y itas»«i , siip t ? nnx »om msnnS rn-o »osyriN N'xio^n (i 

0"32 D1?2S' n"3»1 '3 110-1 ttM=C* Sim JinV D512 0"Vl) ]n:v h CB'2 n"3B'1 1I3K' (.\) 

nrx 2'n3T nc*s: n«ai ncsn n: nns nn Sy nann nn'nir nc-,D Sa .Qnav /- i ntra i« 
ipmt? n:Din ;"; % i n^nnn S32 «i'03 xb n«T3 mns ncisi .12 ^in ^2 nts>N2 d^di »»»n 
inVnJia pi m:ia nTpyssn nyn ^h "vwi noS* nana n.-m idtj ^.^ ! ?l , n^ in 3B"S nosy 
rvtrnn n:n: n"3Bn nyi nsi ,"12 oin Sd n*K« ,"q3N>i9*mptM« ,"nnx '33// ,n«»onV» 
oisv/ dim sipan yc'3'ii .mn ^iisdd .S ks»i '3 jB'-nn nis»o '*i b& mw xmpn nvo» 
n;n inxs S2S1 /oStyn'3 mnsn T3 oyo nau 'ia»3'3 SN::i;snS lrvtra myiB*'3i "n'»an 
n»33 n^u rwora in'Ss % e?3 iS n t, -"!3C» :ioi« n"2B>*i sinty :TynS pi 'asn ,ns um' 1 ? 2 , i , n £ ? 
o ( .top n:t»: ) ioi« 'n«so ini« ."Siun pin dv 1 ? vS^ n3no in i! ?N xmn ,mi.T onS 
sin "pisn j?iD33 »ni* »3 -loixn oyisa sS) mm 'coin ns>nn sSi 13 1 ? niin nso ny3» 
mo^ns nso o»ai nioipos ntn 113332 121a >n«i'n mis .(3B'n Kiipn n: p?yj nnvo iqd 
»n«sm3 ;(3"K*n ':vs iS neon Dn«i'«S ^nan B^enS oars 'nna nns) »^s« o'j'isia 0^131 
♦nwtMsn H' ntfytsS »iwi nr:S,v iiatbn «3*ya men '3 113s nSi ,n L, «3 onoNo »nionn 
n.-iis onnS C3as »3tyn J«3iy3«i o"i vm pnpnnn osnn >axnn ,nj: i»s»3 oniras ib'ni 
'3 03 ra .or;on Kfl n: sS S:x ,ono ins b'j "Si»s« nia'nn »S nsin d;,i irDc*2 cz Sy 
'2 n^i'? n:nS >h 3i»n« nst nx una trn-r iSdv cxiipm jK3"ni'3''n sin »n 'ni nmn 
2 n« n»n«sa i-"s nn.< nptn it«i '3eb ,^2 iS »nmn 3"nxi iS j'ax-S >nS 3: nSnna 

:ufa i2-n y 2 pai 
.121 n:i23 o ,'i2i \xiu 'xann nia»n 1:12 .7 pi^nn nxi (2 
nnv." vn' n?aD ampo ny^ noxa x"n ma a nax?ra aaij (3 
■enr; ;"^aB> mpoa nnsp nosi ,x-ioan >y miy , "L*nnL" aipoa mam 
nv^sib ^pa J^n D"c'no »a ;iaipoa ''"^na n^n^ man. nx -iiol m S xnn nyai 
a"yi ( p , n^i moS i-i^aL M ns a"xi"D njn ci^ nnraan Sao Banner ^-p® nx 
imSaa Sam nxntrainxn niaia 'bn , nDsnn a'Disn ^tra .D-aiE'cp ibia n^y 
b^oxiapy^y nimS an^ya SpSpS main 'asrni ,ri!aix» ^Sap s?i ,pL»'xi pis 



-- XVI — 

pvoi foifcan -iry-nx x a iTy—Sa-p., mi? iaaw xm *a ,?ipa nxmp "b\p na„ 
DSt3D nrn naixn 'ayn nx nix-6 arra^y inpaa -ex ano 'atari ,xan a?iy ^n^ 
T«nb non aa lbnn ,n:ua moyb anaa my pxi imoo pai irn ytraai nbiyi 
nyab Q ,v i x" 1 ii-ioxn lay -id pina>ai niyian njSrn amry "a ax vSx amaa 
.paafr "aan„i .ptnprv ,y, ai„ a: x"a rpbapnoa' lSxn maiem maamia 
-i-j'x SaS ca-xia 'mot* oyraa nya »ry naaS moy nirx rujonn ten nxi 
■•jaS ima mrxa »a :»m >x ^mo ia aa mma ncrx snnm r_ M, n aSiya Tin nan 
,msnn nnx aa nwnn mxbn aa D'cin d^dw a: ">aS naa r nennn ]-ix nye> 
uyraain mao mxvo xSi ,Dny»B>a "ajntpjpi amana "maa -iirx omn ca^x a: 
,-pna maSai naipa ^aaira my Saai aip^Saa *aiSn <jvjn ba« ^namaDNnx^ 
.,DnTjn T» M n pnxoa icx nyai iry ntrpaa avaan *ajab ^s ni sjs >ntna &61 
rrnn ymn paon aann uaitrn inn nx mym mxn a'oyia a ,: naa -iirx ny 
moi^n a^in -\b ai„ :n n?ax vj»x "amx nanx,, mytD "ipjnpaxbiD TKO 
nan's naaia rj>xi nvy rex nm nnno X"vin ,rnp-6i panS -|naa k« il-xq 
mismn nSx malb "-\wb my» -|S nm: na l %, dd e" "a nxi: ax mm wisb 
vpxn txi maxSor.x nrcySmiSnm xraa "6 m^p laiyrao 'oat? nx miaa "jxi 
n:Vw"x-in Koanm Snai jop D"B» ,Li -n^p tx -jsi pma rvhr 'n pen »a 

•aa'aa 1 ? nnaic 
-11a ;? xa lrxin ,mmni mpa py r -ia*x bai m'ax ^"jx ,aS "can anxi 
■nn-an ^>xi -aa^a" 1 nmna njL^n xioan n , nn irx nya nha nxrn xnaarrn bv 
Tizbb atrn ipnpnn aaaioai ,na nann ^aa aom nanan mc ,dse'd x^-inS 
u"yn aai ;na ixvan xi> nL"X nnnx nrra aai anvpo ,a , ra , Si"n anoxran nx 
.Sa pyS fib: -aaaa^a -il m x nx x: nos ,txi msa D"B»n miaoa 
^n ,"2"yar unmn» DB>b moSnn ocb x"a ,u^ xS ^n«i mx ,^S x* 1 
mi!? aa^ nrnn ,pnvni n*axn ,n:nnm nynn ! maa un ^j'ax nm'm lrnn 
nanin x'n »a m*ran ax nMi ,n^y?an pntrai nax^.-n Sy mpa ipm del-q 
rprr 'a .aaSipt 1 yvaa'S pira •'jam xa 'aiyD^n ,n^iaa ix miatpo nrxa ,\ip*n 
a^ a'w'X xi? ^"xira n'ao 'aan ,na nanSi naisn mpa^ ix ,nraxn aL"Si aL"a 

..^y Den aii" ict xm 
nx nam mix inmancy ,Di?oni na'an nx nox anaa dwi« nnvra isaa 
y ma miny namn ax ;im;a myta nnxi inx bi ,D"L-n ^aa nana:." anann 
nnxa in^axi ,aiann mao ivpn mobnn x^^ naa 'a ,<mx-6 aL"n ^aar nnx 
^a»x ,}snaxSa aixi'tva L^yanaa ana a^'ccrcs a^ai mr* anaon m>ix mao 
nx n^'iy-'aan oma bvw annx anSa na aa nnS a"in?r vavy nx xsio 'aan 

:nram ,na aa ,max^D 
by pa mi? -v_"? , ia , a»a aa pai na L" "Sa pa anann naaaL" Dip?a ^aa 1 x 
oipca nnx ays pi ixia" ,D"-B»n Saa amnao moipiaa pi aroipra 

.a n s m x -1 n 
n^nnn 1 ? mannxn nixoa iaainaE» mviDi nnprn mna ,nv-i-ji nnpi" (: 
{31 ,nanDi nxnaa ix novy naSnna mn nvc \ , 2 * d 1 ?a |rxe> ,nvai?nn 
.nans x^l- aipraa xian xapaon p-n jnan" 1 ,mana 
naa a-an i-'aan m."x pi mra Dm'B'Dn amnm u la'aan -il m x nx (j 



— XV — 

naianai ,^TID , p'aaa p aa»x ,... ! naiax ? mtryn baa trnn "3 in ,-iL M i."3 
y-in^nDnvpn nyTn /nab^ xbbnan ^2 nranx bax ,n-np>a bann niDi a^'axn 
.nxn naionn mmb irab biaab n?an a'oix px mp?am nvyon aai 
,crnynD nran nv.-nn «b /inn abaca lavaan lab it*" 1 ntrx nxrn navann 
■»b "ox p« ax noxb ,imna jprn bbn ij&rsw e>so nmx nan nats* B'a^xa nr *a 
mcai -vya Q"n,n nanoa xiip bip nvnbip bax -'m^x vtray xb ax ^bna ,"6 
ux^'a h& my. b]id^ nr Dim myai ,Dna'a praiya b"rn tjxi ;vb« Dab idb> xb 
wasb nxn naK> naoxa nairan i»b ix-13 wan nxi ln^ty nx nxabi Bmabi ,r\\ 
icnpnc a^nnxn bin n,x ;iavan nxiiTrnx /lnm 'ami myn praiy nx Ticsa 
non ix ,bann ma nnbi onn nx pnb ,anxn naian nx nobb anna" ba nx 
naixn "oyn caa mo nxi ,ynrni fioan •'bya be? abn nmaa nx nynb nob -irx 
aaraa mm ,10b T|N ,*pn p^wa inia , bi'' itrx vavy-i pa lb nnmy trpaisn 
■vax" ntrxi ibtr yymxn natD by iosy nx anptan para bj«ko nxra nairan xvrab 
dk>3 ncx -anpn nmyna ib nm nnnx 12 xwob aai ibia B?iyn nx ia jpn? 

.miaa 1 ' xan ably 
1T3 nacnra x^mb '3 /Tira inraan ••a peon nxT -iran mmi lavaca 
cparai vbx naia mam ,-ina a-j'im ayn nno mry mba it bxb px byisn bx 
nnra "pe>nn abiya nmPB' anrn >b"x nx yc^b xmp man ;iT3 mian 1 ^ D'om 
is ^n-'ryn -a is ,vrjn D^n n-i ,, i rrD^aL" D'oann 'jgj nx nbno injn ,yp-in 
minnnni nrp tto"'^ nnaian pne* npron ^yn bx vsa b>-iis irun pb ib in" 1 ^ 
ix ,nri3 nx n iDri i»b pn^ob ibt^ yyn^xn nx inp 11 a ,Dn■nD , n^vbip^oni 
,nnbn tux Dyai onac by ^ba pin^ai v:aa ib W\y ib \y& )pnw nnxa abn 
aiD ? DWwn'Rn pa nais a;n ,nn s ny cpab ""jybn ? aannnb panbn :ib uy 
1J1D3 '•o s a ijovy by a^m cpaj ,-|ntrpab inyjc* ny ^ !~ib o^ovin bx ^b nja 
ujp d^j a'aDia pai i:x*^ iby 1 uvvh icx a\xc'jn myaan ,a^in annn 
,xan abiya n^sn ubia /ijnn^y nnx unax Dnvno labia }n ?D^yjn^N '•bya 
j?ia 1 bs a-ipn^ nnx'Di r iamxn ^n ejK^^a roy xb ~ny ix ,ia a s piay labia 
nnx napn n»K>i man at? a^n baca n»ip» bx ,axiai ^v r xia'x ^b ma 
."ai lab k« s a iamat5>no nx ynan bxi f)in lanxoi T'niyyTxi 
n^yi -iixnn x'P ,na vbx mana inn nbaa xb^ lab xb ,nrn naixn ix 
xil" ,niina nynL" iay aan s a ,aiann -]x ,naraa aa imnin^ nxi ^x »a ,bvi 
bx nt aaiao papS n:abb nvnn -iil m abnb ma nba banb ,r\inn mbyb npt^ 
onnn by ""ntaao "oica \nbxia n?o :iab bx irox^ noy by n»m prnnn pnx bm 
nx^ nbav ,ma~i a^L" ^mani Tinnp yyT'xn nxtr •'a-cna ^"•ac* n?a ,dwh 
a^nb^ BD'a^ya ovaan aa'by ban ,?iaan '-\)ii aab xicr lam n ix^d 1 ^aabi 
xbi a'yyT'xa la'an xb ik'X jyt3abip"aa ,*\vr\n 'aaia oanano ^fia ,iynn xb 
^3 ! »a xbx v ibn yyn s xn px ,^ibn nann aaa xb ,ianb noi nnrb n» lynn 
rD^ix an na n'aa C'xb , n , i ^ana nxra nanai ! ? "2 nmry px axn s a /nab 
tt x 1 ? ,nj3L"a ia ninia xb tay?aa "a axi ;iravy *ana pa il"xi airb ny mann 
^x ,py pk nbyi aata" 1 ue> bann n^pa rnxt? iv ,imi3» nx a^n» ny bl-d 
nbiyi aatara man am av baai laai' xbi nnx' 13 .ianpa piL"n yyn^xn l-xt 
aa vninxo varx nayra^n tx ix ! nxbm latara my naa^xi imiao bx anpnot 



— XIV — 

iai -aonnxno n: n iaDin: Tins ninjnn bai ■'"-i^xm "»aabxn ay ,rba 'xtroi 
nioipon nxno ,-noo ,Bnia» bik> n"'x nox kpi rnmn pyai nTp&>3 mobx 
x-ipx , cbL*"n' , D"£*n nx bj pi xnpx ty"x-ini 'aabx nx Bii o^yb Borim 
maiy oya diehs nanb noi nnrb no o'bnxi pnnx nnxi ,ijsw Bipoa 
, , naxbonx ,, n , E?ynT3i , "Enoiaoano, , b mxB>nb nobnn ncrx nx fopn a":rn3 
x vynb xsox -ie>x n« pTi ,»bts>» nnx nix ib'ax tbix &*b ^san aoaa o> 
i3nnro aooaa aianx ^nn m;nn is noxon nx mary yno a'x-iipnb fcnab 
nv iowx xb 'onn -iaan nxi .nnvo nana H3b ox pi aa nnpb baix "ex 
oap c-rn n-n mmn vmjt *ab »a jjn .B"B>n bso n^>i3 -naxbo nx n^ax -itrx 
dib> '73 "naxbob D'aivin vba win vtrneo ba ay nnx xnoa s^ib nnx nyL" 
obci-m ba dji ibis mix tix-ip 133c oao ,ooyb yao irx&}> nis biaba 
-po^x xb novan nyK> BJ Virx nbx3 a^an mb^i ,83— s 4 ^-n naniotroi xnaain 
n-^on a"ay ar ba3 psnbi m»bb ^naa mm ron ,an^» p^an nyc ^n an anb 
-ib>x a* 1 ^ 550 Tiy pi maxbob "»b ins: rni ,Bianb aoaio rm new x-ioj pan 
dj^ xno:i (motion nbi?) B'an 2570 -pyb »a nv ba3 nw neon ana nnyx 

.^33 B"B>n baa 
nns ax u"n ,v«k?»3 nxoc nrx xvon xvon aj ax nbx ba nnxi 
'3 ix ,mobnn npyra mix ix^o* 1 a'oann i^x -on nrx cob's monannn ba 
myoja nra pvpxxb njn ,n , lJ3bnn-lp , 'yo•lJ , XL*nmxv?3 ,, D^oanmcN isn a^ax 
jvynn *a xin npyn ,nanb ^av ejoiani ny ^33 a^ni? ibav iann nx '•a ,^3 
nan ny B ,, my nfebi mxab no^BTibi noain nji^xnn naxbom byiab x^ 1 ' 
biDiocr no ncyx ^jx -a:^ my miabnn n^pini ,pxn j» anoan ion xb myi 
xb \3 -101X xS !?3K ,nxrn nnuyn nx nnyx »b>b3 nunrai yiipd ^331 "by 
ymn "-i3n nx ^x ynv ,'nb nimn 'o^y nx ynr "jx^nyn ib3p„ ^ ix ,nrcx 
boion nx itry nom ^b^' nx ncyxi Titnntr no3 punx "jx ,'nm nx ox 
ixt na'x anjn babi bxi^ bab nsiabi Bib n^x n^ s nxpn mobnni an^by 

.inpnynai imnna imvp3 mix 
t^x bs /Daasbs mbao jvyin xvo ncrx nbx ba bx-i^ 03 anx nnyi 
,oi3on onmm inn ioy n3i03 pann bs ,nmnom nonpn unmn vyy3 -ip' 1 icx 
aoia: vm banana "by ujui o^b noy ,nrn bnjn ianb aam un i onry 
^npn-ii^x 3xi3i ttc^k H* 1 by nmnom n:^n nonpn a^ys^unmn nx bapb 

.B"OL"n ;o ia-)3nni ,nxrn moob i M n nx 

trp32C ny !n<om »f?y iB>p2 r n^Ti3i n';33 ,nj2Si nan ,pxi a^r ,niy2;i enn 
nxs' ,'wi vain j»2 it!\>o n'in ! '2 n^x 'I'jn inn p« :nas • uosj? ?y cp=j i^y 
oj nSx nniN D^apoty pn nS nasi 'ia >ai na: ,«an nSiy "nS pno 'ia Sip na 

,(Kmn jan nts>yoa t"' r») .oms D'snip »a* 
bna Dsna noa luianm xj 1^3 aoox an«x ,njn mp a^nn s oan 
ntJ'ya rD^bo ^x^p31 bin maaa b"r isoan aaoab iinnB' it njion uosb m^b 
nmx nxnn aaoab ncnan nyn*n byn ? ibain n: "iL^ynn ,aoab njtr mxo 



-- XIII — 

Sao ins niN a cjDna xp s a inav nnx ,-)2Dn mno yiv nnx "a aa no ! "hty 
/j'^D^n ?aa d , x s o a n anoxo u {nan- n,xi iaa j'^Dcn baa aanani anaan 
invn a<xapn d:i ,kim xboa sjic laiyo o'vm nx -neon db> ttp kpi nby xb 
nan xbi lovya mobnn nan xbx nrn -iaana pic 'a anb ynv "jx ax cwu 
nx isoo" 1 xb ,ia nana p^son nnann pn ,nnaxi nabna nnx pay aa laoo 
jaion jo nnpb n^am now nx anrnx non aa »a ,nobbi ia nioi&D aovy 
nbx:ynb aa nait^n aaox jxaoi ,. . . aan aovy nx yrbi bioybo ,nyn boy xb3 
aa bxiya nicrb ^di: pax ,nnx b^kd pi n^n* 1 ax ayb nsan baip^ ax n^n 
xvoan ix ?D , an ananoo nanna itrx anaoa xnpb Dyn paon pDnn :uruM 
nar« noxi ,ntmo ntrob nennpn wmin nx n /; apn ^namy nyo jn ? nra -iaa 
xin bna nnvn -laaoni ,nnxn annano bb>3 anaon ba iapa ,"nay nc?o min 
,xswix m x^n n tr"y xnaainn ,cjmpn wan tr"y nxipa natron rtrwn 
txoi ,'iai ai try naan ,nm tcvn'n tr"y tr-non (i ^trxa-n wm &"y a"K>n 
niabnn ,\xnx an tr"y mnb>*trn f onwn annano tr"y anaon a^xnpa nxbm 
'3 mam anaa "nan il*'x anmxon ananon aai /Xvpo a"n &r"y nibna 
jna '-in niax r K"m 'pna loa annan jo nnx atr nx anny imp aiao baip* 
nnx ew pi -ianna nnxi nnx ba -itrx aoain naan nanb my pxi .niyi niyi 
D^oan naaxo ^m iaa >ann: xb abiyoi ,ncyobi nabnp xin «m iaa aj ax 
nx ponn ib np 1 a"x xia^xi ,bxi^a mjn an '"ayi y^oynxpx na^' 1 ^'sy 
-ixc»j xb nai ?>jiocnn na^ancv a^uji a^oan niao x^c naa L"pab frynn 
naaw nab naxbon bx nt M jb wana nonx n^x bna s na noa t^na'p xbx s b 
nrn |orn mixab n»n nya d^b^ &>pb> jo nnv xS naxbon n^y jot nysyp baix 
x^n n\xi ? an^a , xl ,,, i: , i v^nao ay a-trn ba by iiayb noibo trvh aa Tixa 
bapx xb nib n: icx o'^n jo npnynn naxbo nxo nnaani ntrpn naxbon 
bvx ""nniaya •'PDya naa , n , Dac > yeoi /anb abcb niB>o H' p«» ^ao my ai^ 
-i^'xo -inv Tnny ^oo nnpb p s nyon naxbob nnjnn a anx^x? .axian jnsn 
,p , 3B' B'btJ' ^'oa b'ba moj!? ira n^xbo ""py bapx xiax n\si ."-ovya ""npnyn 

? aiann n'ao na »'fl "a^n^ ax 
"naxboa Tno '•aan a f i3V» by aicnb '•b nb'bm ^bxbanx-anx ^x ynv 
nil maannna join ^na^pn p'ayi /b^a anoibon jo^aix ,nnn 'oanbao in' 1 
tx aai nxrn naxbob Tivan bna invn xin n?n jam s a nxn -aam .nia^noai 
■'xi'ip s b la^ox' jyobi .yia^a B' , o , hb'E' ,dv baa mye» cl" ,':*on pi niayx ax 
'aa'ccsy e»"xo aann ••by ana -iaa •'a ,mia nx nbaxi naxbon ma nx tnatc 
.^ax ixano xbi arao xb »a /ban int« txi man "byao 
nyacn naxboa s ax 'pi 'a lyn" 1 iaa a.'aab a'ac* ron "bipn,, ; \snip 
'*ra taa^x a ,ia n^^on na^ 16 ix 14 jvbaa) ntiD nx Tfbl nam aobipn 
aa "ib>k nnx naxbo my ••mobi a-at" ^on •'naDin ^ntc bax (ia j"yb "Stna 
nt^x nxrn naxbon nxi ansoon naxbo torn am anaia icon^ 1 na 
anaooai pnn fyawi ix nuyx ^oya xbi ••ao^ipa xb n^bx n^ab noiic ox 

/T3 vn'L" annn 
a^L'naon ba ay bna a tr n^n^ nnxn j'^atr Ti^a 'naxbo nx nc*'yx mx 
.itry n;iocni ntry n;*2B*n »piea wn T'n in ied2 t'O j«ij?' (1 



— XII — 

nann pxi n*y px 'a y-m pa 1 pianom niyi njinn ba "a nipx pai 
rD'onpn iniaxia ba nx bapb ,nnanbi lnipab ,-n»bnn nx -intab K"a mnx 
omx nnnbi ,nnab BD^annbi B>pyi bnsj ba Dna pas? nmxni niabnn ba nx 
B'tyaP minn x"n mu aovb lanaDi lrxjitr }a ^rybi bancs" ba ^yb dj by 
mr ppa nnjioi nana ,yivaixa rmo -iXw-ni ,-iuabnn ^bya b"m up ids? -ik*k 
xb ,na ny yr xb -itrx nobnn nx bxw 1 w nrai fow\ sa^ binn mrnn bai 
"'a an^a -iaya wrv w*»t?ia dji ^s-il*'" ia tm 1 my xbi ,v:ib nobb *ny m* 
xbn tx p irby mcrb ibar «b yivaixa D'rmo i-iKSWt? onoKiono nrnnxn nx 
bia nab umx nnoix rpr&y pa» nop bin nab nnoix nnxL" ny nnb idk3 

.Try pa» n-np 
rntanonn nnx p nn^x-in Tnaxa nab TiyTin nnx ! -jnx nnyi 
nx nynb a^nb nbni nor m:D jryin n jna xb nxrn unnan by nuaiannm 
,nbioa m-nayaabn -pi xrn »a vpkti viaannn nnx ,nynb mobnni mobnn 
nnxi ,b*incn d"^jx pKB> nipon b"m n*y nx fycob n vinpb ncx nnxi 
,naxbom npyon nv'nj nx warn naaaba mbao x^d wy-i ••a nxn ^x -itrx 
n*j':b idix ncrx ^miay "•tana ba nxi nra ^nncnia ba nx oa^ab cnab airx 
:pinx p^xt byi p^xi p-inx by n:yxi , , nux pbx nnrya anrn anpa nnx 
ny n:»o wbj xbi wirna Tiaxbo nx nwyb "•nba 1 xib "a ^x mio 
D^iaa dji ,annx o^iaa nob mn aioinv nny "a , , T , a njaio nbia nsin 
bap™ xb qjox dxi ,a"^nb px iaa ncyjn nx s a noxm naxbonb nnnx 
jibin' xb mbipn n:n ,ub rninn n:nj uvd ,Q'p-\2\ mbip xba idd dic> ij^vx 
/D^^nDi D^aro /D^xocdi d , j , o , » ;Disnn n^o isdh xv ->aa it^xa tx dj 
/"'nbia^ rr>n xn -ia*in nvi am nnv pbi ,«*nn nya dj ub nDn" 1 xb 
••naxbo nbn nan DiL M a piDyb xbi nyvob ww &bv nnuna na^b 
yin^b "nvan noxac »jqoi ,nrn iann nx niiryb s naa pxK> ^ao bax ,nxrn 
boab pa: xb »a »n*sn naxbon n^na byi p'yin ovy by o^-nnni amann nyn 

.miD-ia ^ao fpjnn ns nibabi naxbon nx 
n^xnb dj ix ,-iDDn nbapb pT ,H , ^ , de> ^ob' s a nnnx i^in^ -itrx T'yi 
pT nanon D'j' xba nsDn nx D'ainb (x ,nana niaicn *nw run ,naxbon 
db> nobyna anay naa p^an^ nnaacxm n^axn ix^van nbnn nyo "a ,nxo 
i;: xin imor) m nx asj>n nobyna y^sv -ib>x isd ba by T^nn bvv nanon 
xvv urx n^xapn myib pT icxoin^ai jx^D^nb vniyna p-ron aai ^x^D^n 
lean n^ xipb Dvsann nx y^o urx nrn nB'nn aj naox axi ,nrn ttynn jd 
nx r^n^ ibdh bar xb txi pimo noyi ijoo lyiJ 1 ayn pen bax A3 panbi. 
A3»o mi: ^rx bj bax (I^^aa^-l^x•| , Tn , 'JrxnmxaxL' , ,n , 3B' nxn omoo 
n , n > nx p^i ?Hyba» ^x n'ain nDnn ••a pnnx spiT xin^ pianx xb^ '•jsra 
ba?a naB> inr in <a ,n s by , »tj' xip" 1 p pianx irn naxbnn nx -iidjxi nnya fi 



jo nj'N »yaaats' '2Qa i« '37: ip' uawty is win NJcstt' 'jso nS (i 
|d '::'s »3 iKenn 1 ? 'raiN xbo H22i ,csnnn ns Dyn« nw ny s^i D'Binn 
ny^aa nvnS Sdisc* nya rican nns ttb d^ ,d S i y 2 in c 1 p n n s B'annn 
D'BTiinia »3jn o ntn pionn nx ^y p«'so' wS o^na invn 'ksw c^ '3 »S rtanoai 

.naitt'a is nawo nan nt'N nn« 



— XI - - 

nya ,nrayra npi ith nayran Si" nna no Sax ran^y 2? aw) pai y.vrixa 
pi 1x1 ^ xSi yvraixa d naira □"jiD-ipn ansyn ,| -,kd ?nxiai rabia binan pnannB* 
nap Saa Daia ni n n r no S a ay -iiobnm rnvaimp 'tsnm jaxSxS'-anS 
nx pnsnSi nxm nayran nx SapS ipan ann D'tpasn ^"yn ! a^aSxS nam 
amm ^ anniKi a-nira ianaK aa itrx ,iamx ? n D'pnnvrn lan-isi liraSnn 

? ! iana aniraSn 
py-iv lanax pxa'maSnni nnrnnnaxn nx a^BHSianE* xSx ,naSa it xSi 
nSapn nvrnai ban St M x^ia-iS^a ,mara nn^pna ,mrar!ra nnxaxSSxa ,p"»B no 
nnn n?a 'a ,(,I^xralaS'lp''¥ v ny1 , ' rmrabnn Sx a'naaa nnn d;b> ,mnaa nioam 
aaw Q'b)y aa'x irx ,anaaran nayra nx B'prnrai 1 S 1 a mraSnn nx dhphpd 
rD^ionpn nso Scr nniaa a^raxra dj\s*l" iraa mraSnn nniaa piaxnb a i anv 
Da pxi ,ibxn ajrra nDnn anann baa tPiaia px dx„ iaa 1Sxt^ , Sxtr xbn *a 
nraSS D'D'ano anx icx TiraSnnra amx ii'an xb yno ipirra lba iaai ,^yiD 
aab pxa> nmaa a'xbirara annan ■•a anraixi aa a^pnnra aamy axi ! ? niab?') 
"! ? anx abiyn baa aairaa psp nnn ">bya xbn ,an?a at*"ira ba aaravya 
,annxn D"»yn ^ya xb prm bna am ntryn .'mainw ,nxrn nayram 
tnynS a^bia 11 aa'xi nvobnn nx D'jnv arx aanB* aravy ammn by x"a 
nayra nxi vxaitr »sd pi nvabna ainan nx a'yrat" man *a ,nny Hints* iniraaa 
ncyn nnxn :niabs» e^b ipbna p by ntyxi ,aaba D-aanb dw aa'-x vpnsra 
nintr ^ain^ ,anran ,nniD n'So xin ^a mois'i a^np tnpS "6ia mobnn ns 
n^a* -n-in '•ennt a" 1 n"na "n^a,, D'snao nnn) ,vnna Sa Sy mnoa nraani 
B^bnoB> rr'an "SSn nn,, ,aSiyn Sa Sy benon n-a S"i \sdl" xnna ji^» "<wdb» 
ana nrvi> a^^acr^Si ananab inp 1 nt v y n^'on Sa ns ,(y"L"ann nx D^nacoi 
naa xnnx xitaan njj aa mnSS pn ^aS inp"' n Sn nxi n^na^ac'i n"aip nx 
nayta naba naaaa -ex n^acn ;i^nb ix ,nSn na Sai n^b /PL"n ,ia"Dn 
nian f ib*n ay nsmn ^a nx D , aaiB' mnSnn p an^" 1 invatrn an 11 Syi a^aaon 
,n a 1 » x S a x S a in x tr a ,anaiox iw\ ami ^n n^Snn nx nax il"x 
lain xi? ia*x n , a ,, S , j , m janimn antaxo nbuw '22V pi amn' a^ipa nioni 
,ian nrxa pnxnS nmraa nx SanS Sain xSt ,n:i?axn l^til" nx naSo L-irS 
nnx ayaa nias 1 nrai aiL M a nx avaa onnoo n^n ,a"?an air nx mayn 
iSnn nyn mrabnn S'an wbbn n?aa .naioxnia xS Sax lainai" no Saoi m»Snno 
nyn? ivtann nrn nam nx ax ? vmanan nx mxinS laira nx a^SynS vnao 
aiaan Sy ,antraipn SaaSxic" -aaiaD»py cans') nmin pva SananS aa^Sy 
\ pin ayn xin SxiL"" ayi" nya ^yax^o nyai" Sy pis Dwa epiv* xSl ,( SSian 
,a'Dyn Sa Sy in 1 ' D'am ana none' nya ,nya a^NVoan a*oyn Sara anpni 
by 'niyna sj nsi' '121 '1:1 abab uin; '"aaa »a jjfitan jyta' ^i«0 anra nina a'nra 
xS laisara o naiaam n^raxn naDn x*n nrai (26 is 2S5 ha Sipnn S"-a' :nro 
S c n a a 1 1 n ra x S x 1 1 v n x S ra a x S t"„ nxr xS ax Snan* 1 xSi nam' 
mv XV s i^'x Sac ,njni lanaiai la^xi laa lacsa paxnS "a !?"a S c 1 "n 

/my n-Sx ac xS niraSnn 

"nsn 13 13 nil// tsnso "?j? i^Nc p^piTia ' / ts , 3n// nwon nsnn nrn 1:0x3 noi (1 

".n^iEN 'rn vtrun i*3i n"33 nsi n*a x: n"?S3// :iSx3 n'ttiisa 



-- X — 

babsr 1 nnni" ,ayi ay ba bsr nnaDnra bxnfc" nnao xm njitr p *a nan 
D'vj na nx D^ipn a^yimi a'oan a^'jx anaa nma Dae* maie>bm a'rayn 
t.s'o laa-iaiT aaaa nx ix^v did -il'*xi ,aravy |UB>n by aiD'ami D'raann '?::• 
nniD ub px ,"'aa ay ,iab nm ,mynai inaitaa ,ayb lrnanaxna risen nmraa 
ba oyoa /urmsD nannna ipeym itrx a'yimi avoan d^otk xbi nbxa ansa 
bnpnpatrnby nnnx nibraa ix ,aravypa:rn by annaa nx a^anra Dnannn 
,DJUL"n by onanon nsa nx ix a^anra ,i:ar D'B'snram ,vs nx ibx^" *ba» 
jyrab Doxy patrn by amjabc* nra by n 1 a d 1 n ay mn nam mrabnn nx ix 
'jraai ninrayroi mrnm d^btpbi niaDin ay mbsn nno ix ;anpra nats> 
(ran 'ranax n nan a:i pnr n nam ,'iai "lai nbinb nnbvb a^bnn pbtraxpn 
.imaxj avaa wbv an^nroi nyb a'ra'pi a-avj nam 
*py »a$) il"x nra a: x"a nunon baa anoyn bo la^aa nab nra xb n>x 
innseaavDysniaai a:i nixi a^raya f]bx imnaD bnain ,anoyn ba na: u-iasra 
bba annx ux pxi }oaroi nmbo naxa umx paai aan ay ■'a ,ayi ay ba i>K> 
wnaoi mrabnn nymb oai ^bban -isan ma nynn fD'jman mo ma njrmb 
?npa nra nana xbaj axi ,i;t"np natr nx oyra paa ax lab n ,^jn» naa nanb 
annvn D'3i anao i:b cm ninnpn lanac* niaa "oai nua man mat? lab cm 
mannb raai> aipra mr nanm nxara bai ,nix"a annv a-an anix"a aai ,mx*a 
B" xbn ,n na ny amx^i dotib iaan: naa aa axi nmaoab mxn nanb ia 
nprnran oyira xmi a" ^ra nami mn p-ixra nanx umin ,nimb a^a a^yaL" ub 
'n mm nbx baai n^aaa i:bap d^opd a^abx "abxi a^nra niaai ,nanran nx 
nx nxij xb nyn blip a''yi ! l'^x ba t my na yjj k x^i x^n no "> p n nmy 
n va i n n nniaom niainan irniini ,-iyn nx nxi: x? a"vyn ansi a^'yn 
anpa "'jx no xbx„ :ioxl" v 'at:n nbbp ua nra^pnj »a ub lanatr araa i:b pn 
n j L" ra 1 n -1 1 1 a n a b n i x v o , x b f ixvra- xbi 'n ian cpab idoil*" 1 
.b"m nnx aipraa '-ax b"m (.a"bp nac 1 "n n x a 1 p o a nina 
x"raa nDN n^'xai ,nxo n^na nnraa nrn b rnxra laa niaxn: p ajrax 
vby :iiaxi nrai mn nx irby laa nyra n /a'baaa ipbi anaaa ix-an bx-iL"'- 
i^am bax ia»p iyia xbc »JB»n nrnn pi B'pn: il-x ; 'ynab px ixrai ?pamb px 
a-in bar aira tann nxa" mrxa) ,naa^*ai pma mm mn baa nxra nam rby 
nixob anaa name ny mm njcrDi nabn ub pxi" nab xb (am n"na imxtn 
iron" ayaa ayaai nxo iai m:rai mrobnn iy®W2 nyc xbx ,ub na^nn x^vranb 
nbxn inraxrarai ,vbam imvm ,mubaa-\s ,maiL M ra nixinb inraxia nx a: by 
nionD Vii mn paa ux a^in nbxa anam .naiebi nnab in ma nx a^amn 
,nm mna nypyoL"i arbnxi ny pxpnyaayaa ,"iyajyrajyT"X ,iynbxn ,}ixsri ,}:y 
aaipa a'b^aran annx anraxra a^aaxra nran ?mrabnn *p+v;v aTiy nra tjx 
nroiyb aip^m y iai 'iai man nubaa f nmu nnroa anx nanx ,n1m;' , mnra 
fx V2 nx„ 1^^;m , mrabnn 'xjil*' Iran' icx anraxr:n nanai ,b":n anoxon 
Kxraa anmienm anmnaxa ,a'Mmpn anjn 'pina B^ana ax n ? "nbx iraa 
nnm nbia' nxm njyom ; mrabnn nraxara an nn' a'ynan nxo a-a-i anan 
yira-ixa amjira venm vninax mrabnn vnibx nmraxi nprn njyo r.imb nraxa 
onmvtni an-'ban ,anmiL""ni anmnax ,a"jiranpn anan 'pin amairai" iraa 



— IX — 

na -idn xb xin ,Damiap xnn Dtr xb dki ,u*nyn pa oyb vnn ,aui» minn 
omap nwrp maia nn^n dx noib nnv ppn ntj'xa inn nnn Danmap xnn 
dsl" Dan-nap xnn cann nioixn pa de> ! at? :x"a ,rr63p xb dx -inn nnn 
dl" iar xbi oyb nvnbo ibinni an^a lbbianni lanynn minn nx ibapn xb 
nroxa Kin xa'n pn vanax n be* "nobnn,, 'a D^xn ux nam — .my bait^ 
nian d baia xb *a bxitn bba by i»a mat n»b» xin ,nx£ naaai bn: n^bo 
a^aian by p ,aniD3 ab onb oai ,nyo no iy-p xbt" nan bapb mmxn nrvo 
maaa lmm nx bapb main man Kin bm apy s ppe* , aan&> nnn nx amby 
man a^xai a'aa nroa nyi — ansyn nn" pa nnp^ xb fynbi ,n*FP jy»b ,Daixai 
n^aa x?ib ? nar ba laS nxss>a axn Mb nnnytr lamin xbib 'a ex ba pa 1 nbx 

? labia ia«n xirx nni nn baa rrawa inn 
nn baa maaa lamin nx anapia vaart ! ^anxi mx ,xm p 
mo'B ,iamin nibebntrn no nx nyo v\n ynvn c-x bai pan ny baa nrfi 
nam by a'myno) binan ainn bipb bx-iE" ba lvapa m-x monai xmy "iv news 
pan nratr nrabnn iv rKtsun laan be w-nnB>a natrnn ny ('•' xiry rtrovtam 
ny ,(nnnx ninai D^on none") ynab px u»»i mDinb px vby m»xi •'xniaD 
ibnne am-inxtr a^ann naa ny ,nbaa£ mba nba*»D3 lba'iae a'aixan naD 
^anips apy n ,n&vwn naD a"DDn Y'axnn) D'oirn p ibap annan »a manb 
nx nxi'' /'nu^b pxv, lnWK' a^mnxm a^i^xnn o'paisn nsD ny (myi myi 
aeio minn nx ibapn dx„ niaixi nbyrobs nny dj lrby noiyi syisa nnn 

.... "ixb DXl 
nnc^y ,nroixn avpb ncxa nn s n Dmias? D^icx-in D'aian ox nbixi 
nnnn by lmsn »a ax) nrn avn ny nixbn nx npnnm ,an na nbmjn on^aa 
■'ntra minn nn^y: bbm ivvdw 'Tiabn lanr'D nnxi ao^ya b^rn uaixnn ncxa 
la n*^yj^ ova bxn^b n^p rt'm* max nnnion Dnann by ww nvai ,mmn 
'3 nxo nann nyib nry on^aaai nxDn nx iehj a^nnxn o^aian njn ("b;yn 
nx xb my ix-n xbi s iaan inn nnno nbjnb ixv nti>8 nx?o nxn nnn D^an 
mm nL M x nnna» D^nnxn icy nxr dj qxi — amn nx xbi nyn nx xbi nnn 
,mab nnx ^x aim naan nnDD n\n djox nxtr ninbnn onnjL" ny D'awmn 
n^nnxn lxa njn ,nanb no nxi mnrb n?o nx vn^bn ayi ib^ »>a Dy a"ay pyi: 
nnn nx naan naD nan ,nnab imaDi myn * ay m^yb nna nnx ba nnb uai 
xb ^npnn bapn 11 naD -a ,iaa nano ba bi" m^a nn^ n»a iv rinibap" 1 '•a 
Onntaoo nyna ^nxv naai nx?^ inxon amnn n,■^xn , ^j ,-ixab Dip?on na 
by D^ain be moaonai ^JWtrin "idd pina mxib l''\x ba bia" 1 nx? bax 
enpaon lbnn xb ,bxnL' rt a jnj^b nvnb nioaDnn ibnn nyo dji ,D"jnnxn naD 
nx maa? naon nx nixnaon niann nuien niynmni D"nyn 'ansoa ompani 
D^nan by onnno nxr xbi nr xb Dnb px nex D^jyn onancni .'lai "iai inn 
,onnao lbaip^' ^Dnbia^a cl" n»a ny ,nnn nx nron dj D^iai onneo Dy 
nnaaa naDi naD n^ px n nxi: mnini nam pya banDJ dx ian bi" ibba 
nar ba ib n^n xi nxr vibai ,nain dxi tayo dx nnn nx inya laa xbe bxic 
nex nbx dj dj^ n^aaa o^nan Dnaon pa n ava na v~^ px Dbixi -Dbiya 

.bxnsj' 1 nivoix? Drpb nxo lb^yvi an -nx «n» 



— VIII — 

b'wbaan onaxan by pnnnbi ,nrn Dim ny pvsy&na mioam nmnan minn 
naixi ,nin naxa 5?si3 omasn njrx lannm nb3p nno lab Dnaoaii 
vn s? Dn3b oninnn nma n ,nxa ny pa 11 inpnp3 na ib ntrx l m, x bn 
pya nanc nisopaen Dnminan nx nabb xa*n jan 'annx 'm pnv 'n D'bis* 
xbib Davy bxnB»b Dai ,pt5*bi naix bab ropnnb ,-ivc* na*KB> minn by ryb ntrein 
-inn 13*73 ibxn Dnminan D*bapn» vn «b nnv myi ,nnn nx Dnny iaa 
X3-ii "i3 mn nyma |X3a nax *"3 xnx 'nt? ny maxn *a3n bsb D*pi psa 
xbn ny Da) i3D ib3pa> na ia*pe> nnx *nr minn nibtrbntyna cyanb mraxn 
naban,, asa ? nn na'ab ivo *ai y"mx }y ijoann D"»'n nnoai (rvn Daixa 
D'maio y"nix Da ib-X3 — ! nibnp xbi minn nx n"npn vmn n pnv 'n mat* 
naicba naiB>xnn nnann ns* las? omoon 'annxi ;nrn naban bip3 yiacb nan 
"naban,, aaa pm "rinn nx lanymaa Dib3 w by ,"niabnp xbi iab nna Dibn,, ja 
nt^x mann "naba,, "na ibxn "D*naban„ brr onrj ns* na3i ? 'ansx 'n be* 
!?Dnny pa^a pxi ona pbxvj' pxi nxa siani yiyn D2-VD 
•do pn nixvvn ninan ;rx ibxn nnann n ,na?y by n*yn rvaNn b3X 
?\x pab Dnb nm xbi D3b3 niynpi D'aann *33 mmoa vn x"3 ibxn Dnaban 
n#x xin ,a v y3a> mim nm-iai Ha»aa n\n tj*x nrn pnv 'i — }nno«3 yn 
mx D*D*333n o'asn naDX xbi nab nacan nx tid enpn iaan "3 nyn n'n 
'n «>m (v^nni n H3 nxi D i 03nn nn b;r Dnyn n:j nnix -no xin nams) 
130T3 oyn by pinb nnix ovj'bi nxrn minn nx prnb pinab xvo ~\wt iD**y pnv 
uoT3 taiasi D*ian pa D - ;n aiyni bbun' nxr xbib '3 nmpa py3 nxit^ *jdd) 
nnx bis* dx 7 n»>?!? Dwbao D'bbD bt^'i Cn^n'tyan minn nbn:n:i rrsna ncxa 
rrsbn nxa dx fan x a mr "obriT) "nb^b^ ,nro ny nyio^'n nx btrbrb 
ra"ob nisbn no32> nnx -mb n-vban bx na*D no ynv nnx pxi m* nnn 
nb p*30D xivno xbn xb**a b3 Cr"a nxa dl") r[*3"i na^'l njL**03 niyiap 
3ab3 nibao ixvd man 'a nxixini C'a panj* a"a mana d*}0 "pK'aa pinxo 
pn *a bxic na*ya mnx B>mb bia* n*n Dxn P nrnpn3i nb3pnj inmni nyn 
noix bs nb pxi ,p*a na pyiv dvx. m msbn bapb DnL-3ioi D*biby bxnB'' % :a 
"nabon,, *33 d - j» nB>.< em n^* xb axn ?ibx 103 nnbn bapn-." DbiV3p*5*bi 
xbi f3py" p; nan*3) maic-'bn b3bi niaixn b3b imin nx nnnn n"3pn »a ibe 4 
n^ab ny nbrbrbi na'pbi nnvnnb nsbn3 3i ms n*nts> na3 ny *a ? nbapb isn 
nx 1V3' D*oann b3 -i3'X nan nam naa nibab nnax3 ma bin: n*n p a*oa 

.— in i:ia* xbi innax 
n3insn isnmn by n^b:b X3 xin ,D**naD nb: xa*n ;an 'DH3X 'n obixi 
nainan minnnaxD *3 ,djix3i n*333 xbxiabvx n^apna xb obiya *3 nniDani 
*rD nn ,prn naisy bip -n3D py ,D*pn3i mbip vn minn nb3p3 ,iy''Dn miDam 
anaiD *n3n D*nn„ nniDan mw3i ^ya'j'Ji ncya naxn Dyn b3 nrn ,ibia icy 
nyninna niaa mix j*3a„ ,nn'a 3*m D'arm nnn byn3iyn ba^ /'mm n3na 
"b nnn p3in s*in n^pitrb D'aan maty ma pman b3„ oai C 1 ,"iL M aa xvnL" 
nx ibspn dx„ max? iaya nx Da nba nrn -innn nx miban bnx ! "xniDX 

,n!onn2! nnya ^x nvm niin nrn '•j? irv/nS nxro mpni cny: p ltyprr no ( i 
•b'nan .n^-up p-nnao err n:t!* D'yawa nnx nn'oS i:ns' p*nnaon rx isip 'a ny 



— VII - 

$iftv nutrn iiaSfin rr-ixai No 300 Sipna nan pii oisnS tn iar.: xS *>»« nSia 

nn^ani nax^an mo ao'n ixiaa rmjw »3sa ,hb onann npy nnS pm^ xsia 

nxi nrn papa 'npoj? vhv d>:b> i»y »^j? nayt? nn« nnj? na mai >n»a» x 1 - itrx, 

:nn iSsi 102 no bv nnn Drue nanS 12b o*w» 'a E*pax «*npn 

i^bio rmnn na D^nps ons dx 

nvraa inn nx Dn>Vj? rvapn nsatt* naia xon 12 KBH2X 1 x ' inn n'nnna nswi// 
"12 xnx i"x .nanmap xnn uv ixS nxi aaia rm.nn nx D'lapra onx nx nnS iaxi 
P'p r'n'nriitrnN 'an mi2p inn a"'Eyx X2i lax .sfrms'? nai n;'iia jxaa apy 

,(T"B natr) .12a rape na ia'p ,rapi 
wan 'n iax'v/ a»nam (n'jiyn niaixS minn nx jna x^ JT-apnty) 'an la'aS iva *ai 
lanv i"x ?pxsa >ya 'xai i'j?»a *jn 'xa "'ui xa' ja'na nix ,1a 1 ? Tytwa mri xa 
Ssx X2B* ip niSap xSi pc*Si naix ia by ni'tnni nnnn nx rrapn npitr loSa 
ciSa / nax 'an xix 'ia maa'p xSi maSap ana,/ nax »an nbx ? m'rapi Sxitr" 

.('x T'x) .'ia "btevtrh rwyty iaa nuSip xSt n'.vaa in u'Sy n'ta 
nibbnn nnnn 'jvi'i ti^j nx» nay annx niyincr *jk ! 'jnfci ■'nx 
,bbnn nm jvynn nx in3B»i niT tj'x a^n D'anan ^lyan uab nn»B>bi 
obiai ,*ixs 13b pna "-nobnn mvp„ bn nm nnn "3 Dnisixi amis abn 
nx Dan uib' pb ~ib>xi i: v d; vm pn nmicrn airnroayiana^xn by DMiixno 
pbin3 Dinxxxb nxDDysxnan pnxni ,1m rman nsxbnn nx moab nn nby 1 
X'p nirx nnxL" nxr C3 nox'' ,njrnaDi nnnn raiD? vec bn nx t^npn ni"x 
xS nr-xo n v J'nn njm q^ in:nx ,i5^aj nvbyai nijjnnnm nS o^'n n»xo nx 
nnS xin nirx nxo pixnci inSiyaS xvv n:nn nx nixnb nar vna my "a pox 1 
-xp xx»bi ,mnD3 nn^abi nmarnb inan px nr*x nan nnny man ovoy 133 

.'iai 'ni Dpoaynyamaxn ^aao mp> xb Dvayb 
an'niynn D'ai^n Q"3n d^jxd ^tx lyojj' o , 3in33 *nbnpB> n^» nnr myi 
3n nnx pxa Dy na D3in3i nrn bnan jvyin nmx anx "-nnnn nL"X Dn"pya»3i 
n^D^so cabi3i ovy ,, b , 3^3 D"L"n ^^l*' nn pnna ntrx x"Dn3 bna ' r in33 n ; '3xi 
D'3n ^'•y nx npa' nrx "^pn D'"cn, mvna nx lra' obi3 ,n3X^cn avyb 
E>n , a n^anS pian 1 " nr ,n3X L on ihd2 non nwic DnTiiyn «|«i ,u b^e'nbipnnb 
,anny nxnxi n^n pj d^-x niaDian "3 nrDx 1 - nn ,oanan ni^-nn by "'"en 
non3b , xn3 irxr annx a^nna myi Z'xin ^oiai L"nn nr nxn fr :n?oxb yavxa 
nnty xb3 n3xb»n nx nnbiioab n- 1 bxb n'n' qx (xnnaiDO nnx3 nbn bzx 
naan bn-.p" 1 dx ^nasba nx nbaxi bnx va nan3 xn s xb Ca ^Tn 1 ix ann 
naxbon nnxsn nnn dx (a ,nab ~mx l v, x3 n,x nn' ax baoB" nny bab nn 
nry ^anj' ,nnno nix annoi D"ynv n3D »a nnx ,n'by "dl" xnpnb nxn 
rxnc nn nnnn nx noma ynn annx nxL'" 1 (n ,bxnL %,, 3 n^an nn^pnn nx 
'xrna TDxbo nx nr-y n-'n dxl" non D'nioa anyn?-! ? o^n nnn Tj?n pyob 

•a^apnp f]X na nsia avj* r"y nn x^ tx .b'bn nD'anoi moia , n , ' , n 1 
,nxn n3xbrnn nnnn non nxn rwp nn^" cnab *anny nbxn nnnnn 
n-^yx n^y '3 Tiipn nan noi ,nnxbon bx nrab bna ns non cniarn n*anb 
mbtybnen by mnxb nnnbi nvj'b mnio 'aan nxr ni"yx nnta bnx .baix b^ aai 



— VI — 

?x DDUtr lanaoa xmpn nx-p ntrxa ,nxo an>Sy mnn xS ,^ipn nx ixn 
dj in nw^w *>w iwx D"fc>n Sao oDpyon nx pviyj ax nai .(mya piprn 
nxo aii inioaa {Dp naa uS nxty run ^nn xojnn 'aS 13 laDinj nnr 
miao n\-in spm ,na Sa nam xSi i:nx rvnn noSt? a"yaB> rninn -lnia^a 
mm nx prraao uxcr 10a anxn Sa ^yS pxja nnixnnSi rrajnb baiJi UT3 
."Sk-ib" Sa wb ntro dcj> "ib>k rninn x^n nxn„ :Dnoixi D'xnipi nacr Saa nB>o 
:imx x-ipj unjKty "anon moSnn Trap 'a yi»T dj 'nyr ,ta djox 
D'Sna ansan naax^'y pi nitrynS xin "ixn "moSn nyoay ny~i„ npyn nioSnn 
pm anaxSoa imr ntrx B'SSan """ay mix nna 1 ~ib*x "amySSyp vo-inySyn,, 
ww a: ax upnSi mitryS nnx tr'xS xSi ,aia-in n^aa dd-iid^ aSia noaDno 
maxSo "a mojoi 'van nxr pi jn unx Sax ,-in3B> a^icrx-in jo Sn: noiSo 
■oaopn ntry 'uxnxTDn .aa^o an^Sy pnnn xm ncx ansann naax uaS xam 
maa naxSo r?y bapS parptp inac? a^oann ;o nnx dj px "a nxo nyynxt" 
nnxn' mo man en's? nay ^oann nx B>p3?i x-ipS xaj axi /nxra noisy i 
xvn mo nm d'jl" naxSon ^L"onr, nnxn" 1 dj axi ,nrn pjya anmnra 
arx aSiaa Dan ra^opn ay D^nm win ""oan nx vdoi ^x jnv s a ,SyiaS 
npner na pDiy xini" mnro nsxSo iS v" nnxi nnx Sa ,niniaD aninyi ana 
TjnS Sau SSa T^ 3 " 1 .annyp arniayai an'nitrm a^iay an3tr auaim ,my Sa 
naxboa 'a ,a^oyon jo a'oyo pi pxvo" ^1x1 nxrn nax^oS an^aio am xS 'a 
pi ux D'ans nxrn n^n:n nsx^oS ,nL"yon x"a npyn x'n noann xS nxn 
b'c njicS pjja ^'okn-iMi n^aan uil**'? pjjDinioSnn nx ao'n a'ynrn vhxb 
la'Sn 11 xSi ,m:inn ^yai a^mon b& ajiL"S pjjdi ,xnnam xnaamn ,njL"on 
a ,li o ,nan il"X nyoif ;txi mn py nms: nxrn nsxSoS ,nra nr nx ito 11 xh 
pai '^atrnSi noSS ia pa noix lirx -ioxo pa ,SmS L*nip pa pnanb pao api 
ip nSx il m x C'x bai iB'ony ptr^a ianSi Snnp p-i ia pa noix itrx -10x0 
xS d: ax ^a^non mo n s ao mosn Sap xS n: ay nxtn n^xSoS xin ix-i 
;}"^2 Sy TV2Y n^on niaB'n pao irx a: ayi nxDDyaxnapi iiopnS todj 
,L > aenn in 1 ' na^'S xSi ^aaa ^'x e^jioi ux ynv — ,aonnxn nSxo *a |yi 
,nxSnoi Soy xvj*jS pra S^i .pvioi prn psn an^y s S idui ■•ajx a: n:ox — nx? 
Sapo 'm ^jivii 'naxSoo , j;-id'' xSl" ,nxL" Sar Sacn n^L" nT3 ny SiaaSi 
VJian" 1 dxl" ; , :iw"-n'' aio "nxvo;i , :iK > pa'' a~o nxrn naxSon Sx nL M jS ^y 
'.v.^ pio aiDim xvn ano Dn^y cry DiB'pi 'naxSo nx ipaS Snil'"' ^oan 
naxSon laB* ^ ,nxjn naio dji— ,Diai nac nrpa die? xSa an^aS nL v, jnS 

.naty nr TiSiyai nosya "raxbo 'S .Tnn 
noann nx jnioS »natr ntn Dipaai nmne mjx=i 'ripn: ?x iDsn: nSsn nnann "73 
,-D.^nn *nDO d^ nspon 'mzn ,ctctoi puuna nnzn nnana »acri dtds 'ooa 
laxon nx 'nasia maa nt'xS ;iSo cS^-n ^aS n:r:o x^n "ic*s nSn^n n^yinnai 
>n»pa DJi ;'n msia nrxSan iBJin irsa 3"nx ntpyXB' nai nrx'-En ha 'nw mo 
Ksa' nnyiS ^snm '121 'idi onyn mn 'S mS^'S *;n33' mena »a inn 'Dan 'ja nx 
nnnva D'anaa dji .neiaa nmna n*uxai .231 — 235 nsa n»te»», nac Sipna omx 
xnixS 'm .vmn :D'to;un D'aann nnwn 'n'jap nr Syi jam ^oanra cnnxS »msnn 
nnya ictn: nran n.vj- ,01^ trx i>xa n .vmm ,DnysxS .a "11 -rcn ann ,y't 
maasnai mjitr myna nnnx D'anao n^anai (nr »naxa t\ioa cj DD'sinS aicxi) 



— Y — 

•wriKa pn fpim ,ma iqd "inns* dxi ,ntymn mtwsn bx b*avi xb ^ mast? 

,am 4 ry3 ao" 1 dj dsi D"an b3o nnx nix ^x yo" 1 «bl tt xb b3X onsDn 
mo^nn nyao nona «b naian b3 n3B> onoKbn b3 nx iymi lma" 1 dj dx-> 
dj innr mobnn naoi ,n«bn onr «b D^anon niobnno iidv xb ,vddxoi 
xin "o '3 ,m dj imym xb mix Dnnr Drxtr nbxi ;nsD srsin onto Dnpo3 tx 
by j^t» nao »*Bjn ,m»?na nunb xa^ ncs nya vra nao rip 1 "ib>k 'nan 
nxr nyba» dj nu'x D*juiBfi D\xjpn »3 dj no ? mobnn jo Drxa> onoxon 
tx njn ,xdi ny n ipm "w lba^ nny dj mrx ,naiBB> nonai ?iX3 tiix ibti" 
? iv ba> wpa «ix 'nmaob aon •'San ,nj>aab ynx kib'n nain ,*«y^r am 
,nn3X xbi / , 33b ^mo jaiab n33"x mym xbi *moTo "'joo ipnj p *a nan 
nx p*nynb anno bmnnb w«n ,mobnn nx i¥pi? mb by ivmn n?y 133 *a 
xb »a cxno ynx th anoxon b3 nx rronbl nab mobnno n nxnjn bs 
nysob ,rnna bibai *pa mobnn xv nai Da pax nirx nbx dj ix ,non mobnnb 
rrj'pi rnaa nas-bsn *a rrpin bax ;n:isn b3 ana n px *©>« anoxon nbx 
nxr nby ax naiax syiD bs mai miny nnao bs nx h joo Dionn xvi ,nxo 
,Disnn naro by nmbynbi nxai nya nm nbmc'bi n^pnb mmab >mab *ra 
no -i'^'x *rb |Dp m^jip rnpon mpn xbib ,nxrb dj ckij '•miax nyoDi 
f nB"i{y p3X nxbo n^na ^»x ba* ps»j idd '•syaja •'n^jin ,ia "njjianni vn'xi 
"ry ina Dyos tl m x ny bna iix ^"xi 13 / , 33b ^ b^ nx nbivco nmn xin 
i^ytion omnob 'Piiy 'pan ul m ^x /nn nx 'nyjin tjn *m ;inix xi^:b 
nnny pxvn' 1 dx ,naxbon bx ntwb '•ntabnm wy "npoyn ^nsem W3 'nij^a 
Djn /^"x nrnb bnni"n D'aox pxc oipoa,, b"Tnx>D by jyi'»x xb dxi sib nn 
,hd3x (niaia) iaj nnn inj n^bn inxai ,-inx3 nap pap nbr :xipx xnsp -13 

! no •'by inyi nab "na 
"Tiobnn nmx by tan,, lots' ni ^aab b^ nx npb tcx ppn Ditajipn 
iy-1 masb ^Diba* a^x n»so n nanui nmo py by3 einnn 3in n» laaia mixi 
Dva it: n 13ido ,, i) naty n^na* ib nx^ro ovb D"ii n"x n pnaiion 3nn moxi 
j'na' DMa* nixoan noni .nv 10 ix any 5 pi b^o 1:21m (pinxn n , 33i b"an 
NSiaan b^ nx b^b nxT 1 ibxn nixo:nnaL M rn-ana D^nci nnbna cna* ;y3"ix 
am ,^mBi x^'ip Trn ix ,a:x ^113 dx la isoin: -ia*xi niobnn -ipy» am 
xv txi biabai amy xba ^31 "p: p:yn nsno mm Dpboa oxa* ,Dnarm »ema 
pnp-ij dx^' jxd T'y: a;x Tmi ":vn3i nx d^do xin nai ,Dinnn dj ub 
noi x"Jion npyro xmtr no n^nb baia sja^m i*b tx mobnac maiB'bn paaDa 
nbna n3icn nrroi ,m nnx nr s]Dinaa> no di^j nisomn mix d:i ,na spinac." 
pxi d^id: 1 ! D-aa lbx man "njioi 3ina mobnn mn xb;r DnaiDn omx by 
xin nam .mobnn mnD nx maoi ynvm syannn cnn ib l'"^ *d bab pirn D^nv 
m; 4-| b'aon oopyon }o d^dq "do syna n^bnn njnnxn xo:nn3 xvo 
, :ipn3 , nnDn >:«i ;mann nm ,no^ mm^ 60 p -mr xb npyn mobnn nx 
nva pi ,tv 'vni yanxn bao -pan raapyon -ix^r^ ny nmts> 25 nny rx "'njpnr' 
13 nioxn pjyn pin bao ! Diba xb ,noixo ub norr xb nr ba byi ,op nnx 
nxn 1 1^X3 ?"t xnjxb n in ijora brta nnvn noibon 3~in n" 1 by lo^Dm 
nnx myno nrn xb oaox dx losya xin dji Dm D'oan mxi nn303 xmpn 



— IV — 

noi pnnb no avnv or« n^n dj btpB' 1 ma p»n b33i udo noixn an;nr 
?anTnna:robi DH'ins^ d^ikti avsyn ba3 ni3 a^xyo pnn arpxnn pnpb 
i'K ,1311231 unnin nx ub an^nb Jxt »ia px n:n nam by i:nxo nbin pxi 

?bxia» maa nxn mnn tid im ;.nj&'vb nnoy minnb nm bvun imb nb d^d 
nnsjiD ,rbruti ,vtJ»Kn ,v:an ,bxvj"> *oan aa'bx ! xnpx a^irx oa^K 
nirabnn nx i:b inn i unnin nx ub ian„ noxb jntsw pyrx rVsno^bai imxj 
hobbi Kin unnin ri2a> vb^ avcbi ia xnpb b>mj n;rx nnvn naoa -pn ppnv 
aannx xt"o '•a insmob *•£> mnbi innabiinipjb v ibnn3nnB33;n rD^ans i:x 
rnn dx DanpyD nnx vnpp nsi ? pna aanx x^" 1 '» ? icyn 133 ntrx nnx 

? nnx nxyai rnu«a D3bi3 
13103 xmp bip3 ^x nTT xb Tixnp bip *a nxo ny "nyn* dj djox tutp 
Dnx ,D3TiiNi3n nx ux ynm aanx , nyT "3 -D3^rxb y^ Dno 'bx aicr xin 
,nnT3 paon nfcan dxi flser «iD3n bv3 xb nirx trx nanb 0333b id^'ti xb 
rinuxa laoxnn xb obiybi ,inam invy vp bL" 1:3 p vpi ,ine>pai mxnp vp 
nxsb "id xbx Tixnp xn ,D3"bK Tixnp dxi ,mmni bN-iL*'"' n^iob nnx nxyai 
bax , b yarj* px n: ax xin binn bip 'bipo D3b n\x-nb na ,->avyb "nam t 
13 1 , x ss> nvi ) /3'yo ba by Dauab mmxi *b x: iy»c unx "bnx oyan 
yifx Da "a D3^ab xiax nvjpn d^d xbi ^niac-no b3 nx Da^sb nb:x (ntrin 
.na nana ixin nbapb ivann ix ax nc-x nnx nyvn aa^ab 

! nnaosi xj iyo^ 
y^a by xon amnion nmnoi nmo ^:n nbxo nnx ^ajx a^aiDn nnx 
■•ab ncx D"3n anoxoi anaa man a"oe' nr D-anm ani3 '•jjn ,mayn nnaaa 
non a^aio ,nbn:o maiat ^m imn nb" 1 nxi v:a nx nxnn l'^x b33 , , : , y mxn 
nbyin ix^n n33 "3 Ti^n ^rx n:vc dx aji ,nnn *oan lvn^ab D^b'ym 
nao ""a nixib 'rear dji ^nucnoi -"am nx va^xn 1 nL**x Dnmbian annxb 
nr b3 nyovo yan bsx ,t ;n3 y^n xb irx anaon nnvixa Dnoiyi D^anaj 
n33 ncrx nnifi^ nbyin xbi byiaa n^yin .rpwrra nbyin ^oyb nbyin x'anb 
nbymb nvnb ' i m*an 113b ^yb xb ,nn3x xbi — D'an D'oan nnix ix"3n w»an 
na3"x :"jvyna p^nvv 'aan ,pi3no "jjn ,aa?in *nm n^n anxn pn b3b aj K"a 
n'.T xib "3 ,n3b noixa xbi byian niobnn bx ayni aynb niobnn nx a^nb 
Dnt^ii a^'jxn ba bx ai x"a ,n3b3 bx-)l" , ayb x^ nbyinn n"nn tx »a ,nxt3 
b3X ,nijic'oi mils? nivy , 3b3 ""nvy 1331 - nnx nan by inDC" 1 il-x aniaba 
v ,nn niym non ban "3 w»n nnp3 py an^by 'noL" nnx 

xb nb'ba a:i dim b3 ^v;m -nn-L" xin ,ni:o *b in" 1 xb nrn ^vyi ^3X 
nx K^inb n,^ nibnnn , l. m p3x , i nx bx nvo n,annx nib b3 , 33i ,, o by ^ab nu" 
a^xvro vj'x anssson ba nx ^TDNb '3^3 ^nnox nbnnoi /byian bx nr ^an 
naa b; nnx aipa bx ,vryboi mobnn n:oo axi D'yi^ns ax ,13 idd^j '3 
bs "'rybi bxnB* 1 53 Tyb a*3nin a'naioai nipvio nv«na ,d: tj aonnbi nnvo 
nann nx bi;b 'mox nt3i ;bxnL M, bi 'nb t;mp ibia vn" 1 no^jn bai ^a^yn 
Tinoxi nxrn -nxy by 'nnoL" oyoai ,vn:o ^^3 ipnxnVi ^xnc" 1 byo mobnn 
,nnp3n D3L ,( nnn nnix D3 ,, nn3yni ,nxo 'njjnnn nnx b3X ,naxbon bx n^ib 
b3 nb trnpnb ^novx ^ix n*^x nxrn ^nsxbo bj ,ban nr bj -a 'JT'Nn 'nxxo 



— Ill — 

pano annnxbc nnna laainj nonp am nioipa by ub lxnm ,Dnynb mn 
jo D'oann iab ibVm no ,rujBQ ik pin ax D^isoni D'Jixania "KniaD 
una i-*x o-mnxn Dntmo n«aa pbn *"m vmx-i ny onnbnn ny csDxron 
"iiiabnn jd Drxi" onnxan nx non la^bzM axn ? nbxa DTaya D'an ansa 
ansa "nan pn non aj }n ?ia panbi xnpb bau vex *pj mobn ub urn ,nxinn 
onnaa na>x anaan nvixb pi a": ,ivyn&>> no miyi lrjmi /D^anna ninjrti 
nbx p nbxa ntrx vmyoi wqb> ba ay niobnn asnr nai ,(iiain bx idx' 1 
.a^cr alio iba nt?x vnib»a> spbnnbi nnobi "inipjb ab Dns>D pxa ,ana dhio 
jnbitr ay D'annsn aMaian iK>y p mobnn ay D^ixan a'jain neyoai 
lb nuyi ,anma laaa mix aj jrunnbi nrn? ux D-anv va by nrx nnyn 
vpbn nyanx nx ibaa ^buyi ^aaa ,nvnix ,tnv*3 lxbo lam nxi nnoy 
annro anaaa la^inncyx nabi D^mi D'anx a^vn Dnsa njios? ano iB>jn 
irm ?o* bab ub p'aan vrtroi vpaia w«bo ba ay woo nnx nabn a: "a ny 
nr ,baia nn tboo nr ,rno nn naix nr o irbjm irr ia xsoj xb tx dji 
«p nbir — dim nnao xvn na'x mpo l^aab nnp" 1 ax nai (^"vcno nn bpva 
nx i:b lpiDa" non <a waarj? um« aonv ,vj»a bi" nnnpa nannatr mbin 
lvano nnx lbxtyph ,oat"o pnnbvinir xbi pna nan anino non ix-p-,n 
ixv anoi — myj xb nnx on bita^ bai aoibp' nrjx ay lvnnb nnx ba la^&n 
na>x mynm niaion nnon ,mna»ni (!)D M nn 'aay baa "maiam nibxi*\, ub 
nxn-avab-' anaa a-pnno anmioi" nD'tjn "a ny njt? ^>aa ivnc ,, 'i m^ na* 1 
•unannb bna nya nnnnn unxan xm nxr oanracxa mvu ncx umiaa xm 
— a^aaia^bx nxaa nmx dmxdd ^nniKD^mia ijnjxi— nvj mans unt^abi 

! ? anxn baa nMj >a pianai 
-il"x nrn a^nai Mnn uobiya — ub pxa f CsaniDbnn dmmm ijn:x nai 
mobnn by max 'i xbx— lrxaian iramx , 3D xnpj pi uosy nx xnpj ia 
sin no DTir ux px ! pp Jtrio dj uod ub pxi ,m?abnn nx yn: xb ,na?a 
orx naba uoy pen pn xbi m»bnn |o lrx xm n»i DanMi ainan baa mobnn 
ba oy i>ia mix D^nyoi D^^ipo nnn 2"yv i:o» nnrb noi nanb no D^ynv 
arx lraio^ai umo iroan dj x"a ,an^ry nxnob ia mtrpni pmm lb naajn 



^p' D'ornn icx ,n'^yio invm D'2iu invn nnson Sa ,sin p maipn nsn (i 
dj?2uo 12*k D'a'ay nrx 1:00 ikt i^j Sx ive omx losn'i nan Di3i3> ,nssn c'Ein omx 
.Sxi-M ns'2 ny t 13 y.tn nS txi nnson isin ^n inn i oy 3 v nxi ,onS n'o: nnS »' 
naip 'nni nSiatf yiB'n nnx nnso D^con xvon msnui nu , ntt> nn'jn by (2 
rxpED psD payS nvjsnS cm nipso icy: nnx pco jo ,isdo px cno a>3Bp t ?i man »ayi 
nn: '3 ny ,xmynS 'mn I'jyS nasiosn ftnh nxo man mmyn wyj nnx xniyno 1 
mu 1 xS niy t'oyi ,n'nni » t ?nj 712x7 i>7y nca ib'3 7irxS nsnn nx D'-psnn »aa 7tyo7 
.npnsi nio'ntr »a'3ya n'anxi ansp nnso nann nnnSsa onn* nx acumen 
mSni my*DB ij?db 12a nrx nSx dji ,non nnia7n cxipn naS Dnwn 7a (3 
non onioSn nx non dj ,D*mn nunaon 73 nx 17122 133 n»xi /x nva na»n nv nx lE'Snn 1 
n-iinai ,mo7nn pn 137 ntrn n^'x p»Da 'Ctt's myia»n in nx non nuiin o nixn -]b nr 1 
I tyi ,ni73x »3H3 imtsa i.m:n' nwx 137 ,100a X7 nv nT'X3i n3B*n ninoo n'xmp i:x 
:i:i3X03 uxpxinx Di«ay*inai The Pentateuch etc. nn£D3 ,mo7nn xin no :i:naxo2 

Is the Jewish religion non dogmatic ? 



— II — 

b3 "bn nnpo3 nny oa nnoiyi nnbn nibxtrn "3 ,nixnb ooinsw ? Dip' p 
nnia ,D , 3 , jJ3n tik> by n31a.n1 nny aa niaipoi n:n niais? mynn ^ ,(ipnna 
-nni^nni mbxtyn ,o*3nn onaan bsi ;vj'aa xvntr ny nxbn n: nnan nny oa 
inn nxon by ny ba ,bna niK'3 1 niovy bt:» ba pi non ,jynx3ynni ,n«nwin 

!inaiB>o byi 
oyi ay ba bw nnann by "»nbi ^j? tioe'I ibxn b"Tn nana Tiaan the}' 
ba <bai riaban S3 •'ba non a'oni B"n onnan "3 wxni .nny unman byi 
nbnan lannaoa nn bao lassna ny bao i:ot"x oniiTfi urns noxa n xoria 
B'jno anaoi ,'131 nTaxnoxp ^axbxyno n^nn pn nbia tayoa smb> ,narpni 
p-pan n3nn by b.tobk>o pnnb ibar p»wm trmni dtid* pynm mycn ntys 
ntrx nyro oyo pi is* ,bba lanxo nanna xb ,n;?3nx ant? a^tr B"oya *ass»a 
,nnym ,mnana rO^naa xin lanax iapay bai ,D*»yn -oan nano lpTiyn 
nbx b30i ,innxb:r a-oann nanai T.obna 3in3n tan3 biob'sxdi iTyoxana 
nann ,iaoo annaa aai ib anainoi niobnn 3 , 3D*'n , Knn anao anano lanax 
noxa ax nnon by ma: xb n:n ,ab!3 non npyinn non n noxa xb axi ,nxo 
nnatwaa D^an Tya nnxb pmVyvinxD noyo ,nnae> B'aion bt? aa ,anbyin "3 
nannb a: ,bba xun xb nnbs nbyin tjk ,nnaon nmna B'poiyi anoibo.n 

.b'yinb aovy B'yava none 
nnbnn nao nx n^aai) a-annxn a-aixan nan nx xoanb xa npa 
ntr" 1 xb ix mna xantr 'aao lovyb noa naa nnxi nnx ba ncrx caisyxnno 
nya^x y"n ,6»b s Vi» x"nana (nnx aipoa nro unan 133 ncKimpc nan vrya 
vnnipj vniboa pnpnbt mcSnn nx n^nb ibnn non nL"x ,myi myi ,p^a ,/; n 
130a lTnn nxn ,an ,i mnjn3 nra^nn nx non iD^nn axn ?iL"y noi ,VDym 
DiTTiTnan i3n3 nan ! xS ? pTinn mnnx 10^1 an , ry3 r\^ ab n^*x nibon nx 
niD^nn "61^3 nm^nn nnpo na^' jyob n^'anoni "rivn? ^nv p„ ncxb nan by 
nj^n n:c» bn3 a^anon la^an' nai ,nxo nuicn man ninjno 3^n nr ib ie»m 
"•j-nn in'nv n^x n^vj'D a^nai mait;* ninyn ay ,n^»nn mnjn ay B"K'n nx 
a" 1 :^ pi nvabnn jo^i bnri rn^iinxn D^ikan n't^yoa nvj'yb a^pnnon nnn 
xb a^vyn 3in»i xabm man a'bna n^ns n /; 3 tryj n^nm a"3y a , 3n3 nncy 
xboni mix anoiyn aino vj"iyra3 b^3n mobnn nx nx-o xb t nyn nx nxn: 
ntra anjiao n-yanoi anuy ,a , 33i3 ^^vv ,0^1^131 n^vc nvnixo uaina nj 
niD^b panj nxi n^n anrn nt3 p"yb nnx b3 onion "131 niyano nuvu ,nj3b 
'o 11 b3 by^nnx naoo ub paan tx rninam vcnra pa ay ,.u panbi niobnn nx 
xia^' xbcnj axn miobnno acio pa ib px ayn an n xiax xban urn 
ntrx oyon p oyo n,x xxoa a'anibani a^xbxynon a^nvon anaann pa dj^ 
an , ninan3 an^on xia^ lab ib^in noi ? ibia niobnn b3 nx nobi lxnp 
•ijooi i3inb x^)" 1 pxi X3 pxi — ny3 ma p-\ non jn ? nnwpaa a"L"naoni 
nnpa pya niobnn by nay nc*x an^con lab icy no xd'J Tjn^xb pi 

moSnn lana D'B'Dtrm D»ta'0B"Q3Kn nsa i^xwtp □mm™ m^Ntrn naS ab (1 
,Bttivi ,«\id nnS p«» D'o ,niawj? 1212 niaicrn m^xtr oa »a ,na ly iinsna nS yitrm 
"nTaitrm n^NC// ncD nsoo »a nx ,D':ain pinsj^ nianoi nicpi nnoiy n^Sia f rns'^n 

? 'rana '3'otrn x^s nt p«n .d'e^n'? yu» 



} 1 tr k i nnfi 

nx am 1 um:i D*pnB> ina: "ib>k prnm brun tb'xn "ajyo pp inx ^jy 
^baa mobnn sin ,pxn niaja y3nx3 bane^ nn ?3 nx *»nsn nep , i nbiyn bn 
KnaDoa ,n^U3 D's-np ns'jnb mjn ,n:e> mxo mw dvhw nr ub diiw 
nnnxi ; puibwi mix van nex irn natra nnpnyn ny nxrn "njK<n k»xi„ 
D^nyina *a ,D"trn mD3 n'nmswni rpjab mompn ninaocn nvrmn n;xr«n 
oxi ,nnrian»ai m»a ,d , l ,, j ny,» n^yir nncomnbDon bs unit tmtDBi ut>3 
nvna D^np pp»H moo nin3Dnn b3 nrnn ,nnx n;e my nana 'n ir'w 

.UHO ,Dmse 
irn unmn p bye rirun vnru b3 by \v xbo »a nx ,mifi unn \p:p 
womb nxrn nenrin nxxinn nnwrn nnnx n'bo sptanb injw> nnaa 3vnnb 
ro ,nxrn rnasjm nbnan nsx^on bx twib wok van root naa by irxn nro 
? ibi3 nbiyn bsbi ,bKnBP frab nmo xvn ncrx nbywn sen 
hokji ,irby noun jrby bxb minai ,nnoe3 n\xboo tun nxrn unain 
,uobn D^yj oibn umxi ?"tn inox ,*rus? a"3 ny aits mbm mx nav nbiyb,, 
ny-ib uxm 3"onn n:e>a iiyt ,-pub> mey D*nti>a nr upbn iiaajw by ujvjp 
arm nu d^-i nnan 13 rnuan vryboi mobnn nao s 3 /'oatro npab,, unaD3 
,py 3i"i3 nrn mbnn nx hod-id n"onn nje>ai niobnn ^bdxd be nnym 
nux,, nnnvo nnaina nai ,298 , 99 ,300 bipm ustnpn nex D'bnj trnDttea 
DunnaibuKXiaKb nnnyi "nutpn niobnn nnjKi,, "auanm Duninn bsb nmna 
«nnn iyT ;ynbi ; b^d^ pi o^bna o'2i tx imvdji nrn aibnn »a'»D "3 nx 
,n^ab n"W ney fira^ai jotn "?33n pa vne onann wbn b3 nx unnx n , x3m 
D^nnn uxnip ^ab noiebi Dnarrn npy nx -nab iniob xb awm ^nrn pjjn 

:298 bipn3 trim n^'xi vn ns .nennn pnx3 
Vtrm> i2Di mm 'tPDin neon n'tn nnS ;n3 nS Sxnc" ixtan xh tthshtt n'"ix n"-in 
onsD niB7 intn »aa nona inn .(22 nma) oya ai noan 212 »a ; itt* 'iai na'ja 
4 (nSnp Bme) in'aS D'aao xm noma wa im 1 ? nms D^aan biv 'iai n:in 
n^nn lamto ! n^ab n:e mx» ney innx: ^jnxi »n« ,nbxn onann 
/D'X^ajn naoby nxrantDX^xn ^nD'b"Tn nx ?imnnax njyj no nrn nna 
,nnwae niobnni njeon by r nn>en T»a ranpn enp byi ,t M npn 'ans by 
hates n»"*i nonp nsna nex n^anm nntDbnn mnaon by un;x noxj no 
nxnn onnaD nn^n nn^rya nx ? nn !?s nvo amnnt bnjnn pinan myi ,hajji 
n^3in unriBD n^nn no rtrvaa noino D'rjn wra mnb nD^aon bsi bnpn 
anpab n^enn iv , v , i ,inbij nex nmn nnannb unjK nm ne nrxi ? irrya 
}n 'Q'vbDnt D^nopono -n^Tom nn^nono ,n*3mn nnaDt niobnn nan3 
jan* ami bnj n»a lxbo 1 nnx bx nn nenxj nxi bi3J b3 nayi iaoe non w 
nmin n'rya nxi ! n^pn^ ono 13 o^snb nipo pxa n^^bei Wiv n s nnn 
uiT p-'bye n^xen jo nnx n: mna: nxn bxeji ,Danini noxjn ba nx W2i 
noxi njoon lo^bnm nnx nyn bbsb nyvob nnx n3n2 1x3 nx ,nmn nnaDfl 



TKACT 



ROSH HASHANA 



OF THE 



NEW EDITION 



Original Babylonian Talmud 



Edited, formulated and punctuated 



For the first time 



MICHAEL L. RODKINSON. 

Author of Numerous Theological Works, Formerly Editor of the 
Hebrew "CALL" (in Koenigsberg, Berlin, Vienna and 
; New York) etc., etc. 

Published by the Editor. 



NEW YORK, 
Copyrighted February 25, 1895 by M. L. Rodkinson. 



All rights reserved. 



nroD 



i » 

rwmn nxmn 

."n« mini ■•"errs dj? 

niKnpi ro?NK> modi nijrDaon nnipaq pwi nataa tim ,KHn» pin 



n ntd 



.]NDrp-sn b bxi'Q 



.y^ynx^nB 



n"3in 



1006 Chestnut St., lySoyD DySlNtPU DIBna 



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